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Title: Presentaci


1
GENERAL OVERVIEW OF HIGH-SPEED IN EUROPE
Prof. Dr. Eng. Andrés López Pita
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CATALONIA
(SPAIN) BARCELONA, 30 NOVEMBER 2007
2
TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF ROAD AND AIR TRANSPORT
REFERENCE REFERENCE TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION JOURNEY TIME D ? 500 km JOURNEY TIME D ? 500 km
(1) NATIONAL ROADS (1 X 1) (2) MOTORWAYS (1935) (2X2 or 3X3) (1) (2)
(1) NATIONAL ROADS (1 X 1) (2) MOTORWAYS (1935) (2X2 or 3X3) 7h 5h
(3) TURBOPROP COMMUTERS (4) JETS INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS) (1950/1960) (3) (4)
(3) TURBOPROP COMMUTERS (4) JETS INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS) (1950/1960) 1h 25 1h
Source A. López Pita (2006)
3
CITY A
RAIL
X
X 150
ROAD
X
AIR
X 100
X
CITY B
Source A. López Pita (1994)
4
HIGH-SPEED AND VERY HIGH-SPEED
(BOULEY, 1981)
HIGH-SPEED
200 lt V ?lt 300 km/h
VERY HIGH-SPEED
V gt 300 km/h
Source A. López Pita
5
TRACK CHARACTERISTICS FOR HIGH-SPEED LINE
PARAMETER
Radius of curve (m)
Distance of axes of two tracks (m)
Transversal section of the tunnels
Quality of the track
Fuente A. Lopez Pita (2000)
Source A. López Pita
6
SIGNALING AND BRAKING DISTANCE
CONVENTIONAL LINE HIGH-SPEED LINE
PARAMETER V 200 km/h V 300 km/h
BRAKING DISTANCE (? 0,5 m/seg2) 3000 m 6000 m
SIGNALING
Source A. López Pita
7
HIGH-SPEED LINE PARIS - LYON
260/270 km/h
NUM. OF PASSENGERS (106)
13,7
9,2
1,2
1981 1983 1984 YEAR
8
TEST JOURNEYS CARRIED OUT BY SNCF HIGH-SPEEDS
(1960 to 1978)
TOTAL NUMBER OF HIGH-SPEEDS TEST
175
80
50
220 to 230 240 to 250 300 to
320
Speed (km/h)
1960 to 1978
Source SNCF/A. LÓPEZ PITA (2004)
9
FIRTS CONVENTIONAL RAIL LINES
HIGH-SPEED LINES
159 KM
23 YEARS
1800 KM
20 YEARS
STOCKTON-DARLINGTON
2003 ( 20) 1º FASE
1998 ( 10)
1825
LONDRES
BRUSELAS
NUREMBURG - FÜRTH
BRUSELAS- MALINAS
HANNOVER
1835 ( 10)
CANAL
1835 ( 10)
WÜRZBURG
PARIS
1991 ( 8)
1983
NAPOLI PORTICI
LYON
FLORENCIA
1839 ( 14)
MADRID
ST. ETIENNE LYON
ROMA
1992 (9)
BARCELONA- MATARO
1992 ( 9)
SEVILLA
1832 ( 7)
1848 ( 23)
Source. A. López Pita (2004)
10
THE HIGH-SPEED NETWORK IN 2007
OPERATION 5,100 km
11
ESTIMATION OF RESOURCES AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
LINKED TO HIGH SPEED RAIL DEVELOPMENT
Costs related to the project 8.500 M
Global infrastructures investment 170.000 M
Infrastructure Infrastructure 105.000 M
Superstructure (65.000 M) Track 30.000 M
Superstructure (65.000 M) Electrification 15.000 M
Superstructure (65.000 M) Safety segnalling equipment 20.000 M
Cost related to the rolling stock lt 26.000 36000 M
12
JOURNEY TIME, FRECUENCY AND FARE LEVEL ON SOME
HIGH-SPEED LINES
PARAMETER SERVICE CONVENTIO-NAL LINE HIGH-SPEED LINE
JOURNEY TIME PARIS LYON KÖLN FRANKFURT MADRID - SEVILLA 3h 45 2h 6h 2h 1h 2h 30
FRECUENCY ONE WAY PARIS LYON MADRID - SEVILLA 10 6 20 12
FARE LEVEL RAIL/AIR PARIS LYON KÖLN FRANKFURT MADRID - SEVILLA ------- 30 to 50 Lower
Firts year of operation
Source A. LÓPEZ PITA (2004)
13
1
PASSENGER RAIL TRAFFIC IN MAIN CORRIDORS 6/22
MILLIONS PASSENGERS/YEAR
2
MARKET SHARE OF THE RAIL 40 / 90
Source A. López Pita (2003)
14
A
NATIONAL SERVICES
FRANKFURT
53
PARÍS
P
F
3h 30
60
MUNICH
3h
M
MARSELLA
M
B
INTERNATIONSL SERVICES
AMSTERDAM
MADRID
LONDRES
45
45
M
2h 30
85
61
BRUSELAS
1h 20
SEVILLA
2h 35
S
100
MARKET SHARE RAIL-AIR
PARÍS
Source A. LÓPEZ PITA (2003)
15
REGIONAL TRAIN CONVENTIONAL
16
SNCF
REGIONAL SERVICE (1997-2002)
1 Mpassengers
RENFE
2,4 Mpassengers
17
CONVENTIONAL RAILWAY LINES ARE OPERATED WITH
PASSENGER TRAINS
FREIGHT TRAINS
18
DISTRIBUTION OF REGULARLY SCHEDULED TRAINS
PARIS-BORDEAUX (1990)
CENIT
Centro de Innovación del Transporte
AVERAGE DENSITY BY TRAIN CATEGORY
PASSENGERS PASSENGERS FREIGHT 100/120 km/h
200 km/h 140 lt Vlt 160 Km/h FREIGHT 100/120 km/h
23 112 106
18 60 63
18 60 52
PARIS
Source A. LÓPEZ PITA (2005)
19
MIXED TRAFFIC?
