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The Old World meets the New


... state backing was that of John Cabot in 1497; explored Newfoundland and other ... Gov John White returned to England for more supplies. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Old World meets the New

The Old World meets the New
  • North America Themes,
  • Term 1, Week 2.

Native Americans
  • Asian migrants c.20,000BC, develop into vast
    variety of tribal groups.
  • Lifestyles partly dictated by climate,
    topography, and other natural phenomena.
  • Popn of NA in 1492 not known, est c.1m-10m.

The town of Pomeiooc and Secoton village in North
Carolina c.1585, by John White and Thomas Hariot
Algonquin Life
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Variety of Tribal Groups
  • No typical Native American. Variety of
    languages, religions, cultures. Some settled,
    some nomadic, some small, some large.
  • Native peoples do not see themselves as
    homogenous group, great deal of conflict between
  • Problem for historians as Europeans seem to lump
    all tribes together as Indians
  • No typical encounter between European and
    Native Americans

Myths of Early European landfalls in the Americas
  • Jews, Phoenicians, Irish, Welsh etc. Genetic
    hints, linguistic and cultural similarities,
    bones of Negroes in South America, probably
    from Australia.
  • Only proven landing made by Leif Erikson c.1000
    AD arch. discoveries at LAnse Aux Meadows in
    Newfoundland. Probably explored further South and
    inland too, named area Vinland Vinland sagas
    written about voyages form Norway to Iceland to
    Greenland to Vinland, but most Europeans knew
    nothing of it. Norse settlements destroyed c.
    1350 most likely by deteriorating weather
  • Real discovery was product of Iberian
    explorations in the 15th and 16thC.

Vinland Settlements
European Situation
  • Europe in the 15th and 16thC in a state of flux
  • Reformation caused general upheaval of society,
    break down of old order eg challenge to flat
    earth ideology of the church
  • Renaissance encouraged rigorous scientific
    enquiry -might be quicker to sail west to reach
    the vital markets of China and India. Probs with
    the overland route Ottomans etc. First voyages
    of exploration commercially motivated.

Portuguese discovery of Atlantic Islands i.e.
Canaries, Madeira, Azores and Cape Verde islands.
Imp of Prince Henry the Navigator. Rounded Cape
Horn in the 1480s, reached India during the
1490s, showed long distance sea travel was
technologically possible, and offered great
Spanish interest
  • 1492 Christopher Columbus prob Catalan sailor in
    the service of the King and Queen of Spain aimed
    to sail West to reach Asia, never realised
    America was separate continent. Landfall in
    Caribbean in Oct 1492.
  • 1513 new edition of Ptolemys Geography -
    America recognised as an entirely separate
    continent, proved by Magellan and Del Cano's
    pioneering circumnavigation between 1519 and
    1522. America named after an Italian explorer
    named Amerigo Vespucci.
  • Columbus's voyage v. significant for subsequent
    exploration and colonisation of America
    established that trans-Atlantic voyages were
    possible. Vast publicity meant others would
    follow him to America

Follow up voyages 1 - Spain
  • First Sp sighting of North America probably 1501
    Florida first appeared on a map in 1502. First
    landing by Europeans was by Juan Ponce De Leon in
    1513, who explored the inhospitable Atlantic
    coast of Florida.
  • 1520s coastal surveys Spanish ships explored
    most of Atlantic coast of North America in 1525.
    Various Sp explorations of Gulf coast in 1527 and
    North American interior by De Soto between
    1539-1543 (encompassing SE USA from North
    Carolina to Texas) expeditions generally ended
    in failure (death at hands of Indians). Confirmed
    widespread Sp sentiment that N.America vast
    wasteland - not worth the trouble. (no easy
    riches like Mexico or Peru). 1536 1542 coastal
    explorations of California sponsored by Cortes.
    Thus broad outline of N. America known by 1540.

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Voyages of Exploration 1492-1580
Follow up voyages 2 France England
  • French explorations of the coast in the 1524
    motivated by search for NW passage 1569 Jacques
    Cartiers exploration of St Lawrence river area.
  • Role of England limited -. 15thC problems defeat
    by France in the 100 years war followed by War of
    the Roses
  • Peace in 1485 opened up possibility of overseas
    expansion. First voyage of discovery with state
    backing was that of John Cabot in 1497 explored
    Newfoundland and other parts of eastern Canada,
    however failure to find North West Passage, led
    to abandonment of official attempts to explore
    America for 80 yrs.
  • By 1550 Sp and Fr far ahead of the English in
    race to exploit North America. Both had explored
    more of N Am than the Eng, and had brought N Am
    to the attention of Europeans.

Settlements 1 - Florida
  • Oldest continuously settled part of colonial
    North America, first perm settlement at St.
    Augustine in 1565 was response to Fr settlement
    at Charlesfort in SC in 1562. Charlesfort
    destroyed 1564, St. Aug military base to
    protect Sp shipping taking treasure back from New
    Spain, also a visible claim to N.America vs Fr,
    and later Eng. St Aug burned by Francis Drake in
    1586 but rebuilt.
  • Apart from Franciscan priests who concentrated on
    conversion of local Indian tribes, the Sp popn in
    Florida remained very small. Mainly hildagos,
    (lesser gentry), popn in 1600 numbered 500 half
    of whom were single men, all but 50 in govt
    service, very few Sp women and children. As a
    result the typical family unit Sp man with
    local Indian woman. Floridas institutions were
    Sp but her domestic living arrangements were
  • 1570-1 short-lived Jesuit settlement in
    Chesapeake Bay.

