UNITED STATES HISTORY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – UNITED STATES HISTORY PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 632c2-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

UNITED STATES HISTORY

Description:

Republican Candidates: for President U. S. Grant, for vice-president Schuyler Colfax. ... Railroad Co., Vice-President Shuyler Colfax, Senator Oaks Ames. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:56
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 75
Provided by: david208
Category:
Tags: history | states | united

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: UNITED STATES HISTORY


1
UNITED STATES HISTORY
  • UNITED STATES HISTORY SINCE 1865

2
Chapter 15
  • RECONSTRUCTION
  • 1865-1877

3
Chapter 15
  • Part A

4
PERIOD OF RECONSTRUCTION
  • Period of reconstruction 1865-1877
  • Period of the Civil War 12 Apr. 1861-9 Apr.
    1865.
  • Period of reconstruction can be divided into
    three distinct phases
  • Lincoln Phase 1863-1865
  • Johnson Phase 1865-1866
  • Congressional Phase 1866-1877

5
The Wilmer McLean House 9 Apr. 1865
6
Factors that will influence Reconstruction
Legislation
  • The Constitutional Factor
  • Political Factor
  • Economic Factor
  • Social Factor
  • Psychological factor

7
Constitutional Factor
  • The Constitutional factor is caused by the lack
    of direction that our forefather gave us at the
    time of the writing of the document. However two
    questions come from that dilemma 1. Who is in
    charge during the reconstruction of this nation.
    2. What is the status of the southern states
    after the civil war.

8
Political Factor
  • Politics has a way of determining many events in
    our lives. The Civil War was no different than
    other events as far as politics is concerned.
    Two political decisions were made by the
    Republicans 1. They took credit for the union
    victory over the south, GOP and GAR were terms
    that came into being. 2. The Democratic Party
    was blamed for the Civil War, trying to destroy
    the Union. Rebels and Democrats.

9
Economic Factor
  • The economic factor also has two issues. 1. The
    north is going to blame the south for the civil
    war and therefore responsible for the debt of the
    war. 2. The north will try to keep the south
    economically depend on the north.

10
Social Factor
  • The Social factor also has two points to content
    with 1. The North is going to become obsessed
    with bring social equality to the ex-slave
    through legislation. 2. Protecting the rights
    of the ex-slave through legislation.

11
Psychological Factor
  • The Psychological factor is the result of the
    other factors but also influenced legislation.
    Two issues 1. The North will try everything to
    protect the right of the ex-slave. 2. The South
    will react in violent ways to the efforts of the
    North.

12
Lincoln Phase
  • Lincoln phase begins with the issuance of the
    Emancipation Proclamation on 1 Jan. 1863, end
    with the death of President Lincoln on 15 Apr.
    1865.

13
Lincoln Phase 1863-1865
  • The Emancipation Proclamation 1 Jan. 1863.1
  • Lincoln Plan Dec. 1863 Also known as the
    Presidential Plan, and the 10 Plan. Provided
    1.That all Confederates except prominent military
    and political leaders could regain citizenship by
    taking an oath to support the Constitution. 2.
    Ratify the thirteenth amendment.

14
Lincoln Continued
  • 3. That when 10 per cent of number of people in
    each state who had voted in the election of 1860
    met these requirements the could set up a
    government which would be recognized by the
    President.
  • Under the Lincoln Plan the states of Virginia,
    Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana where declared
    reconstructed.

15
Lincoln Phase Continued
  • Reaction to Lincoln Plan
  • Wade-Davis Bill
  • 1. Congress rather than the President would be in
    charge of reconstruction.
  • 2. A majority of the population of each southern
    state, rather than 10, must take an oath of
    allegiance before a government could be
    established.
  • 3. High ranking military and political were
    disenfranchised.
  • 4. Slavery was abolished.
  • 5.Confederate debt was repudiated.

16
Wade-Davis Continued
  • Lincoln Pocket vetoed the bill.
  • Wade-Davis Manifesto
  • 5 August 1864 the radicals in newspapers of the
    day publicly castigated the President of the
    United States.
  • Lincoln called both Benjamin Wade and Henry
    Winter Davis to his office and offered a
    compromise, allowing the southern states to
    decide which plan to be reconstructed under.

