COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SETTING PRIORITIES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SETTING PRIORITIES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 62bf1-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SETTING PRIORITIES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Description:

... Death. EXAMPLE: HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT. Health Risk ... Broad-based participation is crucial to ensure risk ranking reflects views of entire community ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:85
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 30
Provided by: genebr
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SETTING PRIORITIES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


1
COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTSETTING PRIORITIES
FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES
Presentation by Barbara Britton January 18, 2000

2
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
Part I Introduction and Background
Part II International Experience with CRA
Part III Methodology
3
PART I INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
4
HISTORY OF COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT
  • First used in the U.S. in 1987
  • Unfinished Business evaluated 31 problems and
    changed USEPA priorities
  • Many projects completed for regions, states, and
    cities
  • Used outside the U.S. by USAID and USEPA
  • First assessment was in Bangkok, 1990
  • Assessments completed for about 10 cities and
    regions

5
What DID EPA Learn From Comparative Risk Efforts?
  • Chemical-Specific, Media-Specific,
    Technology-Based Approaches have Limitations
  • Policies Based on Comparative Risk
    Assessments Could Lead to More Efficient Use
    of Resources and Greater Protection of Public
    Health and the Environment

6
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Comparative Health Risk Assessment is used to set
priorities for environmental management.
Identify and evaluate risks, set
priorities among problems.
Risk Assessment
Develop and implement solutions for high priority
problems
Risk Management
7
ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS
Environmental damage may have three types of
negative effects.
??
Public Health--illness, injuries, deaths
Ecological--loss of species and habitat
Quality of Life--economic and social costs
8
TYPES OF RISK ASSESSMENT
Health Risk Assessment evaluates the potential
public health impacts of an environmental
condition Comparative Health Risk
Assessment evaluates and compares the potential
health impacts of several environmental
conditions Comparative Risk Assessment evaluate
s and compares the potential health, ecological,
and quality-of-life impacts of several environmen
tal conditions
9
PART II INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH
COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT
10
International Experience WithComparative Risk
Assessment
Bangkok Accelerated plans for banning lead in
gasoline Cairo USAID projects to reduce air
pollution and lead contamination Ahmedabad
Municipal program to reduce air pollution from
transport Lima USAID environmental health
project under design Silesia USAID technical
assistance to high risk industrial facilities
11
HIGH RISK PROBLEMS FROM FIVE CRAs
Environmental Problem Categories
Quito
Cairo
Lima
Bangkok
Ahmedabad
Water, Sanitation, or Microbial Diseases
?
?
?
?
Ambient PM
?
?
?
?
Indoor Air
?
Lead
?
?
Air Pollution from Transport
?
Solid Waste
?
12
CRA RESULTS BANGKOK
13
CRA RESULTS CAIRO
14
CRA RESULTS AHMEDABAD
15
CRA RESULTS LIMA
16
PART III COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY
17
STEPS IN RISK ASSESSMENT
Health risk assessment is quantitative, based on
experimental and observational data.
Hazard Identification-- identify health risks
associated with exposure Dose-Response
Assessment-- model the relationship between dose
and effects Exposure Assessment-- estimate a
groups exposure (amount, duration) Risk
Characterization-- estimate the probability and
severity of effects
18
CONCEPTUAL MODEL LINKING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
AND HEALTH
19
EXAMPLEHEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
Health Risk Assessment in Bangkok
  • Population 5.9 million
  • Airborne particulates 90 - 200 ?g/m3
  • Health effects (per year)
  • 9 - 51 million restricted activity days
  • 300 - 1400 deaths

20
EXAMPLEHEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
Health Risk Assessment in Quito,
Ecuador Population 1.1 million Pesticides
in food 44.3 ?g/day intake of
heptachlor 11.0 ?g/day intake of
aldrin Health Effects 0.3 to 9.1 x 10-3
lifetime cancer risk Up to 150 excess cancer
cases/year
21
EXAMPLE COMPARATIVEHEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
Quito, Ecuador (1993)
Risk
Metropolitan Area
Asentamientos Populares
Microbiological Diseases (Food)
Microbiological Diseases (Food)
High
Airborne Particulate Matter
Airborne Particulate Matter
Indoor Air Quality
Occupational Disease and Injuries
Drinking Water and Wastewater
Traffic Injuries
Traffic Injuries
Moderate
Drinking Water and Wastewater
Solid Hazardous Waste Disposal
Indoor Air Quality
Occupational Disease and Injuries
Solid Hazardous Waste Disposal
Pesticides in Food
Low
Pesticides in Food
22
CRA METHODOLOGY
Four Phases of Comparative Risk Assessment
  • Planning
  • Determine scope of the study
  • Select and organize the team
  • Identify data types and sources
  • Data Collection and Analysis
  • Identify and gather data
  • Analyze data to estimate risks
  • Priority Setting
  • Interpret and compare risks
  • Debate and agree on priorities
  • Reporting
  • Prepare report as input to risk management
    planning

23
FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The organization of a CRA must address five
necessary functions
Function
Typical Unit
Project Management and oversight
Project Manager
Policy direction and project mandate
Steering Committee
Public participation
Public Advisory Committee
Final risk ranking
Steering Committee or Public Advisory Committee
Technical Committees
Technical analysis--data collection, risk
assessment, preliminary ranking
24
PARTICIPATORY ASPECTS OF CRAs
  • Broad participation is critical because
  • Analysis is multi-disciplinary and highly complex
  • Setting priorities are ultimately based on values
  • of the community
  • Broad participation is linked to acceptance of
  • CRA results and implementation of actions to
  • reduce risks


25
TECHNICAL ANALYSIS
  • Identify and evaluate health impacts of many
    environmental conditions
  • water and food
  • sanitation, drainage, and wastewater
  • ambient and indoor air, gases and particles
  • solid and hazardous wastes
  • occupational injuries and exposures
  • infectious, vector-borne, and pollutant-related
    diseases

26
ADAPTING TECHNICAL ANALYSIS FOR CRA IN DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES
Scope includes infectious diseases, outside
traditional risk assessment methods
Use health data from clinics and local survey to
estimate disease rates.
Use environmental, health, and qualitative data
Limited information and many data gaps.
Data are not computerized and are aggregated at
inappropriate geographic levels.
Reorganize information use assumptions and
extrapolation where necessary.
Some standard exposure assumptions are
inappropriate due to culture or conditions.
Adjust assumptions conduct special studies if
possible.
27
PRIORITY SETTING
  • Categorize each health impact by magnitude and
    severity
  • magnitude -- number of people affected
  • severity -- of effect, and importance of group
    affected
  • Combine magnitude and severity scores
  • Compare and categorize environmental problems
  • high, medium, and low risk

28
CRA Risk Ranking
Risk ranking requires judgments based on
values Comparing health effects acute vs.
chronic disease vs accidents Comparing effects
among groups children vs. working adults vs.
elderly poor vs. middle income voluntarily
exposed vs. involuntary exposed women vs. men

29
Conclusion
  • CRAs can form an effective basis for urban
    environmental management planning
  • Allow cities to address worst environmental
    problems first
  • Broad-based participation is crucial to ensure
    risk ranking reflects views of entire community
  • Stakeholder involvement is pivotal to ensuring
    risk assessment results translate into management
    action
About PowerShow.com