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Elasmobranchs

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All have two dorsal fins, the first erectile with a short ... Large canine-like teeth. No obvious middle lateral line. Lepidonotothen kempi (NOK) Pectoral fins ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Elasmobranchs


1
Elasmobranch 1
Elasmobranchs
Spines on both dorsal fins
Usually small (lt40cm)
Chimaeras All have two dorsal fins, the first
erectile with a short base and preceded by an
erectile spine. Note snout and tail configuration.
Etmopterus lucifer (ETF) Dark colour
No anal fin
Elephant fish Callorhinchidae (CAH)
Shortnose chimaeras or ratfishes Hydrolagus spp.
(HYD)
Longnose chimaeras Rhinochimaera spp. (RHC)
Eye very small
No spines on dorsal fins
Wide teeth with saw-like edges
Rajidae (SRX)
Extremities of pectoral fin rays
Somniosus microcephalus (GSK)
Rostral process stout
No anal fin
Extremities of pectoral fin rays
Rostral process delicate and flexible
Usually large (gt 1 m)
Lateral keel
Bathyraja spp. (BHY) Soft nosed rays
Raja spp. (RAJ) Hardnosed Rays
Narrow teeth with long points
Anal fin present
see sheet Rajid 1
Lamna nasus (POR)
2
Rajid 1
Raja (Hard nosed Rays)
Bathyraja (Soft nosed Rays)
Underside pale
R. georgiana (SRR)
Underside pigmented
B. irrasa (BYR)
16-28 thorns median row
B. maccaini (BAM)
B. murrayi (BMU)
U R
9 - 23 thorns on midline of tail
R. georgoana variant (SR2)
S
R
R
White patches (variable size)
No pre or post orbital thorns
9 - 15 thorns midline of tail only
12 - 26 thorns midline from nape to tail
B. meridionalis (BYE)
16-28 thorns median row