17
Death of Lincoln
  • Lincoln was shot on the evening of 14 April 1865
    in Fords Theater.
  • He was watching the play, Our American Cousin,
    when John Wilkes Booth shot him in the head.
  • As Booth landed on the stage he said Sic Semper
    Tyrannis (Thus always to tyrants)
  • He died at 722 A.M. 15 April 1865.

18
Funeral procession of President Lincoln
19
Artist concept of the shooting of President
Lincoln.
20
Wilkes Booth fleeing across Fords Theater stage
21
The executions of Lewis Paine, George Atzerodt,
David Herold and Mary Surratt
22
Thaddeus Stevens 1792-1868
23
Johnson Phase
  • The Johnson Phase begins with the death of
    President Lincoln on 15 Apr. 1865 to Jan 1866.
    President Johnson will find dealing with the
    Radical Republicans more difficult that Lincoln
    found dealing with the lack of a General during
    the war.

24
The Johnson Phase
  • Became President upon the death of Lincoln and by
    29 May 1865 came out with his own reconstruction
    plan for the south.
  • Proclaimed general amnesty for all Southerners
    except, high ranking military and political
    leaders and people whose wealth exceeded
    20,000.00 or more.
  • Recognized the governments of Virginia,
    Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana as reconstructed
    under the Lincoln Plan.

25
Johnson Continued
  • Informed remaining Southern States that they
    could rejoin the Union when
  • When they had repudiated their war debt.
  • Abolished Slavery
  • disavowed the ordinances of secession
  • Ratified the thirteenth Amendment.
  • By 5 December 1865 all states save Texas were
    declared reconstructed either under the Lincoln
    Plan or the Johnson Plan.

26
(No Transcript)
27
Chapter 15
  • Part B

28
Congressional Phase
  • The Congressional phase begins with the ousting
    of the southern delegation to congress and the
    taking control of the policy making process.
    They will control the Presidency and the Supreme
    Court during this particular time in history of
    the United States.

29
Steps Taken by Congress to Control the Policy
Making Process
  • 4 Dec. 1865 Joint Committee on Reconstruction,
    Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania chairman.
  • 19 Feb. 1866 Freedmans Bureau, this is the
    reinterpretation of the first Bureau that had
    been vetoed by President Johnson.
  • 9 April 1866 Civil Rights Act, forbade states to
    discriminate against Negroes.

30
Howard University 1900
31
Steps Continued
  • 16 June 1866 Fourteenth Amendment
  • All persons born or naturalized in the United
    States were citizens with full rights.
  • Southern states must grant Negroes the vote or
    suffer the loss of a portion of their
    congressional representation.
  • Former Confederates could not hold office until
    pardoned by Congress
  • War debt repudiated.
  • Measure enforced by congress.

32
Steps Continued
  • 7 March 1868 The Act of March of 1868 denied
    Supreme Court Authority over acts of
    reconstruction
  • Ex Parte Milligan 1866
  • Ex Parte McCardle 1868
  • Denied Presidential authority
  • The Army Appropriations Act
  • The Tenure of office Act

33
Impeachment of Johnson
  • 21 Feb. 1868 President Johnson dismissed
    Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, 24 Feb. 1868 the
    House voted to impeach Johnson for violating the
    Tenure of Office Act and for other high crimes
    and misdemeanors.
  • He escape conviction by one vote three separate
    times.

34
Congressional Reconstruction
  • 2 March 1867 the first act of reconstruction by
    congress
  • That there were no lawful governments in the
    south, except the state of Tennessee.
  • The Southern States were divided into military
    districts
  • Military district 1 Virginia-commander General
    Schofield
  • Military district 2 North and South Carolina
    Commander General Sickles
  • Military district 3 Georgia, Florida, Alabama,
    Commander General Pope

35
(No Transcript)
36
Congressional Phase Continued
  • Military District 4 Mississippi and Arkansas,
    Commander General Ord.
  • Military District 5 Texas and Louisiana,
    Commander General Sheridan.
  • The remaining states could return to the Union
    when
  • its voters(black and white) wrote a constitution.
  • Negro suffrage must be guaranteed.
  • The state constitution must be acceptable to
    Congress and the majority of the people of the
    state.

37
Congressional Continued
  • Ratification of the fourteenth and reaffirmation
    thirteenth amendment.
  • Second Reconstruction Act 23 Mar.
  • 1867
  • Directed o the Military Commanders
  • Launch the necessary proceedings as to the
    registration of voters.
  • Make sure an election was held to elect delegates
    to a constitutional convention.
  • Assemble the convention
  • assure the adoption of the constitution.

