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Grief Workshop

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In cases of fatal neglect, the child's death results not from anything the ... Murder remains unsolved. Anger Targets. Murderer. Criminal Justice System. Police Dept ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Grief Workshop


1
  • HOMICIDE ITS IMPACT AND EFFECTS

2
Participant Objectives
  • Participants will understand the scope of
    homicide in the US and in particular
    intrapersonal homicides as they relate to women
    and children
  • Participants will understand the importance of
    Death Notification and the general procedure
  • Participants will learn the impact homicide has
    on co-victims

3
Crime Clock
4
Homicide Overview
  • Act of Violence
  • Homicide refers to the act of killing another
    human being. It can also be describe as a person
    who has committed such an act though the use is
    rare in Modern English. Homicide is not always an
    illegal act

5
Homicide Overview
  • Each situation is unique
  • Homicide Types
  • Most common homicides

6
Homicide Overview
  • We are all suspects
  • At any given point or time any person could be a
    suspect for the crime of murder

7
FBI Homicide Statistical Info 2007
  • 2003 national violent crime total- 1,383,676. Of
    that number 16,528 were murders
  • 2004 national violent crime total- 1,360,088. Of
    that number 16,148 were murders
  • 2005 national violent crime total-1,390,745. Of
    that number 16,740 were murders
  • 2006 national violent crime total- 1,418,043. Of
    that number 17,030 were murders

8
FBI Homicide Statistical Info
  • Nationwide, an estimated 1,408,337 violent crimes
    occurred in 2007. 16,929 of those crimes were
    murders (FBI 2007)
  • In 2007, offenders used firearms in 68 of the
    Nations murders (FBI 2007)

9
TN Homicide Statute
  • Criminal homicide (T.C.A.39-13-201) in the State
    of Tennessee according to Tennessee Code
    Annotated citations are as follows
  • First degree murder T.C.A. 39-13-202
  • Second degree murder T.C.A. 39-13-210
  • Voluntary manslaughter T.C.A. 39-13-211
  • Criminally negligent homicide T.C.A. 39-13-212
  • Vehicular homicide T.C.A. 39-13-213
  • Other Homicide categories
  • Reckless
  • Justifiable

10
TBI Homicide Stats 2007
  • 409 homicides (murder and negligent
    manslaughter) occurred in 2007, (TBI Crime in
    Tennessee 2007).
  • Of these homicides 75 of the perpetrators were
    male and the remaining 25 were female
  • The race of the perpetrators included 36.1
    African American, 62.9 white, 0.5 Unknown, 0.3
    Asian and 0.1Native American
  • 78 of the victims were male, 20 were female and
    2 were considered unknown

11
TBI Homicide Stats 2007
  • The race of the victims included 43 White,
  • 55 African American, 1 unknown, 1 Asian and
    0 Native American
  • 44.5 of all Homicides occurred between the hours
    of 900pm and 300am
  • 51.9 of all homicides occurred at a residence
  • Of the 409 homicides reported in 2007, 82 were DV
    related (TBI 2007)

12
Interpersonal Violence (IPV)
  • Domestic crimes include all offenses committed
    against family members, spouses and ex-spouses,
    roommates, and romantic partners and ex-romantic
    partners
  • Usually synonymous with dating violence and
    spousal abuse
  • Includes violence between siblings, parents and
    children, step-parents and step-children,
    foster-parents and foster-children, and other
    family members

13
Interpersonal Violence (IPV)
  • Domestic violence often involves a pattern of
    coercive behavior that includes physical, sexual,
    verbal, emotional and psychological abuse
  • Most DV victims are women and children
  • In 2007 DV murders were 20 of all murders
    reported in TN
  • In Memphis in 2008 there were 128 homicides
    reported and 33 of those were recorded as DV
    homicides

14
Interpersonal Violence (IPV) Lethality Indicators
  • "OWNERSHIP" OF THE BATTERED PARTNER
  • "Death before divorce!" or "You belong to me and
    will never belong to another!" "If I can't have
    you nobody will!"
  • Entitled to a woman's services, obedience and
    loyalty CENTRALITY OF THE PARTNER
  • Idolize partner
  • Depends heavily on her to organize and sustain
    his life
  • Isolated himself from all other community