20
TRAINS WITH DIFERENT SPEED OF CIRCULATION

TRAINS WITH THE SAME SPEED

RAPID TRAINS
FREIGHT TRAINS
STATION B
STATION B
STATION A
STATION A
HOURS
HOURS
TRAINS WITH DIFERENT SPEED

STATION B
STATION B
STATION A
STATION A
HOURS
HOURS
1 FREIGHT TRAIN 3 TGV TRAINS
1 FREIGHT TRAIN 3 TGV TRAINS
21
FRANCE
NUMBER OF TGV PER DAY
200
260
180
BORDEAUX
140
TOULOUSE
CONCLUSION NEW LINES WERE DESIGNED FOR
HIGH-SPEED PASSENGER TRAFFIC
22
PARIS LYON CORRIDOR
CONVENTIONAL LINE
NEW LINE
MAXIMUM LONGITUDINAL GRADIENT 35
23
HAMBURG
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
2
HANNOVER 0,70
HIGH-SPEED LINE UPGRADEDLINES
10 Mhab
KÖLN
GERMANY
2,15
WÜRZBURG 0,13
FRANKFURT
MANNHEIM
KARLSRUHE
STUTTGART
1,85
Km/h
1,4
160
80
BASEL
MUNCHEN
24
YEAR NEW LINE PASSENGER TRAINS PASSENGER TRAINS PASSENGER TRAINS FREIGHT TRAINS 100/160 km/h TOTAL TRAFIC
YEAR NEW LINE 250 km/h 200 km/h TOTAL FREIGHT TRAINS 100/160 km/h TOTAL TRAFIC
2001 HANNOVER-WÜRBURG (KASSEL - FULDA) MANNHEIM-STUTGART 49 27 -- 29 49 56 37 16 86 72
NUMBER OF TRAINS PER DAY
25
HAMBURGO
BREMEN
INTERCITY CARGO EXPRESS
HANNOVER
140 km/h 160 km/h NBS 327 km
HAMBURGO MUNICH 800 km (7h 40)
WÜRZBURG
SUTTGART
MUNICH
26
INTERCITY CARGO EXPRESS (160 km/h) ON NEW
LINE HANNOVER - WÜRZBURG
27
(No Transcript)
28
HAMBURG
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
2
HANNOVER 0,70
HIGH-SPEED LINE UPGRADEDLINES
10 Mhab
KÖLN
GERMANY
2,15
WÜRZBURG 0,13
FRANKFURT
MANNHEIM
KARLSRUHE
STUTTGART
1,85
Km/h
1,4
160
80
BASEL
MUNCHEN
29
CENIT
KOLN FRANKFURT CORRIDOR NUMBER OF TOTAL
PASSENGER
PASSENGER PER YEAR (MILLION)
26,6
22
2005 2010 Year of Forecast
CONCLUSION LINE DEDICATED EXCLUSIVELY TO VERY
HIGH-SPEED
PASSENGER TRAFFIC
30
NEW LINES FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES IN GERMANY
31
FRANCE
GERMANY
KOLN FRANKFURT (40 )
PARÍS LYON (35 )
32
NEW LINES IN FRANCE FOR HIGH-SPEED PASSENGER
TRAFFIC
TOURS - BORDEAUX
PARÍS - STRASBOURG
Vmax 320 km/h
PARÍS BORDEAUX 2h 10 (Vc 260 km/h)
33
NEW LINES IN FRANCE FOR MIXED TRAFFIC
MULHOUSE
DIJON
MAÇON
LYON
  • 50 TGV/DAY
  • 75 FREIGHT TRAINS/DAY

34
NEW LINE PASSENGER TRAINS PASSENGER TRAINS PASSENGER TRAINS FREIGHT TRAINS 100/160 km/h TOTAL TRAFFIC
NEW LINE 250 km/h 200 km/h TOTAL FREIGHT TRAINS 100/160 km/h TOTAL TRAFFIC
TGV RHIN-RHONE PERPIGNAN-BARCELONA TORINO-MILANO-NAPLES 56 99 130 -- -- -- 56 99 130 75 35 37 131 134 167
NUMBER OF TRAINS PER DAY
35
PRESENT AND FUTURE OF HIGH-SPEED IN SPAIN
36
HIGH-SPEED RAIL DEVELOPMENT IN SPAIN
1992 Madrid-Sevilla 2003 Madrid-Lérida
  • 900 km OPERATION
  • 500 km UNDER CONSTRUCTION

OPERATION WORKS
37
THE OPERATING SYSTEM
Madrid
Ciudad Real
MADRID SEVILLA 20 trains per day
Puertollano
MADRID PUERTOLLANO 13 trains per day
Sevilla
Córdoba
SEVILLA CÓRDOBA 8 trains per day
MADRID MÁLAGA 6 trains per day
Málaga
Cádiz
38
AVESERVICES
COMFORT
AVE
Talgo 200
Punctuality
PASSENGER FARES
2nd Class 1st Class
Source CENIT
39
PUNCTUALITY COMMITMENT
  • IF AN AVE TRAIN ARRIVES MORE
  • THAN FIVE MINUTES LATE, THE
  • COMPANY UNDERTAKES
  • TO REFUND THE FULL TICKET
  • FARE PAID

40
COMPETING WITH AIR TRAVEL
41
NUMBER OF PASSANGERS
3,3
Mpassengers year
AVE
1,5
LANZADERA
TALGO
1
Year 2004
1992
1993
Year 2003
