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Female and Male Reproductive Systems

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Size of an upside-down pear. Structures Continued. Fallopian Tubes ... Symptoms: itching, redness in the vaginal and vulvar areas, as well as, vaginal discharge ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Female and Male Reproductive Systems


1
Female and Male Reproductive Systems
  • By Karen Bruccoleri
  • and
  • Jessica Bieniek

2
What is Reproduction?
  • The process which organisms make more organisms
    like themselves
  • This is one trait that separates living things
    apart from nonliving matter

3
Female and Male
  • Most species have 2 sexes
  • Female
  • Male
  • Have own unique reproductive systems
  • Different in Shape Structure
  • Both designed to either
  • Produce eggs or sperm
  • Nourish eggs or sperm
  • Transport eggs or sperm

4
Female Reproduction System
5
The main structures of the female reproductive
system
  • Vagina
  • Muscular, hollow tube
  • Extends from the uterus to the vagina opening
  • 3-5 inches long
  • Connects to the uterus at the cervix
  • Cervix
  • Thick, strong walls
  • Uterus
  • Hollow organ with muscular walls
  • Contains some of the strongest muscles in the
    female body
  • Size of an upside-down pear

6
Structures Continued
  • Fallopian Tubes
  • Located in the upper corners of the uterus
  • Connects the uterus to the ovaries
  • Ovaries
  • Produce, store, and release eggs into the
    fallopian tubes-know as ovulation
  • Part of the endocrine system because they produce
    progesterone and estrogen

7
Female Reproductive Diagram
8
Reproductive System enables a woman to
  • Produce eggs
  • Experience sexual intercourse
  • Protects and nourishes a fertilized egg
  • Give birth

9
Puberty
  • Baby girls ovaries contain hundreds of eggs
  • Eggs remain inactive until puberty
  • At puberty, the pituitary glands begin to make
    hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce
    females sex hormones, such as estrogen
  • Last stages of puberty females begin to release
    eggs as part of a monthly menstrual cycle

10
Menstrual Cycle
  • Occurs approximately once a month
  • During ovulation an ovary sends an egg into the
    fallopian tubes.
  • If the egg is not fertilized it dries up and
    leaves the body in about two weeks though the
    uterus, which is know as, menstruation
  • However, if the egg is fertilized then the egg
    can become a baby

11
Steps in Fertilization
  • Contact between sperm and egg
  • Entry of sperm into the egg
  • Fusion of egg and sperm nuclei
  • Activation of development
  • This is a picture of the egg and sperm-the sperm
    is color enhanced to be green

12
Once an egg is fertilized
  • The fertilized egg journeys through the fallopian
    tubes to the implantation in the uterus.

13
What things can go wrong with the female
reproductive system?
  • Vulvovaginitis
  • Inflammation of the vulva and vagina
  • Caused by irritating substances such as laundry
    soaps, bath bubbles, or poor hygiene
  • Symptoms itching, redness in the vaginal and
    vulvar areas, as well as, vaginal discharge

14
A type of Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Cancer cells located in the ovary
  • Approximately 25,000 women in America diagnosed
    with this type of cancer
  • Treatments Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or
    surgery

15
Male Reproductive System
16
Male Reproductive Organs
  • Male reproductive organs are called Genitals
  • Located on the inner and outer part of the pelvis

17
Male Genitals Include
  • Testicles a.k.a. Testes
  • Duct System
  • Epididymis
  • Vas (Ductus) deferens
  • Accessory Glands
  • Seminal Vesicle
  • Prostate Gland
  • Penis

18
Sperm
  • Sperm cells are the male sex cells
  • Production of sperm begins at puberty
  • Can be used to fertilize womens eggs

19
Testicles a.k.a. Testes
  • Function produce and store millions of tiny
    sperm cells
  • Male is normally born with two testes, but they
    also may have to be removed for one reason or
    another
  • Shape Oval
  • Size About 2 inches in length 1 inch in
    diameter
  • Testicles are also a part of the Endocrine
    System they produce hormones including
    testosterone

20
Testosterone
  • Major hormone for young men when they go through
    puberty
  • More and more is produced as the male ages
    through the puberty stage
  • Deep voices
  • Facial hair
  • Pubic hair
  • Stimulates production of sperm

21
Epididymis and Vas Deferens
  • Make up duct system
  • Vas Deferens muscular tube that passes up along
    the testicles and transports semen
  • Semen sperm-containing fluid
  • Epididymis set of coiled tubes (one for each
    testicle) that connects vas deferens

22
Where do the Epididymis and Testes hang out?
  • Pouch-like structure
  • Outside of the pelvis
  • Its called the Scrotum
  • Bag of Skin
  • Helps regulate temperature of testicles
  • Size of scrotum changes to keep right temperature
  • The scrotum is just like a human being
  • When we are cold, we tense up and body becomes
    tighter to hold in heat.
  • When we are hot, we flop around freely, trying to
    cool ourselves off to get rid of the extra heat.
  • Testicles need to be cooler than body
    temperature in order to continue sperm
    production

23
Accessory Glands
  • Include seminal vesicles and prostate gland
  • Seminal Vesicles sac-like structures attached to
    vas deferens to the side of the bladder
  • Prostate Gland
  • Produces some parts of semen
  • Surrounds ejaculatory ducts at the base of the
    urethra (just below bladder)
  • Urethra carries semen out of the body through the
    penis

24
The Penis
  • Made of spongy tissue that can expand and
    contract
  • 2 parts
  • Shaft- main part
  • Glans- tip
  • Small slit on glans is where the urine and semen
    exit the body

25
What does the Male Reproductive System do?
  • Produces semen
  • Releases semen during sexual intercourse
  • Can aid in producing a child
  • Produces sex hormones that makes a young male go
    through puberty
  • Hormones are released by pituitary gland which is
    located in the brain, and that stimulates the
    testicles to produce testosterone
  • Usually between the ages of 10-14

26
Conception
  • Male ejaculates during sexual intercourse
  • Semen enters into female vagina
  • Sperm makes its way through the cervix and move
    through the uterus
  • A single sperm may activate a mature egg if it
    passing through the fallopian tubes-
    Fertilization or Conception occurs
  • Fertilized egg is then called a zygote

27
What can go wrong with the Male Reproductive
System?
  • Testicular Trauma
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Epididymitis inflammation of the epididymis and
    is usually caused by an infection (usually a
    transmitted disease)
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Genital Warts
  • Syphilis
  • Clamydia

28
What is testicular trauma?
  • Mild injury to testicles can cause
  • Pain
  • Bruising
  • Swelling
  • Injuries occur when testicles are
  • Struck
  • Hit
  • Kicked
  • Crushed
  • Testicular torsion could occur because of this,
    and that involves a testicle being twisted around
    cutting off the blood supply (not common, but
    surgery is needed to untangle the cord and save
    testicle)

29
Testicular Cancer
  • One of the most common cancers
  • Usually occurs in men younger than 40
  • Cells in testicle divide abnormally
  • A tumor is then formed
  • Can spread to other parts of the body
  • If it is caught early, it can be treated
  • Males are encouraged to do self-examinations of
    the testicles

30
  • Hope you enjoyed the show!
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