15
IPV Lethality Indicators
  • TIMING When a batterer believes that he is about
    to lose His (ex) partner or when he concludes
    that she is permanently leaving him if he cannot
    envision life without her, this may be when he
    chooses to kill….). Women are most likely to be
    murdered when attempting to report abuse or to
    leave an abusive relationship (Sonkin et al,
    1985 Brown, 1987)

16
IPV Lethality Indicators
  • REPEATED INTERVENTION BY LAW ENFORCEMENT Partner/
    spousal homicide almost always occurs in a
    context of historical violence. Prior
    intervention by the police indicate elevated risk
    of life-threatening conduct

17
IPV Lethality Indicators
  • HISTORY OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR A batterer who
    has demonstrated aggressive behavior in public
    such as bar fights, gang related violence… or
    illegal occupation is likely to be more
    dangerous
  • HOSTAGE-TAKING A hostage-taker is at high
    risk of inflicting homicide. Between 75 and 90
    of all hostage takings in the US are DV
    situations

18
IPV Lethality Indicators
  • DRUGS AND ALCOHOL Men with a history of problems
    with drugs and/or alcohol show a higher risk. In
    addition, regardless of their drug and/or alcohol
    history, intoxication at the time of the assault
    shows significant risk to partners
  • VIOLENCE IN FAMILY OF ORIGIN
  • The more severe the violence either experienced
    personally, or observed, in the family of origin,
    the more the risk

19
Killing of Children
  • Fatal child abuse may involve repeated abuse over
    a period of time
  • It may involve a single, impulsive incident
    (e.g., drowning, suffocating, or shaking a baby)
  • In cases of fatal neglect, the child's death
    results not from anything the caregiver does, but
    from a caregiver's failure to act
  • The neglect may be chronic (e.g., extended
    malnourishment) or acute (an infant who drowns
    after being left unsupervised in the bathtub).
    (The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System
    2006)

20
Death Notification
  • Family is notified by authorities when someone
    dies violently and suddenly, i.e. car accident,
    DUI, homicide, suicide
  • No uniform/set policy
  • Agencies have individual procedures
  • The task no one wants

21
Death Notification
  • Usually made by local Law Enforcement
  • Chaplains with Law Enforcement Department
  • Trained Advocate
  • Medical Examiner
  • Usually no formal training
  • At least two persons should make the notification

22
Death Notification
  • Information is delivered

23
Death Notification Procedures
  • Make sure the deceased has been correctly
    identified
  • Meet Face to Face with family
  • Show proper Identification
  • Prepare Family

24
Death Notification Procedures
  • No fancy Jargon
  • Tell only what has been reported
  • Be compassionate
  • Take time

25
Death Notification
  • Parents/Guardians
  • Spouse or Next of kin
  • Available relative

26
Trauma Intervention Program
  • Volunteers who assist victims in trauma
  • TIP Program helps to prevent what mental health
    professionals call the Second Injury. 
  • The Second Injury is a victims perspective that
    the emergency system did not provide the support
    needed after a tragic event.

27
Trauma Intervention Program
  • Volunteers learn
  • What to say/What not to say
  • Provide emotional support to family after death
    notification has been made
  • Serve as liaison between family and emergency
    personnel
  • Help with follow up services

28
Crime Clock
29
Co-victims of Homicide
  • Anyone who
  • has lost a
  • loved one to homicide!!!!!

30
Overview of Grief
  • Grief is a process that is experienced after a
    traumatic event
  • Grief affects behavior, thoughts and emotions

31
Normal Grief Reactions
  • Rage
  • Shock
  • Fear and Anxiety
  • Guilt
  • Anger
  • Confusion
  • Numbness
  • Tightness in the throat or chest
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sensitivity to loud noises

32
Normal Grief Reactions
  • Bitterness
  • Loneliness
  • Helplessness
  • Acknowledgement
  • Resignation
  • Despair
  • Vengeance

33
Traumatic Grief Reactions
  • Sudden, unexpected or violent
  • Caused by the actions of another person,
    accident, suicide, homicide, other catastrophe
  • Natural causes, but no history of illness