FINANCIAL RESULTS (In Millions of Euros)
Year 1993
Source RENFE
42
NEW LINE MADRID BARCELONAROUTE MADRID LLEIDA
( 480 Km)
Journey WITH AVE Times WITHOUT AVE
TALGO 350
43
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES WITH TALGO TRAINS
Source A. López Pita (2005)
44
Source CENIT
45
IMPACT OF NEW HIGH-SPEED LINE FROM BARCELONA TO
PERPIGNAN
PASSENGERS
CORRIDOR BARCELONA - PERPIGNAN CORRIDOR BARCELONA - PERPIGNAN CORRIDOR BARCELONA - PERPIGNAN
CONV. LINE NEW LINE
DISTANCE (km) 212 166
MAX. GROSS WEIGHT (Tons) FRANCE SPAIN 380 270 450 450
TRAVEL TIME (hours) 11 3
FREIGHTS
46
AN EXPLOITATION SYSTEM APPROPRIATE TO THE
TRANSPORT REQUIREMENTS OF EACH LINE
PARIS
23 a 25 Mpass/year
DIJON
5 Mpass/year 7 Mt/year
TGV RHIN-RHÔNE
LYON
18 Mpass/year
MADRID
3 Mpass/year 3 Mt/year
BARCELONA
SEVILLA
6 Mpass/year
47
PASSENGER TRAFFIC STUDY 2010/2020
CENIT
(BILLION PASSENGER-KM)
3111
1967
60
1999
2020
YEAR
48
ROAD CONGESTION
49
CONGESTION LOCALISED IN TIME AND SPACE
2n A9 ORANGE-ESPAÑA 18.000 HOURS/KM
1ft A7 LYON-MARSELLA 47.000 HOURS/KM
50
AIR TRAFFIC IN EUROPE FLIGHTS PER YEAR
8 MILLION FLIGHTS
2.000
12 MILLION FLIGHTS
2.010
16 MILLION FLIGHTS
2.020
Source EUROPEAN COMMISSION
51
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AN HIGH-SPEED LINE
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
INTERMEDIATE STAGE
PARIS LYON LINE
LINE OPEN TO COMMERCIAL SERVICE
Source A. LÓPEZ PITA/SNCF/ La Vie du Rail
52
CENIT
HANNOVER WÜRZBURG LINE
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
IN COMMERCIAL SERVICE
KOLN FRANKFURT LINE
Source DBAG
53
LAND USE KOLN FRANKFURT NEW LINE AND MOTORWAY
A3
10 Hectares/km
6 Hectares/km
Source. DBAG
54
AIR POLLUTION CARBON DIOXIDE HAMBURG - MUNICH
Kg
AIRBUS 320 - 200
111,4
PRIVATE CAR
109,2
ICE 2
36,2
DIFFERENT TRANSPORT MODES
Source DB (1995)
55
ENERGY CONSUMPTION PER TRANSPORT MODE ON HAMBURG
MUNICH ROUTE
MODE OF TRANSPORT DISTANCE (Km) OCCUPATION LEVEL LITRES OF FUEL
RAILWAY (ICE) PLANE 813 600 46 60 21,15 47,50
Source DBAG
56
CENIT
THE RAILWAYS CONTRIBUTION TO LIBERALISING SLOTS
AT SOME EUROPEAN AIRPORTS
ENVIRONNMETAL COST PER PASSENGER/KM (1995 ECU)
BENELUX 20.000 slots
LONDON-AMSTERDAM
0,08 0,02
X
FRANKFURT 20.000 slots
(X 4)
MADRID-FRANFURT
PARIS 40.000 slots
X
DISTANCE 500 1500
( km)
ACQUISITION COSTS FOR HIGH-SPEED TRAINS AND JET
PLANES FOR MEDIUM DISTANCES
TYPE OF MATERIAL SEATS AVERAGE COST PER SEAT (thousands of euros)
HIGH-SPEED TRAINS JETS A 320, B757 300 to 600 150 to 200 36 to 45 277 to 296
Source. A. López Pita (2004)
57
EVOLUTION OF COMMERCIAL RAILWAYS SPEEDS IN FRANCE
MAXIMUM COMMERCIAL SPEED (km/h)
PARÍS-MARSEILLE
250
PARÍS-LYON
204
1983 2001 year
58
COOPERATION BETWEEN THE HS RAILWAY AND AIR
TRANSPORT
59
SERVICE FLECHE DARGENT PARIS
LONDRES CORRESPONDANCE TRAIN AVION AERODROME DU
TOUQUET (1972)
Source SNCF
60
CENIT Center for Innovation in Transport
PARIS CHARLES DE GAULLE AIRPORT
61
TGV TERMINAL AT CHARLES DE GAULLE AIRPORT
TGV LINE
62
Source M. Leboeuf
63
TO PRESENT THE HIGH-SPEED LINE AIRPORT
CONNECTIONS IN EUROPE
LYON AIRPORT (FRANCE)
64
FRANKFURT-AIRPORT (GERMANY)
COLOGNE
RAILWAY STATION
MANNHEIM
FRANKFURT
65
FRANKFURT-AIRPORT (GERMANY)
RAILWAY STATION
66