R
37 - 39 thorns in continuous median row
dark underside
B. eatonii (BEA)
No pre or post orbital thorns
R. taaf (RFA)
S
8 - 18 thorns midline of tail only
15-20 thorns median row
NOTES R rough, S smooth, UR uniformly
rough (unshaven feel)Arrows indicate non median
thorns or groups of thorns Dorsal views to show
distribution of thorns, Ventral views (smaller)
to show pigmentation
Upper surface of pelvic fins under disc often pale
3
Teleost 1
Obvious tail
No Obvious tail
Opahs Lampris immaculatus (LAI). Unmistakable,
body coloured blue-grey and looks powerful,
fins bright orange
Dorsal, ventral and tail fins appear combined
Slickheads Alepocephalus spp. (ALH). Dorsal and
Ventral fin bases opposite, no swimbladder.
One dorsal fin
Prominent snout
Histiobranchus bathybius(HIB)
Antimora rostrata(ANT)
No pelvic fins
Swimbladder present - stomach usually everted
through mouth when brought up from depth
Mouth inferior, mental barbel
Anal fin in two parts
First dorsal a filament
Scales present but skin feels smooth
Halargyreus johnsonii (MHJ)
Barbel
Mouth terminal, no mental barbel
Pelvic fins filaments
Two dorsal fins
Muraenolepis spp. (MRL)see sheet Teleost 5
Nototheniidae (NOX)see sheet Teleost 3
Always scaled
Two dorsal fins
Obvious scales
Red gills
One dorsal fin
No Swimbladder
Sometimes scaled
Bathydraconidae
Macrourus spp. (GRV)see sheet Teleost 2
Head flat No scales
Two dorsal fins
No scales
Channichthyidae (ICX) see sheet Teleost 4
White gills
4
Teleost 2
Macrouridae (Grenadiers)
Leading edge of first dorsal serrated
Infra-orbital ridge, if present, never ending in
spine, eyes small, row of teeth in lower
jaw Coryphaenoides spp. (CVY)
Ridge from snout to pre-opercle ends in sharp
point posteriorly, eyes large (NB species are
difficult to distinguish) Macrourus spp. (GRV)
Large fang-like teeth, mouth terminal Black all
over
C. filicauda
M. holotrachys (MCH)
Barbel thin and short,scales thin, fine and
deciduous
Cynomacrurus piriei (MNI)
No scales on underside of head (NB there may be
1 -3 above corner of mouth)
Leading edge of First Dorsal smooth Caelorinchus
spp.
C. ferrieri
Less than 27 scales in diagonal line
Scales fairly firm and coarsely spinulated
C. marinii (CEH)
M. carinatus (MCC)
C. armatus (CKH)
Snout broad and blunt No distinct terminal
tubercle Body scales deciduous covered with small
fine spinules in parallel rows
Scales
Naked
More than 27 scales in diagonal line
Position of Ventral fossa relative to Anus
Scaled
C. lecointei
Snout narrow and pointedwith distinct terminal
spiny tubercle
M. whitsoni (WGR)
C. fasciatus (CQF)
5
Teleost 3
Nototheniidae Red blood, two dorsal fins, scales
on body
Large canine-like teeth
Small villiform teeth, ctenoid scales over body
and head,inter-orbital width narrow (lt 12 head
length)
Margins of fins never white
Dissostichus mawsoni(TOA)
Dark grey transverse band on upper part of eye
Otolith
Middle lateral line
Scales on head extensive
Lepidonotothen squamifrons (NOS)
Lepidonotothen kempi (NOK)
Cycloid (smooth) scales over body, few scales on
head,inter-orbital width wide (30 head length)
Otolith
Margins of fins often white
Dissostichus eleginoides (TOP)
Pectoral fins 21-24 rays
Pectoral fins 17-19 rays
Notothenia rossii (NOR)
Notothenia coriiceps (NOC)
No scales on head except for small patch
posterior to eye
No obvious middle lateral line
Narrow inter-orbital Bumphead
Ctenoid (rough) scales
Gobionotothen gibberifrons (NOG)
Gvozdarus svetovidovi (GZV)
6
Teleost 4
Channichthyidae (ICX) White blood and gills, two
dorsal fins, no scales, opercular spines
Middle pelvic fin rays longest
Leading pelvic fin rays longest, no spine on
subopercle or interopercle
No RS
RS reduced to small knob or absent
2LL
3 LL
No RS
2 LL
Cryodraco spp.
3 LL
Chaenocephalus aceratus (SSI)
Champsocephalus gunnari (ANI)
P Long (reaches A) P Short (just reaches A)
Head depthSnout C. gunnari Head depth lt Snout
C. esoxP 25-28 A 35-40 C. gunnari P22-24 A
31-35 C. esox
Chionobathyscus dewitti (CHW)
Resembles Chaenocephalus but has 3 LL
Spines on subopercle and interopercle, 3 LL
RS
3 LL
RS points backwards
RS blunt, reduced to Tubercle
Pseudochaenichthys georgianus (SGI)
Five pelvic fin rays,gill rakers dentigerous
SP
Five pelvic fin rays, gill rakers vestigial
Five pelvic fin rays
Chionodraco hamatus (TIC)
Chionodraco myersi (MIC)
Chionodraco rastrospinosus(KIF)
RS
2 LL with bony plates
3 LL
RS present, points forward
Four pelvic fin rays
Channichthys rhinoceratus (LIC)
NotesAAnal fin PPelvic finLLLateral Line
RSRostral Spine SPSpine
Chaenodraco wilsoni (WIC)
7
Teleost 5
Bothidae (Lefteye or Armless Flounders)
Muraenolepis spp. (MRL)
Free pre-opercular margin
No pectoral fins
Distinct lateral line reaching to middle of D2
Mental barbel lt eye diameter
M. marmoratus (MVC)
Eye
Scales feelrough
Anus on blind side of body
Dorsal fin
Mental barbel ? eye diameter
M. orangiensis (MUO)
Snout rounded
Pseudomancopsetta andriashevi (UMA) (NB Small,
shallow water)
Achiropsetta tricholepis (HHJ)
Anus on midline
Eye and Dorsal fin
D1 lt 2 x eye diameterMental barbel gt eye diameter
Snout with pronounced hump
M. microps (MOY)
Indistinct short lateral line, normally no more
than 2 pore
Snout straight
Mancopsetta maculata (MMM)
Anus on midline
Scales rough only when stroked forwards
D1 gt 4 x eye diameterMental barbel ? eye diameter
M. microcephalus (MWS)
Mancopsetta milfordi (PAZ)
Anus on midline
8
Crab 1
Lithodidae (Stone crabs, KCX)
Male Female
Male Female
Abdomen without membraneous areas, the calcareous
plates being continuous Paralomis spp. (PAI) or
Neolithodes
Abdomen with membraneous region containing
calcareous nodules Lithodes spp. (KCZ)
Rostrum
1. Carapace pear-shaped, covered by spinous
tubercles P. aculeata (KCU) -------------------
----------------- 2. Carapace rounded, more or
less covered with numerous


granules P. anamerae (KDD) -------------------
------------------ 3. Entire dorsal surface of
carapace covered with numerous spines P.
spinosissima (KCV) -------------------------------
-- 4. Carapace more or less pentagonal, as long
as wide surface covered with small granules and a
FEW spines P. formosa (KCF) -------------------
-------------- 5. Carapace more or less
pentagonal pentagonal with many large spines,
walking legs long Neolithodes diomedeae (NDW)
Carapace and legs with unequal spines (sharp) and
tubercles L. murrayi (KCM)
Rostrum Dorsal Lateral views
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