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Small Engine Terminology This presentation is from Virginia Tech and has not been edited by the Geor

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Ignition spark- hot electrical arc across an air gap ... air gap between valve and push rod. ... Wrist pin (Crank pin)- pin between a connecting rod and piston ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Small Engine Terminology This presentation is from Virginia Tech and has not been edited by the Geor


1
Small Engine TerminologyThis presentation is
from Virginia Tech and has not been edited by the
Georgia Curriculum Office.
2
Performance Objectives
  • Students will be able to define, recognize, and
    utilize terms concerning small engines
    effectively.

3
Enabling Objectives
  • Students will define small gas engine terms.
  • Students will use correct terminology in
    discussion of small engines.
  • Students will recognize small gas engine
    terminology and be able to effectively apply
    terms to usage and maintenance of the engine.

4
How does this whachamacallit fit into the
whozamathingy?I need a flappy white thing
that goes on the top of the engine.
Effectively communicating your intentions is a
key point to success. Terminology is the key!

5
Small Engine Maintenance
  • Internal Combustion Engine- Device that burns
    fuel inside a cylinder to create a force that
    drives a piston.
  • Piston- A sliding cylinder fitting within a
    cylindrical vessel that receives the force of
    combusting fuel.
  • Crankshaft- A shaft with an offset projection
    that converts circular motion to reciprocal
    motion, or vice versa.
  • Reciprocating- return move back and forth

6
  • Horizontal shaft engine- An engine with a
    crankshaft that lies crossways for normal
    operation
  • Vertical shaft engine- an engine whose
    crankshaft is vertical for normal operation
  • Stroke- the movement of a piston from top to
    bottom or from bottom to top
  • Cycle- All the event that take place as an engine
    takes in air and fuel, compresses the air fuel
    mixture, burns the fuel, and expels the burned
    gasses. Also the current produced by one turn of
    a generator armature.

7
  • Four- stroke cycle- four strokes per cycle
  • Two-stroke cycle- two strokes per cycle
  • Poppet valve- a valve that controls the flow of
    air and gasses by moving up and down.
  • Port- a special hole in the cylinder wall of a
    two cycle engine to permit gasses to flow in or
    out of the cylinder.
  • Reed valve- a flat, flexible plat that permits
    air or liquid to pass on one direction but seals
    when the flow reverses.

8
  • Intake stroke- engine process of taking fuel and
    air into the combustion chamber
  • Compression stroke- Movement of an engine piston
    to squeeze or compress the air-fuel mixture
  • Compression ratio- the relationship between the
    volume of an engine cylinder at the beginning and
    end of the compression stroke.
  • Top Dead Center (TDC)- position of a piston
    when at its highest point (furthest from the
    crankshaft)

9
  • Bottom Dead Center (BDC)- piston at its lowest
    point ( point nearest the crankshaft)
  • Fire- flame to make a spark jump across an air
    gap
  • Ignition- a spark igniting an air-fuel mixture
  • Power stroke- the engine process in which
    burning fuel expands rapidly but evenly to drive
    the piston down
  • Exhaust- burned gasses removed by the motion of
    a piston

10
  • Exhaust Stroke- Movement of a piston which
    expels burned gases from a cylinder
  • Revolution- one complete turn of 360 degrees
  • Momentum- turning force of the flywheel and other
    moving parts that carries an engine through
    nonpower strokes.
  • Maintenance- doing the tasks that keep a machine
    in good condition

11
  • Troubleshooting- determining what causes a
    malfunction in a machine or process.
  • Repair- to replace a faulty part or make it work
    correctly.
  • Adjust- to set a part or parts to function as
    designed.
  • Contaminant- any material that does not belong
    in a substance
  • Saturate- to add a substance until the excess
    starts to run out.

12
  • Dual-two
  • Precleaner- a device that removes large particles
    from air entering an air cleaner
  • Shroud- to cover a cover
  • Score- to scratch
  • Torqued- A twisting force to twist
  • Speed indicator- a device used to measure
    revolutions per minute (RPM) of a turning shaft
    or part.
  • RPM-revolution per minute

13
  • Leaner- a greater proportion of air and lesser
    proportion of fuel in an air-fuel mixture.
  • Richer- a mixture with an increased proportion
    of fuel to air
  • Labor- to struggle or work hard to keep running

14
Small Engine Adjustment and Repair
  • Overhaul- complete disassembly with cleaning and
    reconditioning or replacement of most moving
    parts.
  • Governor- Speed control device
  • Air Vane- type of governor used on small engines
  • Carburator- Provides fuel and air to the engine
    in appropriate portions and volume.