GENERAL VIEW OF THE RAILWAY VARIANT THROUGH
COLOGNE-BONN AIRPORT
COLOGNE-AIRPORT
RAILWAY STATION
B
C
A
LINE COLOGNE-FRANKFURT
A B C 15 km
67
LAYOUT OF THE HIGH-SPEED LINE BETWEEN THE BORDER
WITH BELGIUM AND HOLLAND
LAYOUT OF THE RAILWAY LINE AT SCHIPHOL AIRPORT
HIGH-SPEED LINE ANVERS-AMSTERDAM
RAILWAY LINE
68
RAILWAYS LINES AT BRUSSELS AIRPORT
RAILWAY LINE
NEW RAILWAY LINE
BRUSSELS - AIRPORT
NEW RAILWAY LINE
RAILWAY LINE
69
OVERALL APPRAISAL OF CURRENT SITUATION
TYPES OF HIGH-SPEED RAIL CONNECTION AT AIRPORTS
AIRPORT TYPE OF RAIL CONNECTION TYPE OF RAIL CONNECTION TYPE OF RAIL CONNECTION
AIRPORT MAIN LINE BRANCH LINE REFERENCE SPEED (km/h)
PARIS-CHARLES DE GAULLE FRANKFURT AMSTERDAM BRUSSELS Brussels-Amsterdam line Amsterdam-Cologne line DUSSELDORF COLOGNE LYON X X X X X X X X 230 160/200 160/200 s.d. s.d. 160/200 130/80/130/160 300
70
THE RELATIVE POSITION OF HIGH-SPEED LINES WITH
RESPECT SAME OF THE MAIN AIRPORTS IN EUROPE
GROUP A
GROUP B
ANTWERP
ZAVENTEM Airport ?
High-speed line planned
LONDON ST. PANCRAS
LYON
ST. EXHUPERY Airport ?
COLOGNE
LOUVAINE
HEATHROW Airport ?
COLOGNE/BONN Airport ?
BRUSSELS
High-speed line
?
High-speed line Cologne-Frankfurt
FOLKESTONE
GATWICK Airport
TGV North
ROISSY Airport ?
TO FLORENCE
FRANKFURT
AMSTERDAM
PARIS
TGV Interconnection
High- performance
High-speed line
SCHIPHOL Airport ?
ROME
Airport ?
TGV Southest
FUIMICINO AIRPORT
High-speed line (Under construction)
High-speed line planned
?
TGV Mediterranean
?
TO NAPLES
MARIGNANE Airport
MARSEILLE
Source A. López Pita
71
CENIT Center for Innovation in Transport
HIGH-SPEED LINE ROMA-FLORENCE
HIGH-SPEED LINE TO LONDON
HEATHROW AIRPORT
RAILWAY STATION
HIGH-SPEED LINE ROMA-NAPLES
GATWICK AIRPORT
FUIMICINO AIRPORT
Source A. López Pita
72
CONCLUSIONS
EACH AIRPORT HAS ITS OWN PARTICULAR
PROBLEMS AND REQUIRED SPECIFIC ANALYSIS TO
DECIDE WETHER A HIGH-SPEED LINE CONNECTION
IS DESIRABLE
73
1. ACCESIBILITY TO THE MAIN AIRPORTS
CENIT
DISTANCE 170 KM
Source. A. López Pita
74
2. THE TRAIN AND THE PLANE ARE COMPLEMENTARY
CENIT
MADRID
BARCELONA
Source. A. López Pita
75
CENIT
3. TRAIN AEROPLANE INTERMODALITY
SAN FRANCISCO
BRUSELAS
PARIS
Source. A. López Pita
76
THE HIGH-SPEED TRAIN BOTH COMPETES WITH AND
COMPLEMENTS AIR TRANSPORT
77
THE CHOICE OF HIGH-SPEED IS NOT A SYNONYM FOR THE
FORWARD MOVEMENT OF A PRIVILEGED PART OF THE
RAILWAYS, BUT A GENERAL REQUALIFICATION OF THE
WHOLE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM
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Title: Presentaci


1
GENERAL OVERVIEW OF HIGH-SPEED IN EUROPE
Prof. Dr. Eng. Andrés López Pita
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CATALONIA
(SPAIN) BARCELONA, 30 NOVEMBER 2007
2
TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF ROAD AND AIR TRANSPORT
REFERENCE REFERENCE TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION JOURNEY TIME D ? 500 km JOURNEY TIME D ? 500 km
(1) NATIONAL ROADS (1 X 1) (2) MOTORWAYS (1935) (2X2 or 3X3) (1) (2)
(1) NATIONAL ROADS (1 X 1) (2) MOTORWAYS (1935) (2X2 or 3X3) 7h 5h
(3) TURBOPROP COMMUTERS (4) JETS INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS) (1950/1960) (3) (4)
