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Using annotations in engineering design: some results from an experimental study

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An ergonomic and psychological study of a design situation. Definition of annotation in this case ... Hood. Chassis. Connecting rod ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Using annotations in engineering design: some results from an experimental study


1
Using annotations in engineering design some
results from an experimental study
  • Sylvie Guibert, Françoise Darses
  • Laboratoire dErgonomie - CNAM
  • Jean-François Boujut
  • GILCO - INPG

2
Contents
  • The use of annotation in product design
  • Annotation and CAD models
  • 2 Annotation scenarios for PD
  • An ergonomic and psychological study of a design
    situation
  • Definition of annotation in this case
  • Methodological point
  • results

3
Product design
  • Complex process which spans from idea generation
    to the industrial definition of the product
  • Lots of different activities (modelling,
    simulating, but also collective evaluation,
    argumentation (design meetings), etc.)
  • Includes various stakeholders (e.g. Marketing,
    after sales, purchasing, engineering, etc.) gt
    different domains of expertise (common
    understanding , shared representation, etc.)
  • Mainly geometric models and drawing/sketching is
    widely used in design

4
Information management process
Product Data Management (PDM)
Formal process
Informal Process
Design tasks
5
At the informal level…
  • Need to support non geometric information in
    relation to the geometric definition of the
    product
  • Need to have negotiation spaces (remote)
  • Formal vs. informal
  • Support to argumentation
  • Support to rational capture

6
Représentation for supporting annotation
  • Modelling oriented interface
  • Geometric models only
  • Complex information structure (interaction with
    the geometry)
  • Format not easily accessible
  • Difficult to share

7
Annotation in design
Digital documents Digital mock-up Version i
8
Annotation tool basic requirements
  • Basic geometric representation easy to handle
    (VRML, etc.)
  • Additional symbols easy to add and manage
    (drag/drop)
  • Non geometric information available (information
    structure)
  • Collaboration oriented

9
Annotation scenarios asynchronous collaboration
Object Vi
Extraction i
Object Vi1
time
Project review i
10
Annotation scenario synchronous collaboration
Object V i1
Object Vi
t
Meeting 1
Meeting 2
11
An ergonomic and psychological study to
support the new practices
Mediated
Natural
Semantic Web
CSCWriting
Individual
Collective
Engineering Design
Evolution of annotation practices
  • Complexity ?

12
An experimental collaborative design situation
Design task to produce the manufacturing and
marketable solution of a bicycle trailer to carry
children Course of the experiment 4 meetings of
2 hours
Teamboard
Chassis designer
Project leader
Connecting designer
Ergonomist
13
Analysing the data
  • Recording and analysis the various documents of
    work
  • The location of the document used
  • The medium of the document
  • The documents scope of use

14
Clarifying definitions document, sketch,
annotation
  • A document (Chabin, 1997 Stern, 1997)
  • A content
  • A container
  • A context
  • A sketch
  • A graphical production
  • A particular form of a document
  • An annotation
  • Isnt a document
  • Has not an autonomous existence

A sketch
An annotation
15
Analysing the data
  • Recording and analysis the various documents of
    work
  • The location of the document used
  • The medium of the document
  • The documents scope of use
  • A cognitive task analysis with COMET (method of
    protocol analysis) (Darses, Détienne, Falzon
    Visser, 2001)
  • Coding into Predicate/Argument units
  • Predicates Actions (to generate, to inform, to
    evaluate, etc.)
  • Arguments Objects (solution, problem, domain
    objects, etc.)

16
Results a majority of digital mediums
  • Electronic documents 2/3 annotations
  • Paper documents 1/3 annotations
  • Computer tools are suited to natural
    production Teamboard versus CAD tool
  • Digital representations gave rise to
    proportionally more annotations than sketches
    documents
  • Different natures of the solutions in either case

17
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18
Results beyond simple deictics
  • Only 5 (9) of the annotations were textual
  • 53 (91) were graphical

19
Results beyond simple deictics
The semantic content
  • Only 5 (9) of the annotations were textual
  • 53 (91) were graphical

20
Results beyond simple deictics
A subproblem in a broader context
  • Only 5 (9) of the annotations were textual
  • 53 (91) were graphical

21
Results function in problem solving
  • Created in the work space shared and produced by
    the group
  • Aiming to establish a shared context for the
    problem and the production of solutions

22
Results function in problem solving
  • Created in the work space shared and produced by
    the group
  • Aiming to establish a shared context for the
    problem and the production of solutions

23
Results function in problem solving
  • Created in the work space shared and produced by
    the group
  • Aiming to establish a shared context for the
    problem and the production of solutions

24
Results function in problem solving
  • Created in the work space shared and produced by
    the group
  • Aiming to establish a shared context for the
    problem and the production of solutions

25
Results function in problem solving
Describing constraints of the problem and the
solution
  • Created in the work space shared and produced by
    the group
  • Aiming to establish a shared context for the
    problem and the production of solutions

26
Conclusions
  • The minor role of the textual annotations
  • And the wide variety of the graphical annotations
  • Beyond simple deictics
  • They improve the designers understanding
  • Examining the possible effect of
  • The function of the designers
  • The instant of the design process

27
Ongoing work
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