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The American Revolution

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Title: The American Revolution


1
The American Revolution
  • 1775-1783

2
Second Continental Congress
  • All 13 colonies present -- delegates still not
    interested in independence but voicing grievances
  • George Washington chosen to head the continental
    army

3
Declaration of the Causes Necessity of Taking
Up Arms
  • 2nd draft of appeals and grievances to the king
    and the British people
  • A step toward the Declaration of Independence
  • Adopted measures to raise money and to create an
    army and a navy

4
Olive Branch Petition
  • Last effort to prevent war
  • Professed loyalty to the crown sought to restore
    peace
  • Appealed the king and Parliament to reconsider
    the Intolerable Acts
  • Result the king refused to recognize Congress
    and the war raged on

5
Early Battles
6
Ticonderoga and Crown Point -- May 1775 --
  • Tiny forces under Ethan Allen and his Green
    Mountain Boys of Vermont Benedict Arnold of
    Connecticut surprised captured British
    garrisons

7
Bunker Hill June 17, 1775
  • Colonials seized Breed's Hill now they
    commanded a strong position overlooking Boston
  • Over 1,000 oncoming redcoats were picked off by
    1,500 American sharpshooters
  • Americans had 140 killed and 441 wounded

8
Bunker Hill Continued
  • American supply of gunpowder ran out and were
    forced to abandon the hill in disorder
  • Viewed as an American victory for the frightful
    British casualties inflicted
  • Bloodiest battle of the War for Independence
  • British Army left Boston to conduct the war from
    New York

9
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10
The Kings Response
  • Following Bunker Hill, the King formally
    proclaimed the colonies in rebellion
  • Equal to a declaration of war
  • Hired 18,000 Hessians (German mercenaries) to
    support British forces
  • Colonials were shocked that the king would hire
    forces known as butchers for the war between
    Anglo-Saxon cousins

11
Declaration of Independence
  • Most Americans did not desire independence proud
    to be British citizens
  • Reasons for shift of loyalty
  • 1. Hiring of Hessians
  • 2. Burning of Falmouth Norfolk
  • 3. Governor of Virginia promised slaves who would
    fight for the British would be freed, which
    persuaded many southern elite to join New England
    in the war effort

12
Thomas Paines Common Sense
  • Became an instant best-seller in the colonies
    effective propaganda
  • Persuaded Congress to pursue independence
  • The could not hope for aid from France unless
    they declared independence
  • France not interested in colonial reconstruction
    under Britain

13
Main Ideas
  • Colonial policy was inconsistent independence
    was the only course
  • America had a sacred mission moral obligation to
    the world to set up an independent, democratic
    republic, untainted by association with corrupt
    monarchical Britain

14
Main Ideas Continued
  • Nowhere in the physical universe did a smaller
    heavenly body control a larger one. Why should
    tiny England control huge North America?
  • King was nothing more than the "Royal Brute of
    Great Britain."

15
Philadelphia Congress
  • June 7, 1776 Richard Henry Lee moved for
    independence
  • "These United Colonies are, and of right ought to
    be, free and independent states..."
  • Motion was adopted on July 2, 1776

16
Committee on Independence
  • Members included Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin
    Franklin, and John Adams, and others
  • Purpose was to come up with an appropriate
    statement of independence

17
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18
Slavery Issue Already
  • Debate especially over the slavery clause
  • Jefferson had blamed England for continuing the
    slave trade despite colonial wishes (despite his
    owning slaves)
  • Southerners in particular still favored slavery
    and dismissed the clause

19
Approved
  • The declaration was not addressed to England,
    because signers did not expect any response from
    the king
  • The Declaration of Independence was formally
    approved on July 4, 1776

20
Declaration Had 3 Major Parts
  • Preamble (heavily influenced by John Locke)
  • Stated the rights of colonists to break away if
    natural rights were not protected Life, liberty,
    and the pursuit of happiness (property)
  • All men are created equal

21
Declaration Had 3 Major Parts
  • 2. List of 27 grievances of the colonies (seen by
    Congress as most important part)
  • Charged the King with imposing taxes without
    consent, eliminating trial by jury, abolishing
    valued laws, establishing a military
    dictatorship, maintaining standing armies in
    peacetime, cutting off trade, burning towns,
    hiring mercenaries, inciting Indian violence upon
    colonies

22
Declaration Had 3 Major Parts
  • 3. Formal declaration of independence
  • Officially broke ties with England
  • "United States" was officially an independent
    country

23
Result of the Dec of Independence
  • Foreign aid could now be successfully solicited

24
Patriots Loyalists
25
"Tories" (loyalists)
  • 20 of the American people
  • Colonists who fought for return to colonial rule
    loyal to the king
  • Usually conservative educated and wealthy
    fearful of mob rule.
  • Older generation apt to be loyalists younger
    generation more revolutionary          