(3) TURBOPROP COMMUTERS (4) JETS INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS) (1950/1960) 1h 25 1h
Source A. López Pita (2006)
3
CITY A
RAIL
X
X 150
ROAD
X
AIR
X 100
X
CITY B
Source A. López Pita (1994)
4
HIGH-SPEED AND VERY HIGH-SPEED
(BOULEY, 1981)
HIGH-SPEED
200 lt V ?lt 300 km/h
VERY HIGH-SPEED
V gt 300 km/h
Source A. López Pita
5
TRACK CHARACTERISTICS FOR HIGH-SPEED LINE
PARAMETER
Radius of curve (m)
Distance of axes of two tracks (m)
Transversal section of the tunnels
Quality of the track
Fuente A. Lopez Pita (2000)
Source A. López Pita
6
SIGNALING AND BRAKING DISTANCE
CONVENTIONAL LINE HIGH-SPEED LINE
PARAMETER V 200 km/h V 300 km/h
BRAKING DISTANCE (? 0,5 m/seg2) 3000 m 6000 m
SIGNALING
Source A. López Pita
7
HIGH-SPEED LINE PARIS - LYON
260/270 km/h
NUM. OF PASSENGERS (106)
13,7
9,2
1,2
1981 1983 1984 YEAR
8
TEST JOURNEYS CARRIED OUT BY SNCF HIGH-SPEEDS
(1960 to 1978)
TOTAL NUMBER OF HIGH-SPEEDS TEST
175
80
50
220 to 230 240 to 250 300 to
320
Speed (km/h)
1960 to 1978
Source SNCF/A. LÓPEZ PITA (2004)
9
FIRTS CONVENTIONAL RAIL LINES
HIGH-SPEED LINES
159 KM
23 YEARS
1800 KM
20 YEARS
STOCKTON-DARLINGTON
2003 ( 20) 1º FASE
1998 ( 10)
1825
LONDRES
BRUSELAS
NUREMBURG - FÜRTH
BRUSELAS- MALINAS
HANNOVER
1835 ( 10)
CANAL
1835 ( 10)
WÜRZBURG
PARIS
1991 ( 8)
1983
NAPOLI PORTICI
LYON
FLORENCIA
1839 ( 14)
MADRID
ST. ETIENNE LYON
ROMA
1992 (9)
BARCELONA- MATARO
1992 ( 9)
SEVILLA
1832 ( 7)
1848 ( 23)
Source. A. López Pita (2004)
10
THE HIGH-SPEED NETWORK IN 2007
OPERATION 5,100 km
11
ESTIMATION OF RESOURCES AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
LINKED TO HIGH SPEED RAIL DEVELOPMENT
Costs related to the project 8.500 M
Global infrastructures investment 170.000 M
Infrastructure Infrastructure 105.000 M
Superstructure (65.000 M) Track 30.000 M
Superstructure (65.000 M) Electrification 15.000 M
Superstructure (65.000 M) Safety segnalling equipment 20.000 M
Cost related to the rolling stock lt 26.000 36000 M
12
JOURNEY TIME, FRECUENCY AND FARE LEVEL ON SOME
HIGH-SPEED LINES
PARAMETER SERVICE CONVENTIO-NAL LINE HIGH-SPEED LINE
JOURNEY TIME PARIS LYON KÖLN FRANKFURT MADRID - SEVILLA 3h 45 2h 6h 2h 1h 2h 30
FRECUENCY ONE WAY PARIS LYON MADRID - SEVILLA 10 6 20 12
FARE LEVEL RAIL/AIR PARIS LYON KÖLN FRANKFURT MADRID - SEVILLA ------- 30 to 50 Lower
Firts year of operation
Source A. LÓPEZ PITA (2004)
13
1
PASSENGER RAIL TRAFFIC IN MAIN CORRIDORS 6/22
MILLIONS PASSENGERS/YEAR
2
MARKET SHARE OF THE RAIL 40 / 90
Source A. López Pita (2003)
14
A
NATIONAL SERVICES
FRANKFURT
53
PARÍS
P
F
3h 30
60
MUNICH
3h
M
MARSELLA
M
B
INTERNATIONSL SERVICES
AMSTERDAM
MADRID
LONDRES
45
45
M
2h 30
85
61
BRUSELAS
1h 20
SEVILLA
2h 35
S
100
MARKET SHARE RAIL-AIR
PARÍS
Source A. LÓPEZ PITA (2003)
15
REGIONAL TRAIN CONVENTIONAL
16
SNCF
REGIONAL SERVICE (1997-2002)
1 Mpassengers
RENFE
2,4 Mpassengers
17
CONVENTIONAL RAILWAY LINES ARE OPERATED WITH
PASSENGER TRAINS
FREIGHT TRAINS
18
DISTRIBUTION OF REGULARLY SCHEDULED TRAINS
PARIS-BORDEAUX (1990)
CENIT
Centro de Innovación del Transporte
AVERAGE DENSITY BY TRAIN CATEGORY
PASSENGERS PASSENGERS FREIGHT 100/120 km/h
200 km/h 140 lt Vlt 160 Km/h FREIGHT 100/120 km/h
23 112 106
18 60 63
18 60 52
PARIS
Source A. LÓPEZ PITA (2005)
19
MIXED TRAFFIC?
