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les robertson cernit 0300 1

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through a fat, fast, reliable network link. Tap funding sources not otherwise available to HEP ... (Prague), IFAE (Barcelona), LIP (Lisbon), IFCA (Santander) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: les robertson cernit 0300 1


1
The LHC Computing Challenge
  • GRID Workshop
  • Maxwell Institute Edinburgh
  • Les Robertson
  • CERN - IT Division
  • 21 September 2000
  • les.robertson_at_cern.ch

2
Summary
  • HEP offline computing the current model
  • LHC computing requirements
  • The wide area computing model
  • A place for Grid technology?
  • The DataGRID project
  • Conclusions

3
Data Handling and Computation for Physics Analysis
event filter (selection reconstruction)
detector
processed data
event summary data
raw data
batch physics analysis
event reprocessing
analysis objects (extracted by physics topic)
event simulation
interactive physics analysis
les.robertson_at_cern.ch
4
HEP Computing Characteristics
  • Large numbers of independent events
  • trivial parallelism
  • Very large data sets
  • smallish records
  • mostly read-only
  • Modest I/O rates
  • Few MB/sec per fast processor
  • Modest floating point requirement
  • SPECint performance

5
The SHIFT Software Model
application servers
IP network
stage (migration) servers
Storage access API which can be implemented over
IP ----- all data available to all
processes ----- replicated components -
scalable heterogeneous distributed
les.robertson_at_cern.ch
6
Generic computing farm
network servers
application servers
tape servers
les.robertson_at_cern.ch
disk servers
Cern/it/pdp-les.robertson 10-98-6
7
History
  • 1960s thru 1980s
  • The largest scientific supercomputers
    mainframes (Control Data, Cray,
    IBM, Siemens/Fujitsu)
  • Time-sharing interactive services on IBM
    DEC-VMS
  • Scientific workstations from 1982 (Apollo) for
    development, final analysis
  • 1989 -- First batch services on RISC - joint
    project with HP (Apollo DN10.000 )
  • 1990 -- Central Simulation Facility (CSF) - 4 X
    mainframe capacity
  • 1991 -- SHIFT - data intensive applications,
    distributed model
  • 1993 -- First central interactive service on RISC
  • 1996 -- Last of the mainframes de-commissioned
  • 1997 -- First batch services on PCs
  • 1998 -- NA48 record 70 TeraBytes of data
  • 2000 -- gt75 capacity from PCs

8
High Throughput Computing
  • High Throughput Computing
  • mass of modest problems
  • throughput rather than performance
  • resilience rather than ultimate reliability
  • HEP can exploit inexpensive mass market
    components
  • to build large computing/data clusters
  • scalable, extensible, flexible, heterogeneous,
    ………..
  • and as a result - really hard to manage
  • We should have much in common with data mining,
    Internet computing facilities, ……

Chaotic workload
9
Architectures operating systems supported at
end 1999
Are we sure that flexibility is an advantage?
Digital Unix
SPARC
Solaris
MIPS
AIX
Alpha
Windows 2000
Irix
Windows 95
Windows NT
Linux
Power PC
MAC-OS
Intel IA-32
PA-RISC
HP-UX
10
Physics Data Handling Evolution of capacity
and cost through the nineties
50 annual growth
CPU capacity
les.robertson_at_cern.ch
80 annual growth
LEP startup
11
(No Transcript)
12
LHC Computing Requirements
13
online system multi-level trigger filter out
background reduce data volume
les.robertson_at_cern.ch
14
The LHC Detectors
CMS
ATLAS
3.5 PetaBytes / year 108 events/year
LHCb
15
LHC Computing Fabric at CERN
Estimated computing resources required at CERN
for LHC
experiments in 2006
collaboration
ALICE
ATLAS
CMS
LHCB
Total
420 000
520 000
1 760 000
600 000
220 000
CPU capacity (SPECint95)
2006
3 000
3 000
3 000
estimated cpus in 2006
1 500
10 500
disk capacity (TB)
2006
800
750
650
450
2 650
3,7
3,0
1,8
0.6
9,1
2006
mag.tape capacity (PB)
aggregate I/O rates (GB/sec)
100
100
40
340
100
disk
1,2
0,8
0,8
0,2
3,0
tape
Effective throughput of LAN backbone
16
lt 50 of the main analysis capacity will be at
CERN
les.robertson_at_cern.ch
17
Other experiments
LHC experiments
Jan 2000 30 TB disk 1 PB tape
Other experiments
LHC experiments
les.robertson_at_cern.ch
18
Components to Fabrics
  • Commodity components are just fine for HEP
  • Masses of experience with inexpensive farms
  • LAN technology is going the right way
  • Inexpensive high performance PC attachments
  • Compatible with hefty backbone switches
  • Good ideas for improving automated operation and
    management

