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Presentation May 4, 2009, to the Earth Science Mission Operations Team

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Title: Presentation May 4, 2009, to the Earth Science Mission Operations Team


1
Aquas Contribution to Earth Science and
Applications Claire L. Parkinson/Aqua Project
Scientist NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Presentation May 4, 2009, to the Earth Science
Mission Operations Team
2
Aqua Prior to Launch
Earth-viewing side
Space-viewing side
3
Aquas Delta II Rocket
(photos by Bill Ingalls)
May 3, 2002
May 4, 2002
4
Aquas Orbit
(animation by Jesse Allen and Claire Parkinson)
5
Water in the Earth Environment
Water Cycle Elements Monitored by Aqua
  • Water in the atmosphere
  • Water vapor
  • Clouds
  • Precipitation
  • Water on land
  • Soil moisture
  • Lakes, rivers
  • Land ice
  • Snow cover
  • Water in the oceans
  • Surface waters
  • Sea ice

6
Earth-Observing Instruments on Aqua
  • Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)
  • Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)
  • Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB)
  • Moderate Resolution
    Imaging Spectro-
    radiometer (MODIS)
  • Clouds and the Earths
    Radiant Energy System
    (CERES two
    instruments)
  • Advanced Microwave
    Scanning Radiometer
    for the Earth
    Observing
    System (AMSR-E)

7
Outgoing Shortwave and Longwave Radiation, June
22, 2002, from the Aqua CERES
256
Reflected shortwave radiation (W/m2)
128
0
350
Outgoing longwave radiation (W/m2)
250
(images courtesy of the CERES Science Team)
150
8
Sample Infrared Data at One Location and One
Time, from the Aqua AIRS
Data from all 2378 AIRS infrared channels for one
footprint off the west coast of South Africa,
June 13, 2002, 130 UTC.
500 1000
1500 2000
2500 wavenumber
(cm-1) 20 10
6.7
5 4
wavelength (?m)
(spectrum courtesy of M. Chahine and the AIRS
Science Team)
9
Sample Infrared Data at One Location and One
Time, from the Aqua AIRS
Data from all 2378 AIRS infrared channels for one
footprint off the west coast of South Africa,
June 13, 2002, 130 UTC.
CO2 O3 H2O
CO CO2
SO2
500 1000
1500 2000
2500 wavenumber
(cm-1) 20 10
6.7
5 4
wavelength (?m)
(spectrum courtesy of M. Chahine and the AIRS
Science Team)
10
AIRS Mid-Tropospheric (8 km) CO2 July 2003
364 370 376
382
Concentration (ppm)
(image courtesy of M. Chahine)
11
Animation of Global CO2 Distributions from the
Aqua AIRS, September 2002 July 2008
(animation from the NASA GSFC Scientific
Visualization Studio and the AIRS Science Team)
12
AIRS Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Methane (CH4)
3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0
1.85 1.80 1.75 1.70 1.65 1.60
Dobson Units
Carbon Monoxide, 8/11/2005
Methane Volume Mixing Ratio at 210 mb, 8/8/2005
(images courtesy of the AIRS Science Team)
13
Mt. Etna Eruption as Seen in Aqua Imagery,
October 28, 2002
Visible/Near IR image
IR difference image highlighting SO2
(images courtesy of M. Chahine and the AIRS
Science Team)
14
Surface Air Temperatures, January and July 2003,
from the Aqua AIRS
January 2003
(images from C. Thompson and E. Olsen)
July 2003
15
Sample Temperature Profiles AIRS vs. Radiosonde
AIRS Temperature Profile over the Chesapeake Bay
(smooth curve) vs. a Radiosonde Profile (more
jagged curve), for 9/13/2002
Pressure (mb)
Temperature (K)
Chesapeake Bay Research Platform (photo from the
CERES Science Team)
(plot from Wallace McMillan and the AIRS Science
Team)
16
Water Vapor, January and July 2003, from the Aqua
AIRS and AMSU
January 2003
(images courtesy of C. Thompson and E. Olsen)
July 2003
17
Aqua Products Supporting Weather Forecasting
Impact of MODIS polar winds on weather forecasts
AIRS radiance spectra
AMSR-E SSTs (Dec. 2003)
AIRS/AMSU sfc air temps (Jan. 2003)
  • NOAA NCEP, ECMWF, and the UK Met Office use
    AIRS/AMSU temperature and radiance data.
  • The National Hurricane Center uses AMSR-E
    rainfall and brightness temperatures.
  • The U.S. Navy, UK Met Office, Australian Bureau
    of Meteorology, and the Japan Fisheries
    Information Service Center use AMSR-E SSTs.
  • The Japan Meteorological Agency uses AMSR-E water
    vapor and precipitation data.
  • At least 10 numerical weather prediction centers
    use MODIS polar winds.