20
TRAINS WITH DIFERENT SPEED OF CIRCULATION

TRAINS WITH THE SAME SPEED

RAPID TRAINS
FREIGHT TRAINS
STATION B
STATION B
STATION A
STATION A
HOURS
HOURS
TRAINS WITH DIFERENT SPEED

STATION B
STATION B
STATION A
STATION A
HOURS
HOURS
1 FREIGHT TRAIN 3 TGV TRAINS
1 FREIGHT TRAIN 3 TGV TRAINS
21
FRANCE
NUMBER OF TGV PER DAY
200
260
180
BORDEAUX
140
TOULOUSE
CONCLUSION NEW LINES WERE DESIGNED FOR
HIGH-SPEED PASSENGER TRAFFIC
22
PARIS LYON CORRIDOR
CONVENTIONAL LINE
NEW LINE
MAXIMUM LONGITUDINAL GRADIENT 35
23
HAMBURG
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
2
HANNOVER 0,70
HIGH-SPEED LINE UPGRADEDLINES
10 Mhab
KÖLN
GERMANY
2,15
WÜRZBURG 0,13
FRANKFURT
MANNHEIM
KARLSRUHE
STUTTGART
1,85
Km/h
1,4
160
80
BASEL
MUNCHEN
24
YEAR NEW LINE PASSENGER TRAINS PASSENGER TRAINS PASSENGER TRAINS FREIGHT TRAINS 100/160 km/h TOTAL TRAFIC
YEAR NEW LINE 250 km/h 200 km/h TOTAL FREIGHT TRAINS 100/160 km/h TOTAL TRAFIC
2001 HANNOVER-WÜRBURG (KASSEL - FULDA) MANNHEIM-STUTGART 49 27 -- 29 49 56 37 16 86 72
NUMBER OF TRAINS PER DAY
25
HAMBURGO
BREMEN
INTERCITY CARGO EXPRESS
HANNOVER
140 km/h 160 km/h NBS 327 km
HAMBURGO MUNICH 800 km (7h 40)
WÜRZBURG
SUTTGART
MUNICH
26
INTERCITY CARGO EXPRESS (160 km/h) ON NEW
LINE HANNOVER - WÜRZBURG
27
(No Transcript)
28
HAMBURG
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
2
HANNOVER 0,70
HIGH-SPEED LINE UPGRADEDLINES
10 Mhab
KÖLN
GERMANY
2,15
WÜRZBURG 0,13
FRANKFURT
MANNHEIM
KARLSRUHE
STUTTGART
1,85
Km/h
1,4
160
80
BASEL
MUNCHEN
29
CENIT
KOLN FRANKFURT CORRIDOR NUMBER OF TOTAL
PASSENGER
PASSENGER PER YEAR (MILLION)
26,6
22
2005 2010 Year of Forecast
CONCLUSION LINE DEDICATED EXCLUSIVELY TO VERY
HIGH-SPEED
PASSENGER TRAFFIC
30
NEW LINES FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES IN GERMANY
31
FRANCE
GERMANY
KOLN FRANKFURT (40 )
PARÍS LYON (35 )
32
NEW LINES IN FRANCE FOR HIGH-SPEED PASSENGER
TRAFFIC
TOURS - BORDEAUX
PARÍS - STRASBOURG
Vmax 320 km/h
PARÍS BORDEAUX 2h 10 (Vc 260 km/h)
33
NEW LINES IN FRANCE FOR MIXED TRAFFIC
MULHOUSE
DIJON
MAÇON
LYON
  • 50 TGV/DAY
  • 75 FREIGHT TRAINS/DAY

34
NEW LINE PASSENGER TRAINS PASSENGER TRAINS PASSENGER TRAINS FREIGHT TRAINS 100/160 km/h TOTAL TRAFFIC
NEW LINE 250 km/h 200 km/h TOTAL FREIGHT TRAINS 100/160 km/h TOTAL TRAFFIC
TGV RHIN-RHONE PERPIGNAN-BARCELONA TORINO-MILANO-NAPLES 56 99 130 -- -- -- 56 99 130 75 35 37 131 134 167
NUMBER OF TRAINS PER DAY
35
PRESENT AND FUTURE OF HIGH-SPEED IN SPAIN
36
HIGH-SPEED RAIL DEVELOPMENT IN SPAIN
1992 Madrid-Sevilla 2003 Madrid-Lérida
  • 900 km OPERATION
  • 500 km UNDER CONSTRUCTION

OPERATION WORKS
37
THE OPERATING SYSTEM
Madrid
Ciudad Real
MADRID SEVILLA 20 trains per day
Puertollano
MADRID PUERTOLLANO 13 trains per day
Sevilla
Córdoba
SEVILLA CÓRDOBA 8 trains per day
MADRID MÁLAGA 6 trains per day
Málaga
Cádiz
38
AVESERVICES
COMFORT
AVE
Talgo 200
Punctuality
PASSENGER FARES
2nd Class 1st Class
Source CENIT
39
PUNCTUALITY COMMITMENT
  • IF AN AVE TRAIN ARRIVES MORE