38
Three Categories of People in the South
  • The traditional Southern Whites, would always
    hate the North and all their policies.
  • The Ex-slave, who looked to the Republicans as
    their liberators.
  • Scalawags, Southerners who sold out to the North.
  • Carpetbaggers, people from the north, who came
    South to fill the power vacuum.

39
Reconstruction Act 3
  • Reconstruction act 3 was largely a retelling of
    the previous legislation reconstruction acts
    numbers 1 and 2.
  • One new aspect that was not in the other acts
    was the denying of the oath taking on the basis
    that it was insincere.
  • A majority could not be attained for the
    ratification of the constitutions, the process
    stopped.

40
Reconstruction Act 4
  • All that was needed to ratify the new states
    constitutions was a majority of the votes cast.
  • Using that method the Southern states were
    reconstructed under the congressional plan.

41
Reasons for Reconstruction Failure
  • It became to expensive to maintain troops in the
    South.
  • Because of traditions of White rule in the South.
  • Many Carpetbag and Scalawags governments were
    corrupt.
  • Governor Warmath
  • Rise in Middle Class
  • The North grew tried of legislation.

42
Methods of Southern Opposition to Northern
Legislation
  • There were two methods of opposition legal and
    illegal.
  • Legal methods included the following
  • Blacks Codes, laws that applied only to blacks.
  • Literacy Tests, to vote in general elections.

43
Legal Continued
  • Poll Tax, a tax in order to be able to vote in
    any election.
  • Grandfather Clause, if your grandfather had voted
    in an election prior to 1860 then you could vote.

44
Illegal Methods
  • Klu Klux Klan(KKK) born in Polaski, Tenn. In 1866
  • Knights of the White Camellia
  • Mississippi Rifle Clubs

45
Congressional Response
  • Force Act 1870 and KKK Act 1871
  • Gave the President the right to supervise
    elections.
  • Gave the President the right to suspend the writ
    of Habeas Corpus.
  • Gave the President the right to employ the use of
    the military against these illegal organizations.

46
Legacy of Reconstruction
  • There were beneficial and Harmful results of
    reconstruction the harmful results were
    Provided for the South a less intelligent
    leadership.
  • The racial issue/prejudice was increased.
  • South became unnecessarily economy minded.

47
Results Continued
  • The South was fastened with a one party
    government (Democratic Party)
  • Hatred between the North and the South increased.
  • Beneficial Result
  • A more equitable redistribution of property.

48
Solid South trampling U. S. Constitution
49
(No Transcript)
50
Chapter 15
  • Part C

51
Election of 1868
  • The period of history between 1868 and 1900 is
    sometimes referred to as the
  • The Gilded Age
  • The Age of the Robber Barons
  • The Age of Corruption

52
Election of 1868
  • Republican Candidates for President U. S.
    Grant, for vice-president Schuyler Colfax.
  • Democratic Candidates for President Horatio
    Seymour, for Vice-president Francis P. Blair.

53
Election Continued
  • Republican Platform
  • Endorsed radical republican reconstruction.
  • Condemned Johnson and the Democrats.
  • Endorsed payment of the national debt in gold.
  • They were anti-slavery.

54
Election Continued
  • Democratic Platform
  • Condemned radical reconstruction.
  • Endorsed the Ohio Idea, of paying the national
    debt in greenbacks.
  • Campaign of 1868 Republican used a tactic
    called waving the bloody shirt, against the
    democrats. Its means recalling the Civil War.

55
Results of Election
  • Grant won the election 214 electoral votes to
    Seymours 80 votes.
  • Short biography of U. S. Grant
  • Ulysses Simpson Grant was born in Point Pleasant
    Ohio on 27 Apr. 1822. He died in Mt. Mcgregor,
    near Saratoga N.Y. on 23 Jul. 1885.
  • He was the 18th. President of the United States.
    He graduated from West Point 1843.

56
Ulysses S. Grant 18th President of United States
57
Administration of Grant
  • The administration of Grant can be divided in to
    distinct phases the domestic affairs and the
    foreign affairs of the Grant Presidency.
  • The domestics affairs are really a collection of
    scandals and corruption.
  • The Gold Conspiracy scandal Jay Gould, Jim
    Fisk, President Grant, Abel Corbin and George S.
    Boutwell.