26
"Tories" (loyalists)
  • King's officers and other beneficiaries of the
    crown
  • Anglican clergy and a large portion of their
    followers most numerous of the loyalists
  • Well entrenched in aristocracy
  • Least numerous in New England
  • Ineffective at gaining allegiance of neutral
    colonists

27
Patriots
  • Sometimes called "Whigs" after British opposition
    party
  • American rebels who fought both British soldiers
    and loyalists
  • Most numerous in New England
  • A minority movement

28
The Loyalist Exodus
  • Loyalists regarded by Patriots as traitors
  • About 80,000 loyalists were driven out or fled
    the colonies
  • Estates confiscated and sold helped finance the
    war
  • 50,000 fought for the British

29
Patriot/Loyalist InterpretationsBenjamin
Franklins Political Cartoon
30
The War in 1776-1777
31
Battle of Long Island
  • Washingtons army allowed to escape from Long
    Island to Manhattan and then NJ
  • British lost a great opportunity to crush the
    Americans early

32
Battle of Trenton
  • Washington crossed the ice-clogged Delaware River
    on Dec. 26, 1776
  • At Trenton, surprised and captured about 1,000
    Hessians who were sleeping off  their Christmas
    partying

33
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34
Battle of Princeton
  • One week after Trenton, Washington defeated a
    smaller British force at Princeton
  • British forced to pull outposts back to New York
  • Trenton and Princeton was a gamble by Washington
    to achieve quick victories to revive the
    disintegrating Continental Army

35
Battle of Saratoga
  • Most important battle of the American Revolution
  • British sought to capture New York and sever New
    England from rest of the Colonies
  • Benedict Arnold saved New England by slowing down
    British invasion of New York

36
Battle of Saratoga
  • General Burgoyne surrendered entire command at
    Saratoga on Oct. 17,1777 to American General
    Horatio Gates

37
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38
Outcome of Saratoga
  • One of history's most decisive battles
  • Made French aid possible which ensured American
    independence
  • Spanish and Dutch eventually entered and England
    was faced with world war
  • Revived the faltering colonial cause

39
Valley Forge
  • Washington retired here for the winter of 1777-78
  • Supplies were scarce food, clothing
  • Army whipped into shape by the Prussian
    drillmaster Baron von Steuben
  • Episode demonstrated American determination
    despite horrible conditions

40
Benedict Betrays America
  • Arnold frustrated with his treatment by his
    superiors despite his heroic service
  • Persuaded Washington to make him head of West
    Point
  • Plotted with the British to sell out the key
    stronghold of West Point commanding the Hudson
    River
  • Plot discovered by Washington

41
Benedict Arnold - a traitor
  • A major blow to American morale
  • "Cut off your right leg, bury it with full
    military honors, and then hang the rest of you on
    a gibbet.

42
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43
Article of Confederation Drafted
  • Set in light of emergency needed to organize a
    nation and an army maintain civil order and
    establish international recognition and credit
    defend territory from the British and resolve
    internal quarrels and competition

44
Articles of Confederation
  • Adopted in 1777
  • Did not go into effect until 1781
  • 1st constitution in U.S. history lasted until
    1789 when the Constitution was adopted
  • Congress had power to conduct war, handle
    foreign relations secure loans, borrow money

45
France Becomes an Ally
  • French eager to exact revenge on the British for
    the Seven Years War
  • Saw Revolutionary war as an opportunity to stab
    England in the back
  • New World colonies were England's most valuable
    overseas possessions

46
Secret Supply to the Americans
  • France worried open aid to America might provoke
    British attacks on French interests
  • Americans Silas Deane and Benjamin Franklin
    arranged for significant amounts of munitions
    and  military supplies to be shipped to America

47
Marquis de Lafayette
  • Significant in helping Americans gain financial
    aid from France

48
What Convinced France?
  • Declaration of Independence a turning point for
    French aid
  • Showed Americans meant business
  • Victory at Saratoga displayed an excellent chance
    for defeating England

49
Franco-American Alliance
  • France offers U.S. a treaty of alliance
  • Promised Americans recognition of independence
  • Both sides bound themselves to wage war until the
    US won its freedom or until both agreed to terms
    with Britain

50
Reluctance
  • Many Americans reluctantly accepted the treaty 
  • France a strong Roman Catholic country
  • France had been the traditional enemy of Britain
    for centuries, so the feared prolonged conflict

51
World War?
  • American Revolution turned into a world war that
    put severe stress on Britains resources
  • Spain and Holland entered in 1779
  • War raged in Europe, North America, South
    America, the Caribbean, and Asia