  • THAN FIVE MINUTES LATE, THE
  • COMPANY UNDERTAKES
  • TO REFUND THE FULL TICKET
  • FARE PAID

40
COMPETING WITH AIR TRAVEL
41
NUMBER OF PASSANGERS
3,3
Mpassengers year
AVE
1,5
LANZADERA
TALGO
1
Year 2004
1992
1993
Year 2003
FINANCIAL RESULTS (In Millions of Euros)
Year 1993
Source RENFE
42
NEW LINE MADRID BARCELONAROUTE MADRID LLEIDA
( 480 Km)
Journey WITH AVE Times WITHOUT AVE
TALGO 350
43
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES WITH TALGO TRAINS
Source A. López Pita (2005)
44
Source CENIT
45
IMPACT OF NEW HIGH-SPEED LINE FROM BARCELONA TO
PERPIGNAN
PASSENGERS
CORRIDOR BARCELONA - PERPIGNAN CORRIDOR BARCELONA - PERPIGNAN CORRIDOR BARCELONA - PERPIGNAN
CONV. LINE NEW LINE
DISTANCE (km) 212 166
MAX. GROSS WEIGHT (Tons) FRANCE SPAIN 380 270 450 450
TRAVEL TIME (hours) 11 3
FREIGHTS
46
AN EXPLOITATION SYSTEM APPROPRIATE TO THE
TRANSPORT REQUIREMENTS OF EACH LINE
PARIS
23 a 25 Mpass/year
DIJON
5 Mpass/year 7 Mt/year
TGV RHIN-RHÔNE
LYON
18 Mpass/year
MADRID
3 Mpass/year 3 Mt/year
BARCELONA
SEVILLA
6 Mpass/year
47
PASSENGER TRAFFIC STUDY 2010/2020
CENIT
(BILLION PASSENGER-KM)
3111
1967
60
1999
2020
YEAR
48
ROAD CONGESTION
49
CONGESTION LOCALISED IN TIME AND SPACE
2n A9 ORANGE-ESPAÑA 18.000 HOURS/KM
1ft A7 LYON-MARSELLA 47.000 HOURS/KM
50
AIR TRAFFIC IN EUROPE FLIGHTS PER YEAR
8 MILLION FLIGHTS
2.000
12 MILLION FLIGHTS
2.010
16 MILLION FLIGHTS
2.020
Source EUROPEAN COMMISSION
51
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AN HIGH-SPEED LINE
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
INTERMEDIATE STAGE
PARIS LYON LINE
LINE OPEN TO COMMERCIAL SERVICE
Source A. LÓPEZ PITA/SNCF/ La Vie du Rail
52
CENIT
HANNOVER WÜRZBURG LINE
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
IN COMMERCIAL SERVICE
KOLN FRANKFURT LINE
Source DBAG
53
LAND USE KOLN FRANKFURT NEW LINE AND MOTORWAY
A3
10 Hectares/km
6 Hectares/km
Source. DBAG
54
AIR POLLUTION CARBON DIOXIDE HAMBURG - MUNICH
Kg
AIRBUS 320 - 200
111,4
PRIVATE CAR
109,2
ICE 2
36,2
DIFFERENT TRANSPORT MODES
Source DB (1995)
55
ENERGY CONSUMPTION PER TRANSPORT MODE ON HAMBURG
MUNICH ROUTE
MODE OF TRANSPORT DISTANCE (Km) OCCUPATION LEVEL LITRES OF FUEL
RAILWAY (ICE) PLANE 813 600 46 60 21,15 47,50
Source DBAG
56
CENIT
THE RAILWAYS CONTRIBUTION TO LIBERALISING SLOTS
AT SOME EUROPEAN AIRPORTS
ENVIRONNMETAL COST PER PASSENGER/KM (1995 ECU)
BENELUX 20.000 slots
LONDON-AMSTERDAM
0,08 0,02
X
FRANKFURT 20.000 slots
(X 4)
MADRID-FRANFURT
PARIS 40.000 slots
X
DISTANCE 500 1500
( km)
ACQUISITION COSTS FOR HIGH-SPEED TRAINS AND JET
PLANES FOR MEDIUM DISTANCES
TYPE OF MATERIAL SEATS AVERAGE COST PER SEAT (thousands of euros)
HIGH-SPEED TRAINS JETS A 320, B757 300 to 600 150 to 200 36 to 45 277 to 296
Source. A. López Pita (2004)
57
EVOLUTION OF COMMERCIAL RAILWAYS SPEEDS IN FRANCE
MAXIMUM COMMERCIAL SPEED (km/h)
PARÍS-MARSEILLE
250
PARÍS-LYON
204
1983 2001 year
58
COOPERATION BETWEEN THE HS RAILWAY AND AIR
TRANSPORT
59
