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PROJECT ARUSHA: Pressurized Rover

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New Space Exploration Vision ' ... Extended periods on the moon will teach astronauts how to work safely in low ... A trailer or cargo rover will be required ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PROJECT ARUSHA: Pressurized Rover


1
PROJECT ARUSHA Pressurized Rover
PROJECT ARUSHA Pressurized Rover
NSBE Space SIG Dr. Edward Tunstel, Chief
Technologist
NSBE Space SIG Dr. Edward Tunstel, Chief
Technologist
NSBE Alumni Extension Strategic Planning and
Research Conference Austin, TX January 27-29
NSBE Alumni Extension Strategic Planning and
Research Conference Austin, TX January 27-29
2
OUTLINE
  • NASA Vision for Space Exploration
  • NSBE-AE Connection
  • NSBE Spaces Project Arusha
  • Pressurized lunar rover concept and subsystems
  • Conclusion and future work

3
New Space Exploration Vision
This cause of exploration and discovery is not
an option we choose it is a desire written in
the human heart. President Bush January 14,
2004
  • On January 14, the President announced a new
    vision for NASA
  • Implement a sustained and affordable human and
    robotic program to explore the solar system and
    beyond
  • Extend human presence across the solar system,
    starting with a human return to the Moon by the
    year 2020, in preparation for human exploration
    of Mars and other destinations
  • Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge,
    and infrastructures both to explore and to
    support decisions about the destinations for
    human exploration and
  • Promote international and commercial
    participation in exploration to further U.S.
    scientific, security, and economic interests.

4
Exploring the Moon
Operational Demonstrations Prepare for Mars
Advances in robotics and computers since the
Apollo era opened doors to effective combinations
of robotic and human partnerships
Explorers will determine if the moon can provide
resources for sustained space exploration
Extended periods on the moon will teach
astronauts how to work safely in low gravity,
extreme temperatures, radiation, absence of
breathable air, etc. as a stepping stone to
future planetary and space exploration.
5
NSBE-AE the Vision Connected via NSBE Space
  • A NSBE Space objective is to actively participate
    in research surrounding the enabling technologies
    identified as necessary for successful
    implementation of the Vision.
  • A NSBE Space core value is that there must be an
    increased engagement of the Black community in
    space-related education and technology
    development activities.
  • Part of the NSBE Space purpose is to enable
    NSBE-AE to serve as a bridge between NASA and the
    Black community in an inspirational and
    educational capacity.
  • PROJECT ARUSHA
  • one of several project activities aligned with
    NSBE Space objectives, values, and purpose
  • a proactive initiative to recommend a Concept of
    Operations for a human lunar settlement
    post-Vision for Space Exploration and
    government-corporate-tourism ventures

6
PROJECT ARUSHA Arusha is Kiswahili for He
makes fly (into the skies)
  • Conceptual design for a 48-person lunar facility,
    intended as an international government/commercial
    venture to be deployed in the timeframe after
    the NASA Exploration initiatives
  • We envision a lunar facility (Moonbase Arusha)
    established to serve as an incubator for lunar
    corporations, growing Moon-based industries that
    spin off as independent settlements
  • The first Moonbase Arusha element currently under
    development is a Pressurized Rover. Technical
    work addressing the rover design will be captured
    in multiple papers by NSBE Space engineers.
  • Arusha sub-topic areas
  • Population (demographics, habitats, etc)
  • Transportation (orbit to surface on surface)
  • Surface Elements
  • Energy Systems
  • Government/Administration
  • Industries
  • Tourism business

7
Pressurized Rover
  • Pressurized Rovers will be necessary for any
    large scale lunar presence
  • local transportation between the lunar base and
    lunar landers
  • surface expeditions away from the base for
    science or commercial industry activities

PRs Docked w/Base Elements
  • Moonbase Arusha Assumptions
  • 6 Pressurized Rovers
  • Docking ports where pressurized rovers could dock
    with other base elements and landers, allowing
    pressurized transfer of crew
  • Pressurized Rover expeditions would be supported
    by line-of-sight satellite communications

Surface Expeditions
8
Pressurized Rover subsystems and infrastructure
NSBE Space has subsystems of Project Arusha
researching each subsystem
  • Launch/ Transfer Vehicle, Lander
  • Mission Operations
  • Communications
  • Power, Drivetrain, Mechanisms
  • Structures Radiation Protection
  • Computer Architecture
  • Lunar Navigation Systems
  • ECLSS Thermal
  • Habitability Crew Accomm.
  • EVA and EVA Robotic Assts.
  • Mission-Specific Payloads

9
Launch Vehicle, Transfer Vehicle Lander
TrVeh Lander
  • With mass of approximately 20,000 kg, Arusha
    rovers will require a cargo lander with a payload
    capacity roughly on the order of 24.5 tons.
  • Efficient unloading is an additional concern
  • Arusha Rovers would be deployable without major
    changes in the national launch infrastructure
    beyond those anticipated for NASAs exploration
    missions.