Settlements 2 New Mexico New France
  • First settlements in New Mexico 1598, based in
    Indian villages first solely Sp settlement was
    Santa Fe, 1610, and the 3,000 popn in 1650
    concentrated there. Like Florida, colonisation
    left in hands of Franciscans as Sp crown thought
    it too expensive.
  • 1st permanent settlements in Acadia, (Nova
    Scotia) in 1605. Mainly military forts, no women
    etc, under auspices of the Company of New France.
    Clearly not intended to be self-reproducing
    colony. Fr on good terms with Huron Indians, main
    ec activity is trade in furs, climate not
    conducive to agriculture. Settlements
    concentrated on St Lawrence, esp Quebec, but very
    small, until arrival of Jesuits in 1625
  • Montreal founded 1642 to be a place for converted
    Indians to live, but also acts as staging post
    for fur trade. 1645 Co of NF virtually bankrupt,
    decisions increasingly taken by elected officials
    in Canada, until Louis XIV takes personal control
    of colonies in 1663. Fr Popn small - eg Acadia in
    the 1680s only 500.

World in 1587
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English Colonies
  • Motivation envy of Sp treasure from America
    wealth helped Sp become most powerful nation cf
    Charles V English policy to break the Iberian
    monopoly on America due to fear that American
    wealth, after Henry VIII's split with Rome
    (1534), could be used against them.
  • Eng govt sanctioned privateering operations
    against Spanish. By 1580 increasingly dangerous
    to prey on Sp shipping - suggestion that American
    base needed.
  • American cols would also ease Eng reliance on
    southern Europe for citrus fruits, silks, and
  • 1st patent to settle in America granted to Sir
    Humphrey Gilbert, half brother to Walter Raleigh,
    permitted him to settle anywhere between Florida
    and Northern Canada, - English laid claim to
    North America by virtue of Cabot's voyages to
    Newfoundland (1497).

Sir Humphrey Gilbert
Sir Walter Raleigh
  • 3 Eng voyages to settle North America in 1580s.
    The first landed at Roanoke Island, N.C. July 13,
    1584, short lived military scouting expedition.
  • 1585-6, 2nd mission under Ralph Lane, discovered
    Chesapeake Bay, ideal as naval base. But, poor
    Indian relations, lack of food - returned to Eng
    with Drake in 1586.
  • Third voyage 1587 meant to be permanent
    settlement, self-sustaining and self-reproducing.
    Gov John White returned to England for more
    supplies. Unable to return until 1590 due to Sp
    Armada, found settlement abandoned, colonists
    never seen again.

Importance of Roanoke
  • 3 voyages saw evolution of colonising thought
  • Roanoke originally seen as a base for
    privateering, then a place where valuable raw
    materials could be shipped to England, only third
    voyage aimed to settle permanently.
  • The lessons of Roanoke were clear
  • no colony could exist without full support from
    mother country in terms of men and supplies for
    at least the first few years of existence
  • clear goals were needed to give direction and
    purpose to the colonisation effort.
  • good relations with the Indians were necessary to
    learn the best survival techniques in the
    American wilderness.

Settlement of Virginia
  • Accession of James VI and I in 1603, 1604 peace
    treaty with Spain ended the plundering of Spanish
    treasure ships.
  • London merchants decided to see what legitimate
    profits could be made from colonisation in North
    America (Virginia Co.) obtained a charter from
    King to settle permanently in America, exploit
    trade with the natives Christianise them. First
    three ships carrying 144 young men arrived in
    America in May 1607, settled inside Chesapeake
    Bay, founded Jamestown.
  • Struggles of 1st settlers only gradual
  • Maryland founded 1634, proprietor Lord
    Baltimore, a leading English Catholic.

Chesapeake in 1634
New England
  • September 1620 - 102 religious separatists
    (Pilgrims) left Plymouth on the Mayflower bound
    for Virginia. Nov. landed Cape Cod, decided to
    stay there, new settlement named Plymouth.
    Governor William Bradford befriended the native
    population, who taught them how to survive in the
    New World. After first year, Pilgrims invited the
    Indians to a 3 day feast of thanksgiving.
  • Pilgrims followed in 1630 by 700 non-separating
    Congregationalists, (Puritans), led by John
    Winthrop, settled at Boston, colony called
    Massachusetts Bay. Puritans wanted to establish
    the true Anglican church in the wilderness.
    Winthrop's vision 'We shall be as a city upon a
    hill, the eyes of the world shall be upon us',
    aimed to show that ideal Christian community
    could be formed and maintained.
  • Other N.Eng cols (New Haven, Rhode Island, and
    Connecticut), founded during 1630s - all had
    religious backgrounds.

New Netherlands Delaware
  • New Netherlands first explored by Hudson for the
    Dutch East India Company in 1609. Dutch seeking a
    privateering base, est settlements at Fort Orange
    (Albany 1624) and New Amsterdam (New York 1626)
    and Fort Nassau (Gloucester NJ 1626). Settlers
    sent by Dutch West India Company in 1626,
    purchased Island of Manhattan from the local
    Manahate Indians for trinkets worth about 24.
    Main purpose of settlement was trade with
    Indians, esp Iroquois. Popn remained fairly
    small, 1650 only 4,000 only 1/3 that of English
  • Delaware Small Swedish settlement at Fort
    Christina in Delaware in 1638. Taken by the Dutch
    in 1655.

European Settlement c.1650
North America c.1650