19
Two Problems
  • Money
  • Geography

20
Funding
  • Requirements growing faster than Moores law
  • CERNs overall budget is fixed

Estimated cost of facility at CERN 30 of
offline requirements
Budget level in 2000 for all physics data
handling
assumes physics in July 2005, rapid ramp-up of
luminosity
21
World Wide Collaboration ? distributed
computing storage capacity
CMS 1800 physicists 150 institutes 32 countries
22
The Wide Area Computing Model
23
Solution? - Regional Computing Centres
  • Exploit established computing expertise
    infrastructure
  • in national labs, universities
  • Reduce dependence on links to CERN
  • full summary data available nearby
  • through a fat, fast, reliable network link
  • Tap funding sources not otherwise available to
    HEP
  • Devolve control over resource allocation
  • national interests?
  • regional interests?
  • at the expense of physics interests?

24
Regional Centres - a Multi-Tier Model
les.robertson_at_cern.ch
25
More realistically - a Grid Topology
les.robertson_at_cern.ch
26
The Basic Problem - Summary
  • Scalability ? cost ? management
  • Thousands of processors, thousands of disks,
    PetaBytes of data, Terabits/second of I/O
    bandwidth, ….
  • Wide-area distribution
  • WANs are only and will only be 1 of LANs
  • Distribute, replicate, cache, synchronise the
    data
  • Multiple ownership, policies, ….
  • Integration of this amorphous collection of
    Regional Centres ..
  • .. with some attempt at optimisation
  • Adaptability
  • We shall only know how analysis is done once the
    data arrives

27
A place for Grid technology?
28
Are Grids a solution?
  • Change of orientation of Meta-computing activity
  • From inter-connected super-computers … ..
    towards a more general concept of a
    computational Grid (The Grid Ian
    Foster, Carl Kesselman)
  • Has found resonance with the press, funding
    agencies
  • and initiated a flurry of activity in HEP
  • US Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG)
  • Grid technology evaluation project in INFN
    (Italy)
  • GriPhyN data grid RD funded by NSF
  • Several national initiatives with solid HEP
    component (e.g. UK)
  • DataGRID proposal to European Union
  • HEP, Earth Observation, Biology

29
Current state
  • Globus project (http//www.globus.org)
  • Basic middleware
  • Authentication
  • Information service
  • Resource management
  • Good basis to build on
  • Active collaborative community
  • Open approach Grid Forum (http//www.gridforum.o
    rg)
  • Who is handling lots of data?
  • How many production quality implementations?

30
RD required
  • Local fabric
  • Issues of scalability, management, reliability of
    the local computing fabric
  • Adaptation of these amorphous computing fabrics
    to the Grid
  • Wide Area Mass Storage
  • Grid technology in an environment that is High
    Throughput, Data Intensive, and has a Chaotic
    Worload
  • Grid scheduling
  • Data management
  • Monitoring - reliability and performance

31
The DataGRID Project
32
The Data Grid Project
  • Proposal for EC Fifth Framework funding
  • Principal goals
  • Middleware for fabric Grid management
  • Large scale testbed
  • Production quality demonstrations
  • mock data, simulation analysis, current
    experiments
  • Three year phased developments demos
  • Collaborate with and complement other European
    and US projects
  • Open source and communication
  • GRID Forum
  • Industry and Research Forum

33
DataGRID Partners
  • Managing partners
  • UK PPARC Italy INFN
  • France CNRS Holland NIKHEF
  • Italy ESA/ESRIN CERN
  • Industry
  • IBM (UK), Compagnie des Signaux (F), Datamat (I)
  • Associate partners
  • Istituto Trentino di Cultura, Helsinki Institute
    of Physics, Swedish Science Research Council,
    Zuse Institut Berlin, University of Heidelberg,
    CEA/DAPNIA (F), IFAE Barcelona, CNR (I), CESNET
    (CZ), KNMI (NL), SARA (NL), SZTAKI (HU)