Cargo Lander
Unloading
Base Assembly
10
Mission Operations
  • Moonbase Arusha will operate using 3 control
    centers
  • Dunia (Earth), the Earth control center, will act
    as a backup to all operations.
  • Mwezi (Moon), the Moonbase control center, will
    be the main center of all operations receives
    Jahazi and Dunia data, and handles communications
    between Arusha and Earth (or other vehicles or
    bases).
  • Jahazi (Ship), the rover control center, will be
    an internal system to each rover communicates
    with Mwezi for high level command and control

Dunia
Jahazi
Mwezi
11
Communications
  • Continuous Earth-Moon communication enabled by a
    NASA comm. system under development for
    exploration.
  • Extends from near-Earth orbit to lunar orbit and
    beyond, with an architecture including
    low-rate/high-rate, data user, relay and
    proximity links.
  • To facilitate this, a new technology called
    Software Defined Radio (SDR) is under
    consideration for implementation.
  • capable of meeting the requirements and
    specifications for various communication
    standards without changing radio hardware
  • will provide Arusha increased flexibility within
    the communication system without utilizing
    different radio hardware a cost-effective
    approach for meeting future requirements.

Long range satellites in orbit about Earth-Moon
L1 L2 points relays using high BW system
(Ka-band/mm-wave/laser). Short range supports
UHF, WiFi, Bluetooth, cellular Tx/Rx, voice,
video, and data on base and for crew and robots
on EVA
12
Power, Drivetrain, Mechanisms
  • Pressurized Rover power source will be a proton
    exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system on the
    rover.
  • PEM fuel cell stacks will provide rover drive
    system electrical power.
  • The drive train will be a four wheel independent
    suspension with a split front and rear
    differential, double Ackerman steering, and a
    modified Tri-Wheel design to facilitate
    traversing rough terrain
  • The rover will include mechanisms for docking to
    other base elements, self-lifting for wheel
    replacement, other functions deemed necessary.

13
Structures
  • Arusha rovers use Pressure Vessels as primary
    structures, mounted above the drive train and
    made of aluminum (historical material of choice
    for manned space vehicles)
  • The specific vessel will be a rounded rectangular
    box with domed ceiling and end-cones,
    approximately 12 meters in length and 4 meters in
    width and height, providing a pressurized volume
    of roughly 170 cubic meters.
  • The principal secondary structure is a Docking
    Tunnel that allows the rover to dock with other
    vehicles and surface elements an inflatable
    structure that mounts to an airlock in the rear
    of the vehicle and uses an androgynous berthing
    mechanism to attach to its docking target.

Docking Tunnel
Rover
14
Radiation Protection
  • Arusha rovers must be designed to protect the
    crew and electronic systems against solar
    radiation
  • The design level of protection from strong solar
    radiation storms/flares is based on frequency of
    occurrence as predicted by NOAA, and accounting
    for constraints on rover mass and risk to crew.
  • Radiation storms can last hours to days and, in
    addition to threatening crews, could damage rover
    surface, structure, and electronics.

15
Onboard Computer Architecture
  • The pressurized rovers will use a dual-string
    computer configuration for redundancy and
    reliability.
  • RAD PowerPC 750, radiation-hardened, 166 MHz
    processors running a real-time, multi-tasking
    operating system
  • built-in immunity to single event upsets (SEUs)
  • error detection and correction (EDAC).
  • Each computer will handle command data handling
    for rover teleoperation, autonomous navigation,
    docking, life support system monitoring, rover
    health monitoring, etc.
  • Additional special purpose computers may be added
    to form a network of special purpose distributed
    processors including networked laptops and wall
    mounted, reconfigurable screen displays.
  • All onboard computers and networks will operate
    within the framework of the Jahazi control center.

