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A%20Brief%20History%20of%20the%20Ancient%20Near%20East

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understand general political history of Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon ... understand how empires took tribute from Israel and other vassal countries ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A%20Brief%20History%20of%20the%20Ancient%20Near%20East


1
A Brief History of the Ancient Near East
2
Goals for today
  • understand general political history of Egypt,
    Assyria, and Babylon
  • understand the importance of these political
    situations to Israel
  • understand how Israel is able to thrive only when
    there is a lull on the world scene
  • understand how empires took tribute from Israel
    and other vassal countries

3
A Brief History of the Nations in the Ancient
Near East
  • A. Languages
  • B. Nations
  • Egypt
  • Sumer
  • Akkadians
  • Assyria
  • Babylon
  • Syria
  • Philistia
  • Hatti (Hittites)

4
A. Languages
  • Main languages are the Semitic languages
  • Hebrew Israel
  • Akkadian Assyria and Babylon
  • etc.
  • Other languages
  • Sumerian Sumer
  • Egyptian Egypt
  • Hittite Hatti

5
Egypt 3 major period
  • 1. Old Kingdom 2800 - 2200 B.C.E.
  • roughly Early Bronze Age
  • 2. Middle Kingdom 2000 - 1750 B.C.E.
  • Middle Bronze is 2200 to 1550
  • 3. New Kingdom 1550-1150 B.C.E.
  • Late Bronze is 1550-1200
  • periods between
  • 2200 - 2000 rival powers in Egypt
  • 1750 - 1550 Hyksos invaders dominate Egypt

6
Egypts Dynasties
  • Since the Greek historian, Manetho (3rd century
    B.C.E.)
  • There are some problems with these divisions, but
    it has been done for centuries

7
Dynasties and Kingdoms
  • Old Kingdom 3-6 Dynasties
  • time of pyramids
  • 2800 to 2200 BCE
  • Middle Kingdom 10-12 Dynasties
  • ruled from Thebes
  • 2000 to 1750
  • Hyksos period 13-17 Dynasties
  • 1750 to 1550 BCE
  • New Kingdom 18-19 Dynasties
  • 1550 to 1200 BCE
  • 20th Dynasty and beyond goes to Greek conquest

8
Hyksos (15th) Dynasty
9
18th Dynasty
  • First Dynasty of New Kingdom
  • Strongest point in Egyptian History
  • in 1550, Ahmose I reunited Egypt
  • Egypt controls Canaan
  • Thutmoses III (1490-1436) leads Egypt to its
    strongest point
  • Amenhotep IV el-Amarna letters written at
    capital of el-Amarna

10
Thutmose III
11
19th Dynasty
  • came to power 1300 w/ Sethi I and Rameses II
  • reasserted control over Asia Minor
  • moved capital to border of Sinai in delta
  • most scholars identify this with period of Exodus
  • ? Sethi I is Pharaoh who enslaves Israelite
  • ? Rameses II is Pharaoh of Exodus

12
Rameses II
13
20th Dynasty and beyond
  • from 1200 down to Greek conquest
  • Egypt declined at end of Late Bronze Age and
    start of Iron I Age
  • never become as dominant
  • several Iron Age II pharaohs who are strong, but
    never controls known world

14
Sumer
  • first great civilization in the world
  • arose around 3500 (start of Early Bronze)
  • Sumer located in marshes of lower Mesopotamia
    between Tigris and Euphrates
  • invented writing (Gilgamesh)
  • advanced mathematics based on number 6
  • much of their art / culture was adopted by the
    Semitic peoples

15
Akkadians
  • later the two main countries would be Assyria (in
    North) and Babylon (in South)
  • 2400, Sargon I is first Semitic ruler to defeat
    the Sumerians
  • the Akkadians adopted Sumerian culture and
    religion, but kept Semitic language
  • controlled Mesopotamia until Cyrus the Great
    (Persian ruler 520)

16
Assyria 9th century
  • Ashurnasipal II (888-859)
  • Shalmeneser III (858-824)
  • pictured Jehu (842-815) giving tribute
  • Qarqar in 853 B.C.E.
  • from 800 to 750 lost control of world due to
    internal struggles

17
Battle of Qarqar in 853 B.C.E.
18
Assyria 8th century
  • Tiglath-Peleser III (747-727)
  • restores power
  • expands westward
  • from now until fall of Ninevah (612), Assyria is
    a constant threat to Israel and Judah
  • Sargon II (721-705)
  • Israel falls
  • Sennacherib (704-681) Judah almost falls
  • Assurbanipal (668-628) last great king

19
Tiglath- Pileser III
20
Tiglath-Pileser III (745727)
21
Sennacheribs 701 campaign
22
Rise of Assyria
23
Babylon
  • After 625, they were able to win over from
    Assyria
  • exacted tribute from Canaan just like Assyria had
    done
  • defeated Judah in 596 and 586
  • Babylon falls to Cyrus the Great (Persian ruler)
    in 520

24
The Rise of the Babylonian Empire
25
The Rise and Fall of the Babylonian Empire
26
Syria
  • used Semitic language
  • language known from Ugarit and Ebla
  • kingdom of Aram
  • culture similar to Canaan but not exactly the
    same (although many scholars make too many
    parallels)

27
Philistines
  • they occupy the coastal area in Canaan
  • come onto the scene about the time the Israelites
    arrive on the scene
  • they are one of the Sea Peoples, but not all Sea
    Peoples are Philistines
  • wiped out in early 6th century by Babylon

28
Hittites
  • they occupied the area of modern Turkey
  • as a world power, they fell at the end of the
    Late Bronze Age and start of Iron Age
  • this is about the time period when Israel comes
    onto the scene
  • not a huge presence for Israel, but a presence in
    terms of culture (esp. covt)

29
Conclusions
  • remember Israels economic resources
  • Israel thrived when there was a lull in the world
    political situation
  • Israel needed contacts with other nations
  • these relationships help us understand the
    political scene in Israel and Judah, and also the
    religious texts that evolve out of these settings.
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