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Social Transformation through Appreciative Inquiry

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Fall of the Berlin Wall. Democratization of. Governance and Information ... Down Time. Deficit Language in Managment. 15. The Power of AI Stories. Stories ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Transformation through Appreciative Inquiry


1
  • Social Transformationthrough Appreciative
    Inquiry
  • Ronald E. Fry, Ph.D.Department of Organizational
    Behavior
  • Case Western Reserve University
  • rxf5_at_cwru.edu

2
What a Wonderful Time to Be Alive!
  • End of Apartheid
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall
  • Democratization of
  • Governance and Information
  • Proliferation of Strategic and Trade
    Alliances
  • Increasing focus on Sustainability (not
    just profits)

3
It is a Time for RethinkingHuman Organization
and Change
We are at the very point in time when a
400-year old age is dying and another is
struggling to be born, a shifting of culture,
science, society, and institutions enormously
greater than the world has ever experienced.
Ahead, the possibility of the regeneration of
relationships, liberty, community, and ethics
such as the world has never known, and a harmony
with nature, with one another, and with the
divine intelligence such as the world has never
dreamed. --Dee Hock, Founder
CEO--Visa
4
Deficit Theory of Change and Cultural
Consequences of Deficit Discourse
  • The signal accomplishment of the industrial
    age was the notion of continuous improvement. It
    remains the secular religion of most managers
    has reached the point of diminishing returns in
    incremental improvement programs. Gary Hamel
    Leading The Revolution
  • Identify problem
  • Conduct root cause analysis
  • Brainstorm solutionsand analyze
  • Develop action plans

MetaphorOrganizations are problems to be solved!
5
Consequences of Deficit Discourse
  • Fragmentation
  • Few New Images of PossibilitySelf-Fulfilling
    Frames/Questions
  • Exhaustion Visionless Voice
  • The Experts Must KnowDependence and Hierarchy
  • Spirals in Deficit Vocabularies
  • Breakdown in Relations/Closed Door
    Meetings/Decrease in Public Space/Cycle of
    despair

6
Appreciative Inquiry is a Shift
  • No problem can be solved from the same level of
    consciousness that created it. We must learn to
    see the world anew.There are only two ways to
    live your life. One is as though nothing is a
    miracle. The other is as though everything is a
    miracle.
  • Albert
    Einstein

7
Ap-preci-ate, v.,
  • 1. Valuing
  • The act of recognizing the best in people and the
    world around us
  • Affirming past and present strengths, successes,
    and potentials
  • To perceive those things that give life (health,
    vitality, and excellence) to living systems.
  • 2. To increase in value, e.g. the economy has
    appreciated in value.
  • Synonyms valuing, prizing, esteeming,and
    honoring.

8
In-quire (kwir), v.,
  • 1. The act of exploration and discovery.
  • 2. To ask questions to be open to seeing new
    potentials and possibilities.
  • Synonyms discovery, search, studyand systematic
    exploration.

9
Appreciative Inquiry
  • A collaborative and systematic search to
    identify and understand the organizations
    strengths, its potentials, the greatest
    opportunities, and peoples hopes for the
    future.

10
What is AI?
  • Learn from the best of the our past
  • to envision our future
  • Celebrate and exploit our Positive Core
  • Create bold, positive images of our future to
    drive organizational change
  • Work together on ideas that most attract us

11
AI 4DCycle
Discovery What gives life? (The best of what
is) Appreciating
Dream What might be? (What is the worldcalling
for) Envisioning Results
Destiny How to empower, learn, and
improvise? Sustaining
Affirmative Topic Choice
Design What should bethe ideal? Co-constructi
ng
Metaphor Organization as a wonder to embrace

12
Who Is Using It?
  • US Navy
  • British Airways
  • Roadway Express
  • MacDonalds
  • Dalai Lama
  • Nutrimental (Brazil)
  • Palestine Jewish Entrepreneurs
  • Avon Mexico
  • American Red Cross
  • Cleveland Public Schools
  • GTE (Verizon)

13
Los 5 Principios de AI
  • El Principio Construccionista - Organizations
    move in the direction of what they most talk
    about.
  • El Principio de Simultaneidad - Change begins
    with the first question you ask.
  • El Principio Poético - Anything can be studied in
    every social system.
  • El Principio de Anticipación - Deep change
    change in our active images of the future.
  • El Principio Positivo - The more positive the
    anticipatory image, the more positive the change.

14
Deficit Language in Managment
YES MEN
MISSED COMMITMENTS
Gap Analysis
Repeat Reports
BURNOUT
REORGANIZATION
TURF BATTLES
Critical Thinking
New Circuit Failure Rate
UNFAVORABLE
Down Time
WARNING
SILOS
CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS
TROUBLE REPORT
Spell Check
DEBUG
RISK
PERFORMANCE REVIEW
BLOCKED CALLS
Red Tape
15
The Power of AI Stories
  • Stories stick like glue
  • Make information easier to rememberWhole brain
  • Builds identities and fosters relationships
  • Medium for conveying values, visions
  • Moves the internal dialogue of the systembuilds
    sense of cooperative potential
  • Human Hopesuspends notions of why things cannot
    happen