SERVICE FLECHE DARGENT PARIS
LONDRES CORRESPONDANCE TRAIN AVION AERODROME DU
TOUQUET (1972)
Source SNCF
60
CENIT Center for Innovation in Transport
PARIS CHARLES DE GAULLE AIRPORT
61
TGV TERMINAL AT CHARLES DE GAULLE AIRPORT
TGV LINE
62
Source M. Leboeuf
63
TO PRESENT THE HIGH-SPEED LINE AIRPORT
CONNECTIONS IN EUROPE
LYON AIRPORT (FRANCE)
64
FRANKFURT-AIRPORT (GERMANY)
COLOGNE
RAILWAY STATION
MANNHEIM
FRANKFURT
65
FRANKFURT-AIRPORT (GERMANY)
RAILWAY STATION
66
GENERAL VIEW OF THE RAILWAY VARIANT THROUGH
COLOGNE-BONN AIRPORT
COLOGNE-AIRPORT
RAILWAY STATION
B
C
A
LINE COLOGNE-FRANKFURT
A B C 15 km
67
LAYOUT OF THE HIGH-SPEED LINE BETWEEN THE BORDER
WITH BELGIUM AND HOLLAND
LAYOUT OF THE RAILWAY LINE AT SCHIPHOL AIRPORT
HIGH-SPEED LINE ANVERS-AMSTERDAM
RAILWAY LINE
68
RAILWAYS LINES AT BRUSSELS AIRPORT
RAILWAY LINE
NEW RAILWAY LINE
BRUSSELS - AIRPORT
NEW RAILWAY LINE
RAILWAY LINE
69
OVERALL APPRAISAL OF CURRENT SITUATION
TYPES OF HIGH-SPEED RAIL CONNECTION AT AIRPORTS
AIRPORT TYPE OF RAIL CONNECTION TYPE OF RAIL CONNECTION TYPE OF RAIL CONNECTION
AIRPORT MAIN LINE BRANCH LINE REFERENCE SPEED (km/h)
PARIS-CHARLES DE GAULLE FRANKFURT AMSTERDAM BRUSSELS Brussels-Amsterdam line Amsterdam-Cologne line DUSSELDORF COLOGNE LYON X X X X X X X X 230 160/200 160/200 s.d. s.d. 160/200 130/80/130/160 300
70
THE RELATIVE POSITION OF HIGH-SPEED LINES WITH
RESPECT SAME OF THE MAIN AIRPORTS IN EUROPE
GROUP A
GROUP B
ANTWERP
ZAVENTEM Airport ?
High-speed line planned
LONDON ST. PANCRAS
LYON
ST. EXHUPERY Airport ?
COLOGNE
LOUVAINE
HEATHROW Airport ?
COLOGNE/BONN Airport ?
BRUSSELS
High-speed line
?
High-speed line Cologne-Frankfurt
FOLKESTONE
GATWICK Airport
TGV North
ROISSY Airport ?
TO FLORENCE
FRANKFURT
AMSTERDAM
PARIS
TGV Interconnection
High- performance
High-speed line
SCHIPHOL Airport ?
ROME
Airport ?
TGV Southest
FUIMICINO AIRPORT
High-speed line (Under construction)
High-speed line planned
?
TGV Mediterranean
?
TO NAPLES
MARIGNANE Airport
MARSEILLE
Source A. López Pita
71
CENIT Center for Innovation in Transport
HIGH-SPEED LINE ROMA-FLORENCE
HIGH-SPEED LINE TO LONDON
HEATHROW AIRPORT
RAILWAY STATION
HIGH-SPEED LINE ROMA-NAPLES
GATWICK AIRPORT
FUIMICINO AIRPORT
Source A. López Pita
72
CONCLUSIONS
EACH AIRPORT HAS ITS OWN PARTICULAR
PROBLEMS AND REQUIRED SPECIFIC ANALYSIS TO
DECIDE WETHER A HIGH-SPEED LINE CONNECTION
IS DESIRABLE
73
1. ACCESIBILITY TO THE MAIN AIRPORTS
CENIT
DISTANCE 170 KM
Source. A. López Pita
74
2. THE TRAIN AND THE PLANE ARE COMPLEMENTARY
CENIT
MADRID
BARCELONA
Source. A. López Pita
75
CENIT
3. TRAIN AEROPLANE INTERMODALITY
SAN FRANCISCO
BRUSELAS
PARIS
Source. A. López Pita
76
THE HIGH-SPEED TRAIN BOTH COMPETES WITH AND
COMPLEMENTS AIR TRANSPORT
77
THE CHOICE OF HIGH-SPEED IS NOT A SYNONYM FOR THE
FORWARD MOVEMENT OF A PRIVILEGED PART OF THE
RAILWAYS, BUT A GENERAL REQUALIFICATION OF THE
WHOLE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM
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