52
League of Armed Neutrality
  • Organized by Catherine the Great of Russia
  • Lined up almost all remaining European neutrals
    in an attitude of passive hostility toward
    England as a result of England disturbing Baltic
    shipping

53
Land Frontier Sea Frontier
54
War Raged in the West
  • Indian allies of Britain attacked American
    frontier positions
  • 1777 known as "the Bloody Year" on the frontier
  • Westward movement continued despite treacherous
    war conditions    
  • Illinois country was taken from the British

55
Joseph Brant
  • Mohawk Chief, and leader of the Iroquois Six
    Nations, led Indian raids in Backcountry PA and
    NY.
  • Forced to sign Treaty of Ft. Stanwyk -- 1st
    treaty bet. U.S. Indians
  • Indians lost most of their lands

56
Monster Brant
  • He earned this title by committing horrible
    massacres, such as the Cherry Valley Massacre
  • His actions will sour relations between Americans
    and Indians for the next 50 years

57
George Rogers Clark
  • A frontiersman who seized several British ports
    along the Ohio River by surprise
  • Helped quiet Indian involvement
  • His admirers' credit him for forcing the British
    to cede the whole Ohio region in the peace treaty
    of Paris after the war

58
The American Navy
  • John Paul Jones most famous American naval leader
    (Scottish born)
  • Chief contribution was destroying British
    merchant shipping and carrying war into the
    waters around the British Isles
  • Did not affect Britain's navy

59
American Privateers
  • Privately owned ships authorized by Congress to
    attack enemy ships
  • More effective than the American navy
  • 600 British ships captured British captured as
    many American merchantmen privateers
  • Brought in gold, harassed the British, and
    increased American morale by providing American
    victories

60
Major Naval Battles
  • Between British, French, other European powers
  • Mostly in the West Indies
  • British overcome by French, Spanish and Dutch
  • War continued until 1785 when British won last
    battle near India

61
1778
  • Britain changed its strategy and focused on
    former Southern Colonies

62
The South is Falling! AHH!
  • Savannah, Georgia taken in late 1778-early 1779
  • Charleston, SC, fell in 1780 (4th largest city in
    America)
  • Devastating loss to American war-effort
  • Heavier loss to the Americans than Saratoga was
    to the British

63
Southern Plans Go Bad
  • Nathaniel Greene eventually succeeded in clearing
    Georgia and S.C. of most British troops
  • Cornwallis forced to abandon the Southern
    strategy fell back to Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown

64
Battle of Yorktown
  • Last major battle of the war
  • French Admiral de Grasse, head of powerful fleet
    in W. Indies, advised Americans that he would
    join them in an assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown

65
The Battle
  • Washington made 300-mile march to Chesapeake
    from NY
  • Accompanied by French army, Washington attacked
    British by land as de Grasse blockaded them by
    sea after beating off the British fleet

66
British Defeat
  • Oct. 19, 1781, General Cornwallis surrendered
    entire force of 7,000 men
  • War continued one more year (especially in the
    South)

67
Surrender of Cornwallis
68
Newburgh Conspiracy (1783)
  • Cause Soldiers in the Continental Army were not
    paid regularly throughout the war and the money
    they did receive was often worthless due to
    inflation
  • Several officers, Congressional nationalists,
    sought to impose an impost on the states for
    back-pay by threatening to take over the American
    government

69
Ending the Conspiracy
  • Horatio Gates was consulted about the possibility
    of using the army to force the states to
    surrender more power to the national government
  • Washington appealed to the officers to end the
    conspiracy they agreed

70
Peace at Paris
71
Conditions
  • British ready to come to terms after losses in
    India, West Indies, and Mediterranean
  • Lord North's ministry collapsed in March 1782,
    temporarily ending the personal rule of George
    III
  • Whig ministry (more sympathetic to Americans)
    replaced the Tory regime

72
Dealing with France
  • American diplomats Ben Franklin, John Adams, and
    John Jay sent by Congress to make no separate
    peace and to consult with France at all stages of
    negotiations

73
Creation of a Weak US?
  • Highly suspicious of France Spain
  • John Jay believed France wanted to keep US  east
    of the Allegheny mountains and give western
    territories to its ally Spain for its help in the
    war

74
Treaty of Paris of 1783
  • Britain formally recognized US independence
  • Granted US generous boundaries stretching to the
    Mississippi on the west, the Great Lakes in the
    north, and to Spanish Florida in the south (Spain
    had re-won Florida)

75
Treaty of Paris of 1783
  • Americans allowed to retain a share in the
    valuable Newfoundland fisheries
  • British promised troops would not take slaves
    from America

76
American Concessions
  • Loyalists could not be further persecuted
  • Congress was to recommend to state legislatures
    that confiscated Loyalist property be restored

