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PHYLUM ARTHROPODA

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The arthropods are, by any criteria, the most successful group of animals alive. ... Arthropods are found in all types of environments. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PHYLUM ARTHROPODA


1
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
2
jointed appendages
  • If we consider both named and as yet unnamed
    members of the phylum Arthropoda, there are most
    likely more of these animals than all other
    living organisms combined. The arthropods are, by
    any criteria, the most successful group of
    animals alive. As their name indicates, they are
    animals with jointed appendages". Included in
    the phylum are spiders, scorpions, ticks, crabs,
    barnacles, ants, bees etc.
  • Arthropods are found in all types of
    environments. They live in the ocean depths, high
    mountain peaks, deserts, tropical rain forests
    and in or on the bodies of other animals and
    plants. They obtain their food as carnivores,
    herbivores, omnivores and parasites. The largest
    arthropod is the Japanese crab (3.7m) and the
    smallest is a parasitic mite, (0.1mm). There is
    no group of animal that does more harm to humans
    and few that do as much good.

3
Phylum Characteristics
  • 1. The arthropods are multicellular, segmental,
    bilaterally symmetrical animals.
  • 2. They are triploblastic, protostomial
    schizocoelomates.
  • 3. Arthropods have reached the organ - system
    level of organization.
  • 4. The body is typically separated into a head,
    thorax and abdomen although one or more of these
    regions may be fused.
  • 5. The arthropods have well developed striated
    and smooth muscles which pull against a
    cuticulate exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is made
    of lipid, protein and chitin and may become
    impregnated with calcium carbonate.
  • 6. The coelom is usually reduced to a small
    haemocoel.
  • 7. The digestive system is complete and
    digestion is extracellular.
  • 8. The arthropods have an open circulatory
    system.
  • 9. Respiration is by gills, book lungs and
    trachea.
  • 10. Excretion is by green glands or malpighian
    tubules.
  • 11. The nervous system is well developed,
    particularly the sensory component. Structurally
    it resembles the annelid nervous system.
  • 12. Reproduction usually involves dioecious
    organisms. Fertilization is internal and
    development often involves one or more
    metamorphic changes. 

4
Arthropod Evolution
  • There are four main lines of Arthropod lineage. 
  • Trilobites (all extinct),
  • Chelicerates (Horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks
    and spiders)
  • Uniramians (centipeds, millipeds, and insects)
    and
  • Crustaceans (Crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles
    and many others).

5
Trilobite
6
Chelicerate-horseshoe crab
7
Scorpion and mites.
8
Arachnids-spiders
9
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10
Uniramians - Millipeds
11
Insects
12
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13
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14
Crustaceans-Freshwater crayfish
15
Other crustaceans
16
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18
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