16
Pioneering Research Across Many Fields
  • An Emerging Vocabulary of Positive Change

17
Positive Images of Future Drives Positive Change
Many Disciplines
Placebo Effect Pygmalion Effect The Role of
Positive Emotions? Imbalanced Inner
Dialogue Cultural Consequences Learned
Affirmative Capacity
18
What Good are Positive Emotions?
JOY Play INTEREST Exploration CONTENTME
NT Savor Integrate LOVE All of the
above Positive Emotions broaden our
thought and action repertories
19
Empirical Support
  • In the moment, Positive Emotions
  • Broaden Attention and Thinking
    (Fredrickson Branigan, 2002 Waugh
    Fredrickson, in prep)
  • Undo Lingering Negative Emotional Arousal
    (Fredrickson Levenson, 1998 Fredrickson,
    Mancuso, Branigan Tugade, 2000)
  • Fuel Resilient Coping
  • (Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh Larkin, 2002
    Tugade Fredrickson, 2002)

20
Empirical Support
  • Over time, Positive Emotions
  • Prevent depression
  • (Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh, Larkin,
    2002)
  • Trigger Upward Spirals to Increase Well-being
    (Fredrickson Joiner, 2002 Tugade
    Fredrickson, 2002)
  • Build optimism, tranquility, and resilience
    (Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh, Larkin, 2002)

21
What would you call it?(all these things taken
together)
  • Achievements
  • Strategic opportunities
  • Cooperative Moments
  • Technical assets
  • Innovations
  • Elevated thoughts
  • Community assets
  • Positive emotions
  • Community wisdom
  • Core competencies
  • Visions of possibility
  • Vital traditions, values
  • Social capital
  • Embedded knowledge
  • Financial assets

22
The Positive Core
  • Complete Organizational Wealth Well-being
  • An Incredible Energy
  • Source of Continuity

23
Whole System Connection to the Positive Core
  • Elevates elicits positive emotions of hope,
    inspiration, confidence, joy raises
    intelligence expands the language of life
    (internal dialogue) increases in appreciative
    interchange and mutually elevating relationships
    heightens creativity, ignites decision making,
    increases collective capacity.
  • Undoes Negative Impacts releases, makes
    irrelevant, finishes the residual of negative
    past.
  • Protects Increases health, resilience,
    accumulation of power - like an increase in
    immune system functioning.

24
The Idea of Positive Change
  • Any form of organization change, re-design, or
    planning that begins with comprehensive analysis
    of an organizations positive core and then
    links this knowledge to the heart of any
    strategic change agenda.
  • Because human systems move toward what they
    persistently ask questions about, positive change
    involves the deliberate discovery of everything
    that gives a system life when it is most
    effective in economic and human terms.
  • Link the positive core directly to any strategic
    agenda, and changes never thought possible are
    more rapidly mobilized while simultaneously
    building enthusiasm, corporate confidence, and
    human energy.

25
Positive Topic Choice
  • Human systems move in the direction of what we
    deeply and persistently ask questions about
  • Transformational topics are possible in any
    situation, and will generate more positive
    changeevery time.
  • The skill of framing and re-framing

26
What Would You Prefer to Spend Your Time on?
Low Morale brought about by severe
recession or High Enthusiasm derived from
innovation
27
FROM Reduce Lost and Damaged
Baggage Claims
British Airways
TO Exceptional Arrival
Experiences
28
FROM Throughput
Roadway Express
TO Winning with Employee-Driven Throughput
Crushing non-union competition by delivering
unsurpassed speed and leveraging employee pride
and involvement.
29
Applications of Appreciative Inquiry
  • Culture change
  • Strategic Change/Planning
  • Full Engagement of People Schools Communities,
    Networks, Movements, Organizations
  • Strength of Diversity Cultures of Unity
  • Labor-management partnerships
  • Good Supervision
  • Operational Excellence Optimal Margins
  • Mergers New Teams
  • AI Organizational Transformation Reports
    from the field. R. Fry, et. al. (Eds.) Westport,
    CN Quorum, 2001.

30
Genius is in Creating the Question
  • What would the universe look like if I were
    riding on the end of a light beam at the speed of
    light?
  • Albert Einstein

31
The Art of the Question
  • Whats the biggest problem here?
  • Why did I have to be born in such a troubled
    family?
  • Why do you blow it so often?
  • Why do we still have those problems?
  • What possibilities exist that we have not yet
    considered?
  • Whats the smallest change that could make the
    biggest impact?
  • What solutions would have us both win?
  • What makes HR questions inspiring, energizing,
    and mobilizing?

32
There is No such thing as a Neutral Question!
33
The Call for Positive Change
  • To survive and succeed, every organization will
    have to learn to turn itself into a change agent.
    The most effective way to manage change is to
    successfully create it. But experience has shown
    that grafting innovation on to traditional
    enterprise does not work. The enterprise has to
    become the change agentIt requires organized
    abandonment of things unsuccessful and
    exploitation of successes.
  • Peter F. Drucker
  • Managing in the New Society, 2002

34
Remember
  • Organizing is a miracle to be embraced
  • People and Organisations are heliotropic

35
We are born to Appreciate!
Exceptionality
n
Essentiality
n
Equality/Voice
n
36
Discussion
  • One key idea or interesting thought you
    have heard
  • One specific way you could personally
  • shift the positive imbalance of
    dialogue in your lifeTOMORROW
  • One idea you have for shifting the positive
    imbalance of public dialogue in Uruguay

37
Recent Publications
  • Appreciative Inquiry Change at the speed of
    imagination. Watkins, J., Mohr, Bernard, Jossey
    Bass, 2001
  • Appreciative Inquiry Organizational
    Transformation Reports from the field. Fry, R.,
    Barrett, F., Seiling, J. Whitney, D. (Eds.)
    Quorum, 2002

38
Website For These Slides and for Sharing AI
Tools
  • http//ai.cwru.edu
  • (Appreciative Inquiry Commons, Weatherhead
    School of Management, Case Western Reserve
    University)
  • Please submit/share your new tools, stories,
    studies!
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