58
Thomas Nast Cartoon of Grants Corruption
59
Domestic affairs continued
  • Credit Mobilier Scandal Thomas C. Durant,
    President Union Pacific Railroad Co.,
    Vice-President Shuyler Colfax, Senator Oaks Ames.
  • Whiskey Ring Fraud Orville Babcock, personal
    secretary of Grant, and many government
    inspectors and Tax collectors, distillers in the
    Mid-west.

60
Scandals Continued
  • War Department Scandal W.W. Belknap, Secretary
    of War, Orville Grant, Presidents brother, and
    General George Armstrong Custer
  • Grants Foreign Affairs There were two nations
    that were involved in the foreign affairs of
    Grant, England and Spain.

61
Foreign Affairs
  • The problems with England were two fold our
    first problem with England was called Feniens
    uprising.
  • The second problem with England was called the
    Alabama Claims, involving three ships, the
    Alabama, Florida, and Shenandoan.

62
Foreign Problems Continued
  • In 1868 a revolt broke out in Cuba, the Cuban
    nationals against the Spanish government. The
    United States remained neutral in the situation.
  • The Virginius, an gun-running ship illegally
    flying the American Flag was captured by the
    Spanish navy in 31 Oct. 1873.
  • All Souls-on Board (53) were summarily shot
    including 8 Americans.
  • Secretary Hamilton Fish secured 80,000.00
    indemnity for the families.

63
Election of 1872
  • The notable thing about this election is that
    both the Democratic and Republican parties were
    split.
  • The liberal republicans met in Cincinnati 1 May
    1872 and nominated Horace Greely for president
    and B. Gratz Brown for Vice-president.
  • The Regular Republicans met in Philadelphia and
    nominated U.S. Grant for President and Henry
    Wilson for Vice-president.

64
Horace Greely (1811-1872)
65
Election Continued
  • The regular Democratic Party met in Louisville 3
    Sept. 1872 and nominated Charles OConor for
    president and John Quincy Adams II for
    vice-president.
  • The liberal wing of the Democratic party met in
    Baltimore on 9 July 1872 and picked the
    Greeley-Brown slate.
  • Grant was the victor in 1872 with 286 electoral
    votes, Greeley died 29 Nov. 1872 he got 66
    electoral votes.

66
Panic of 1873
  • The causes of the Panic
  • Over speculation in railroad building.
  • Over expansion in industry, agriculture and
    commerce.
  • Weakened financial structure due to crime of 73.
  • Panic in European markets.
  • Actions by Congress to combat the panic The
    Specie Resumption Act 14 Jan. 1875.

67
Specie Act Continued
  • Congress passed a bill to increase the issuance
    of legal tender to a ceiling of 382 million on
    greenbacks and provided for specie resumption by
    1 Jan. 1879.

68
Election of 1876
  • Why is the election of 1876 considered important
  • It is the election that will end reconstruction.
  • Marks the return of the Democratic party to
    national politics.
  • Marked the systematic reenslavement of the
    ex-slave.

69
Election Continued
  • The Republican National Convention met at
    Cincinnati 16 June 1876 and nominated for
    president Rutherford B. Hayes from Ohio, they
    also nominated William A. Wheeler of New York for
    vice-president on the 7th balloting.
  • James G. Blaine had been the leading republican
    candidate but was tinted by a R.R. scandal.

70
Election Continued
  • The Democratic Party met at St. Louis 27-20 June
    1876 and nominated Samuel J. Tilden of New York
    for president and Thomas A. Hendricks of Indiana
    for vice-president.
  • Results of election Then election gave Tilden a
    popular vote margin of 250,000. In the electoral
    vote Tilden had 184, Hayes 165. However there
    where disputed votes in four States.

71
Compromise of 1877
  • Congressional Committee.
  • Eight republicans.
  • Seven Democrats.
  • Provisions of Compromise.
  • Rutherford B. Hayes becomes President.
  • Withdraw troops from Southern States.
  • Appoint Democrat to Cabinet of President.
  • Appropriations for Southern internal
    improvements.

72
Samuel J. Tilden (1814-1886)
73
Rutherford B. Hayes 19th President of United
States(1822-1893)
74
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com