18
Fires in Oregon, August 12, 2002
Image from the Aqua MODIS.
19
Annual Number of Fires in 2005,from MODIS data
from the Aqua and Terra satellites
(From Our Changing Planet The View From
Space, 2007 photo of fire management in South
Africa by T. Landmann)
20
Dust Storm over the Eastern Mediterranean,
October 19, 2002
Syria
Jordan
Image from the Aqua MODIS.
21
MODIS Imagery Captures a Dust Storm Overriding
Baghdad, August 2005
Syria
Iran
Iraq
Courtesy of the MODIS Science Team.
Saudi Arabia
22
Ground View of a Saharan Dust Front
(photo courtesy of Jim Tucker)
23
Enhanced Vegetation Index from the Aqua MODIS
December 19, 2003 - January 4, 2004
(image courtesy of the University of Arizona and
the MODIS Science Team)
24
Ocean Chlorophyll Concentrations for Autumn
2005 from Aqua MODIS Data
(image courtesy of the NASA/Goddard Ocean Color
Processing Group)
25
Phytoplankton Bloom north of Norway, as seen in
Aqua Imagery, July 19, 2003
(image courtesy of the MODIS Science Team)
26
Sea Surface Temperatures, December 2003, from the
Aqua MODIS and AMSR-E
From MODIS
From AMSR-E
27
Sea Surface Temperatures, June 2002 - May 2003,
from AMSR-E Data
(animation courtesy of JAXA)
28
Hurricane Katrina
GOES clouds, AMSR-E SSTs, MODIS land, August 27,
2005
(visualization by the NASA GSFC SVS)
AMSR-E SSTs, depicting the Katrina cold wake,
August 30, 2005
29
Hurricane Isabel, September 2003
Baltimore aftermath, 9/19/03 (photo by P. Hawkes).
Image from the Aqua MODIS, 9/14/2003.
30
Typhoon in the East China Sea, July 4, 2002,
from the Aqua AMSR-E
Japan
China
Taiwan
AMSR-E image, 226 a.m. Japan Standard Time
(JST).
Philippines
(image courtesy of JAXA)
31
Hurricane Frances, September 1, 200489 GHz Data
from the Aqua AMSR-E
(image from the NOAA/NASA Near Real Time
Processing Effort)
32
Global Rainfall Rates, from Aqua and TRMM
Aqua AMSR-E October 2005 Rainfall
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)
Microwave Imager (TMI) October 2005 Rainfall
(images from Chris Kummerow and Ralph Ferraro,
through Elena Lobl)
33
Global Soil Moisture Distribution from Aquafor
regions with low vegetation
September 2007 Volumetric Soil Moisture ()
March 2007
(images from Eni Njoku)
34
Global Sea Ice Coverage, June 2-4, 2002 (top) and
July 21-22, 2002 (bottom), from Aquas AMSR-E
(images courtesy of JAXA)
35
Polar Sea Ice Sample Views
(Photos by C. Parkinson)
36
Animation of 2008 Arctic Sea Ice Coverage, from
AMSR-E data
White Highly compact ice. Shades of light blue
Ice of lesser compactness.
(Images every 4 days)
(animation by N. DiGirolamo and C. Parkinson)
37
Monthly Arctic Sea Ice ExtentsNovember 1978
December 2007
(extended from C. Parkinson, D. Cavalieri, P.
Gloersen, J. Zwally, and J. Comiso, J.
Geophysical Research, 1999)
38
Yearly Averaged Arctic Sea Ice Extents,1979
2007, from SMMR and SSMI Data
(extended from Parkinson et al. 1999)
39
Arctic Record Low Sea Ice Coverage, September 14,
2007
Arctic ice coverage from Aquas AMSR-E
instrument, 9/14/07
40
September 14, 2007 Arctic Sea Ice Distribution
vs. Minima in 2005 and averaged over 1979-2006
(from J. Comiso, C. Parkinson, R. Gersten, and L.
Stock, 2008)
41
Animation of 2008 Antarctic Sea Ice Coverage from
AMSR-E data
White Highly compact ice. Shades of light blue
Less compact ice.
(Images every four days)
(animation by Nick DiGirolamo and Claire
Parkinson)
42
Monthly Southern Ocean Sea Ice ExtentsNovember
1978 December 2007
(extended from J. Zwally, J. Comiso, C.
Parkinson, D. Cavalieri, and P. Gloersen, Journal
of Geophysical Research, 2002)
43
Yearly Averaged Antarctic Sea Ice Extents, 1979 -
2007, from SMMR and SSMI Data
(extended from Zwally et al. 2002)
44
Aqua MODIS View of the Greenland Ice Sheet, July
13, 2002
45
Composite Image of Antarctica from the Aqua
MODIS Instrument
46
Aqua MODIS Images of Sea Ice and Iceberg B15A
off the Coast of Antarctica
January 16, 2003
January 30, 2005
47
Edge of a Large Iceberg
(photo by M. Deneyer)
48
Southern Florida
Coast today Coast if sea
level rises 10 m
(map from W. Haxby)
49
Sample Aqua Validation Activities
50
Visibility of Aqua Results
Number of users of Aqua data, by year and domain
51
The EOS Afternoon Satellite Constellation(the
A-Train)
(courtesy GSFC ESMO)
52
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