77
American Concessions
  • American states were bound to pay British
    creditors for debts long owed
  • U.S. did not comply with many of these
    concessions and it became partial cause of
    another war with Britain in 1812
  • France formally approved the British-American
    terms (officially, no separate Franco-American
    peace)

78
America Alone Gained from the War
  • Britain lost colonies and other territories
  • France got revenge but became bankrupt which
    caused French Revolution
  • Spain gained little

79
American Society During the War
80
Militarily
  • Over 250,000 American soldiers fought
  • 10 who fought died largest of any American
    war in history (Civil War 2)
  • British captured and occupied most major cities
    including Boston, NYC, and Philadelphia

81
War Economy
  • State and national governments created
  • Men with military experience volunteered for
    positions in the army
  • Some merchants loaned money to the army and to
    Congress. Others made fortunes from wartime
    contracts

82
Who Fought?
  • The poorest Americans -- Young city laborers,
    farm boys, indentured servants, and sometimes
    slaves
  • African Americans fought on both sides
  • 5,000 in the Continental army and nearly 30,000
    in the British army in return for promises of
    freedom

83
Who Else Fought?
  • Native Americas also fought with the British
    since they hoped to keep land-hungry Americans
    out of their territories
  • Bitter feelings remained long after the war ended

84
Women in the War
  • Women managed farms and businesses while men
    served in the army
  • Other women traveled with the Army as cooks and
    nurses
  • Women became more politically active and
    expressed their thoughts more freely

85
CHANGE IN SOCIETY DUE TO THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
86
Birth of Democracy
  • Many conservative Loyalists were no longer in
    America paved way for more democratic reforms in
    state governments

87
Slavery Issue
  • Rise of anti-slavery societies in all the
    northern states (plus Virginia) Quakers were the
    first to found such societies
  • Slavery eradicated in most northern states by
    1800
  • Quok Walker case in Massachusetts (1781)
    effectively ended slavery there

88
Early Segregation
  • Slavery not allowed above Ohio River in the
    Northwest Ordinance of 1787
  • Slave trade to be abolished in 1808 according to
    Constitution
  • By 1860, 250,000 free blacks lived in the North,
    but were disliked and discriminated against
  • Several states forbade entrance of blacks, most
    blacks denied right to vote, and some states
    barred blacks from public schools

89
In the South
  • Thousands of slaves in the South were freed after
    the Revolution and became free blacks
  • Slavery remained strong in the South, especially
    after 1793 (cotton gin)

90
Stronger Emphasis on Equality
  • Equality did not triumph until much later due to
    tenant farming, poor rights for women and
    children, slavery, and land requirements for
    voting and office holding (although reduced) were
    not eliminated
  • Further reduction of land-holding requirements
    for voting began to occur in 1820s

91
Primogeniture and Entail
  • Ended before 1800
  • Primogeniture eldest son inherits father's
    estate
  • Entail Estates could not be sold off in pieces
    guaranteed large landholdings to a family and
    meant less land available for purchase to the
    public

92
Separation of Church State
  • Jeffersons Virginia Statute on Religious
    Freedom, 1786

93
Separation of Church State
  • Anglican Church replaced by a disestablished
    Episcopal church in much of the South.
  • Congregational churches in New England slower to
    disestablish

94
State Governments
  • Three branches weak governors, strong
    legislatures, judicial branch
  • Sovereignty of states, republicanism

95
Indians
  • Indians no longer enjoyed British protection and
    became subject to U.S. expansion westward
  • Iroquois suffered significant losses after the
    war

96
Women
  • Women did not enjoy increased rights idea of
    Republican Motherhood took hold

97
Gordon S. Wood
  • The Radicalism of the American Revolution

98
Thesis
  • Revolution was the most radical and far-reaching
    event in American history

99
Effects
  • Made the interests and prosperity of ordinary
    people -- the pursuit of happiness -- the goal
    of government

100
Effects
  • Changed the  personal and social relationships of
    people
  • Destroyed aristocracy as it had been understood
    for nearly two millennia
  • Made possible egalitarian thinking subsequent
    anti-slavery and women's rights movements

101
Effects
  • Brought respectability and even dominance to
    ordinary people long held in contempt
  • Gave dignity to their menial labor in a manner
    unprecedented in history

102
More Effects
  • Brought about an entirely new kind of popular
    politics and a new kind of democratic officeholder

103
Further Effects
  • Released powerful popular entrepreneurial and
    commercial energies that few realized existed
  • Transformation occurred without the industrial
    revolution, urbanization, railroads

104
AP Prep Essay Question
  • The Revolution was effected before the war
    commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and
    hearts of the peopleThis radical change in the
    principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections
    of the people was the real American Revolution
  • Explain the meaning of this 1818 statement by
    John Adams and assess its validity (300 words)
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