34
Traumatic Grief Reactions
  • Intensity of reactions is heightened due to
  • violence, suddenness and deliberateness of crime
  • Unpredictability of murder

35
Intensity of emotions
  • Loss of Loved One Grief
  • Death was result of purposeful act by someone
    else Rage (Anger diminishes but often never
    disappears)
  • Horrible thoughts of revenge Guilt
  • Questioning own safety- will perpetrator
    retaliate? Fear
  • Unbelievable Event Numbness, apathy

36
Intensity of Emotions
  • Was there suffering? Terror
  • Child disobeyed or took risks Anger
  • Stigma and social isolation Grief (unresolved
    until negative view of social ties is modified)
  • Friends expect healing to occur much faster
    Frustration

37
Shattered Life Assumptions
  • Good people have good things happen to them
  • Laws are to protect law abiding citizens
  • Safe communities and neighborhoods promote caring
    people
  • Perceived control of life

38
Factors That Compound Grief
  • No positive confirmation of the death or no
    physical body is recovered
  • Complicated legal and financial affairs
  • Role of the loved one in the family is lost
  • Friends, family and society expect co-victim to
    get over it
  • Murder remains unsolved

39
Anger Targets
  • Murderer
  • Criminal Justice System
  • Police Dept
  • Family/Friends
  • Hospitals
  • Society
  • Media
  • Victim

40
Disenfranchised Grief
  • Grief that is denied or restricted by social
    pressure or other interference
  • Victim was not considered innocent
  • Victim was perpetrator of crime

41
Treatment Options
  • Crisis Intervention
  • Individual/Family Counseling
  • Support Groups
  • Remembrance Retreat

42
Fatality Review Board
  • Collect, analyze and interpret data regarding
    homicide cases
  • To gain useful knowledge to assist in the
    prevention of homicides
  • Have access to all reports (medical, legal,
    autopsy, mental health)
  • Solution Focused

43
Fatality Review Board
  • Only review cases that are not pending in legal
    system
  • No blame game, no pointing fingers at agencies
    that may have 'dropped the ball'
  • Highlight areas that may need 'tweaking,' to head
    off potential problems

44
Fatality Review Board
  • Law Enforcement
  • Victim Oriented Agencies
  • Mental Health Agencies
  • Hospital / Medical Facilities
  • All groups that serve identified clients
  • Agencies who may have dealt with the victim
    and/or offender

45
References
  • Friedman, R James, J.W., (2000). Is It Ever To
    Soon To Recover?. Grief Recovery Institute
    Articles
  • Gerberth, V. J. (1998) Practical Homicide
    Investigation LAW and ORDER Magazine, Vol. 46 No.
    112, November
  • pp 51-54
  • Murgittroyd, Shari (2007). Survivors of Homicide
    Victims
  • A Complex Grieving Process. The Michigan
    Advocate. Article
  • Page, Douglas (2008) Death Notification Breaking
    the bad news. Law Enforcement Technology
  • Rynearson, E. K. (2001). Retelling Violent Death.
    Taylor Francis Group.
  • Smith, M. D. Zahn, M. A (1999) Homicide A
    Sourcebook of Social Research. Sage Publications,
    Inc.
  • Webb, N. B. (2004). Mass Trauma and Violence
    Helping Families and Children Cope. Guilford
    Press
  • California Youth Authority Office of Prevention
    Victims Services (2005). Death Notification
    Procedures for Correctional Personnel. Article .
    Technical Assistance Bulletin

46
Hand outs
  • Nelson-Whitney, Frances Death Educator and sudden
    death trauma
  • Trauma Intervention Program TIP A Caring
    Presence 2007
  • Anti- Violence Partnership (AVP) Families of
    Murder Victims (FMV) Self Care and Stress/ Grief
    and Murder
  • What People should know about Homicide

47
Referral Sources
  • National Center for victims of Crime
    1-800-394-2255
  • Family Violence Prevention Fund/Health Resource
    Center 1800-313-1310
  • Mothers Against Drunk Driving 1-800-438-MADD
    (6233)
  • National Resource Center on Domestic
    Violence 1-800-537-2238
  • National Organization for Victim Assistance
    1-800-879-6682
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