34
Preliminary programme of work
  • Middleware
  • Grid Workload Management (C. Vistoli/INFN-CNAF)
  • Grid Data Management (B. Segal/CERN)
  • Grid Monitoring services (R. Middleton/RAL)
  • Fabric Management (T. Smith/CERN)
  • Mass Storage Management (J. Gordon/RAL)
  • Testbed
  • Testbed Integration (F. Etienne/CNRS-Marseille
    )
  • Network Services (C. Michau/CNRS)
  • Scientific Applications
  • HEP Applications (F. Carminati/CERN)
  • Earth Observation Applications (L.
    Fusco/ESA-ESRIN)
  • Biology Applications (C. Michau/CNRS)

35
Middleware
  • Wide-area - building on an existing framework
    (Globus)
  • workload management
  • The workload is chaotic unpredictable job
    arrival rates, data access patterns
  • The goal is maximising the global system
    throughput (events processed per second)
  • data management
  • Management of petabyte-scale data volumes, in an
    environment with limited network bandwidth and
    heavy use of mass storage (tape)
  • Caching, replication, synchronisation, object
    database model
  • application monitoring
  • Tens of thousands of components, thousands of
    jobs and individual users
  • End-user - tracking of the progress of jobs and
    aggregates of jobs
  • Understanding application and grid level
    performance
  • Administrator understanding which global-level
    applications were affected by failures, and
    whether and how to recover

36
Middleware
  • Local fabric
  • Effective local site management of giant
    computing fabrics
  • Automated installation, configuration management,
    system maintenance
  • Automated monitoring and error recovery -
    resilience, self-healing
  • Performance monitoring
  • Characterisation, mapping, management of local
    Grid resources
  • Mass storage management
  • multi-PetaByte data storage
  • real-time data recording requirement
  • active tape layer 1,000s of users
  • uniform mass storage interface
  • exchange of data and meta-data between mass
    storage systems

37
Infrastructure
  • Operate a production quality trans European
    testbed interconnecting clusters in several
    sites
  • Initial tesbed participants CERN, RAL, INFN
    (several sites), IN2P3-Lyon, ESRIN (ESA-Italy),
    SARA/NIKHEF (Amsterdam), ZUSE Institut (Berlin),
    CESNET (Prague), IFAE (Barcelona), LIP (Lisbon),
    IFCA (Santander) ……
  • Define, integrate and build successive releases
    of the project middleware
  • Define, negotiate and manage the network
    infrastructure
  • assume that this is largely Ten-155 and then
    Géant
  • Stage demonstrations, data challenges
  • Monitor, measure, evaluate, report

38
Applications
  • HEP
  • The four LHC experiments
  • Live testbed for the Regional Centre model
  • Earth Observation
  • ESA-ESRIN
  • KNMI (Dutch meteo) climatology
  • Processing of atmospheric ozone data derived from
    ERS GOME and ENVISAT SCIAMACHY sensors
  • Biology
  • CNRS (France), Karolinska (Sweden)
  • Application being defined

39
Data Grid Challenges
  • Data
  • Scaling
  • Reliability

40
DataGRID Challenges (ii)
  • Large, diverse, dispersed project
  • but coordinating this European activity is one of
    the projects raisons dêtre
  • Collaboration, convergence with US and other Grid
    activities this area is very dynamic
  • Organising adequate Network bandwidth a
    vital ingredient for success of a Grid
  • Keeping the feet on the ground The GRID is a
    good idea but not the panacea suggested by some
    recent press articles

41
Conclusions on LHC Computing
  • The scale of the computing needs of the LHC
    experiments is large compared with current
    experiments
  • each experiment is one to two orders of magnitude
    greater than the TOTAL capacity installed at CERN
    today
  • We believe that the hardware technology will be
    there to evolve the current architecture of
    commodity clusters into large scale computing
    fabrics
  • But there are many management problems -
    workload, computing fabric, data, storage in a
    wide area distributed environment
  • Disappointingly solutions for local site
    management on this scale are not emerging from
    industry
  • The Grid technologies look very promising to
    deliver a major step forward in wide area
    computing usability and effectiveness
  • But a great deal of work will be required to
    make this a reality
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