16
Lunar Navigation System
  • Arusha Pressurized Rovers would autonomously
    navigate without use of navigation beacons or
    other external systems.
  • The GNC sensor suite would include
  • The lunar surface navigation approach would
    accommodate autonomous operation, teleoperation,
    and mixed modes between these extremes.
  • The autonomous control system could be overridden
    by a crew member onboard as a transition to
    manual driving mode, or a crew member off-board
    as a transition to teleoperation mode.
  • stereo camera sets
  • star tracker
  • LIDAR and mm-wave radar
  • inertial measurement unit
  • drivetrain and suspension state sensors such as
    wheel encoders and potentiometers.

17
ECLSS and Thermal
  • The rovers will use an internal cabin atmosphere
    of 68 kPa with 28 oxygen, 72 nitrogen content
    with an open loop, stored oxygen and nitrogen
    system for atmospheric management.
  • Lithium hydroxide canisters will remove CO2 from
    the atmosphere. An environmental monitoring
    system will monitor cabin atmosphere for harmful
    or toxic elements such as lunar dust, smoke, or
    other contaminants.
  • An ITCS will maintain internally-mounted
    equipment within operational limits and cabin air
    temperature and humidity within comfort levels
    using fans, cold plates, and a non-toxic working
    fluid such as water.
  • An ETCS will absorb heat from the ITCS, maintain
    externally-mounted equipment within operational
    limits, and reject waste heat to the lunar
    environment using radiators, sublimators, heat
    pipes, and a freeze-resistant working fluid such
    as ammonia.

18
Habitability Crew Accommodations
  • The pressure vessel is subdivided into 3
    segments a forward section, a waste and hygiene
    section, and an airlock and suit stowage section.
  • The forward section provides seating for up to 6
    crew, as well as rover controls, 4 support work
    stations (supporting personal office tasks, IVA
    support of EVA, as well as robotic system
    teleoperation), stowage, meal prep/clean-up, and
    eating.
  • Occupancy is driven by mission type (Cargo
    Resupply, Field Site Assembly, Field Site
    Servicing, Materials Transport, Tourism Field
    Expedition, Crew Rotation), with as few as 2, or
    as many as 12 crew.

19
EVA and EVA Robotic Assistants
  • A traditional two-person airlock will be used for
    EVA and to store two space suits between surface
    sorties
  • Maintenance for surface spacesuits and any robot
    assistants (person sized or smaller) will be
    conducted inside the rover in the suit
    maintenance area
  • Lunar dust is a significant hazard its effects
    will be mitigated by controlling its access to
    the vehicle interior via forced airflow and other
    techniques.

20
Mission-Specific Payloads
  • Arusha Pressurized Rovers may carry customized
    payloads for each primary mission type (Cargo
    Resupply, Field Site Assembly, Field Site
    Servicing, Materials Transport, Tourism Field
    Expedition, Crew Rotation)
  • A trailer or cargo rover will be required to
    accommodate these payloads given the limited room
    inside the pressure vessel.

21
Conclusions / Future Work
  • The Arusha Project is in preliminary stages with
    all activity to date focused on the Pressurized
    Rover element
  • The design concepts will be refined over the next
    several months to define the primary ground
    transportation element for the Arusha Moonbase.
  • A pressurized rover will provide operational
    infrastructure necessary to establish an
    effective, larger-scale human presence on the
    Moon in the post-Exploration timeframe.
  • NSBE Space is refining its overall vision for
    Moonbase Arusha through research and application
    of member expertise
  • Additional work will cover the remaining subtopic
    areas of the project (Population,
    Transportation, Surface Elements, Energy,
    Government, Industry, Tourism)
  • Technical position papers/reports detailing
    Project Arusha elements will collectively serve
    as a thorough account and recommendation of the
    NSBE Space vision for future human space flight
    and operations.

Image credits NASA web sites. Most images not
representative of Arusha concepts and are used
for illustration only.
22
Join NSBE Space!
  • Project Arusha is only one of the existing NSBE
    Space projects
  • we need additional members to pursue all projects
    and contribute to the NSBE Space purpose and
    objectives.
  • Presently there are 4 chapters at NASA Field
    Centers
  • Johnson Space Center
  • Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Stennis Space Center
  • Kennedy Space Center
  • Expertise from nearly all engineering disciplines
    are needed to complete NSBE Space projects.
  • Join us!
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