15
  • Needle- A long tapered shaft
  • A hole shaped to receive the needle and control
    the flow of fuel.
  • Jet or Seat- a hole shaped to receive the needle
    and control the flow of fuel.
  • Battery- produces electricity by chemical action.
  • Magneto- produces electricity by magnetism
  • Condensor- stores and releases current to boost
    current in the Primary circuit

16
  • Primary circuit- low-voltage circuit of an
    ignition system
  • Secondary circuit- high-voltage circuit of an
    ignition system.
  • High-tension wire- high voltage wire in a
    secondary circuit
  • Electromagnetic induction- conversion of
    low-voltage current to high-voltage current with
    a coil.
  • Ignition spark- hot electrical arc across an air
    gap

17
  • Ignition points- interrupt the flow in the
    primary circuit at the correct time to induce the
    high voltage flow to the spark plug.
  • Discharge- loss of power from a battery
  • Electrolyte- acid solution in a battery
  • Distilled water- free of iron or other parts
  • Armature- the rotating part of a motor. Also
    the iron core portion of a magneto.
  • Head gasket- seal between the head and the
    cylinder block

18
  • Valve Spring Compressor- compresses the valve
    spring to remove keepers.
  • Valve keeper- transfers spring force to valve
    stem
  • Stem- long, round section of a valve
  • Margin- outer edge of a valve head
  • Face- surface that is intended for use. Also
    tapered section of a valve head.
  • Lapped in- grinding valves to fit the seat for a
    perfect seal

19
  • Lapping compound- gritty material used for
    lapping in valves
  • Valve grinding- the process of grinding valves
  • Valve guide- holds valve stem in alignment
  • Valve stem clearance- air gap between valve and
    push rod.
  • Cylinder- engine cavity containing a piston
  • Head- flat part of a valve cylinder cover
    containing the spark plug and combustion chamber.

20
  • Piston- a sliding cylinder fitting within a
    cylindrical vessel that receives the force of
    combusting fuel.
  • Rings- complete the seal between the piston and
    cylinder wall.
  • Inside micrometer- telescoping gauge used to
    measure inside surfaces of hollow objects.
  • Telescoping gauge- inside micrometer
  • Cylinder hone- Tool for restoring cylinders

21
  • Ring expander- tool used to remove and install
    piston rings
  • Blow-by- compression leakage past pistons
  • Piston ring compressor- used to force piston
    rings into their grooves
  • Wrist pin (Crank pin)- pin between a connecting
    rod and piston
  • Micrometer- Used to measure outside surfaces of
    round objects
  • Plastigage- carefully designed material that
    flattens out uniformly when pressed.

22
  • Rope starter- rope wrapped around a pulley for
    turning power to start an engine
  • Wind up starter- uses a lever to coil a spring
    for cranking an engine.
  • Valve pin- Transfers spring force to valve stem
  • Head- flat part of a valve cylinder cover
    containing the spark plug and combustion chamber.

23
Vocabulary Quiz
  • Exhaust stroke
  • Power Stroke
  • Piston
  • Stroke
  • Exhaust
  • Burned gases removed by the motion of the a
    piston.
  • The movement of a piston from top to bottom or
    from bottom to top.
  • A sliding cylinder fitting within a cylindrical
    vessel that receives the force of combusting
    fuel.
  • The engine process in which burning fuels expands
    rapidly but evenly to drive the piston down.
  • Movement of a piston which expels burned gases
    from a cylinder.

24
  • Doing the tasks that keep a machine in good
    condition.
  • Engine process of taking fuel and air into the
    combustion chamber
  • Movement of an engine piston to squeeze or
    compress the air-fuel mixture.
  • A spark igniting an air-fuel mixture
  • Turning force of the flywheel and other moving
    parts that carries an engine through nonpower
    strokes.
  • To replace a faulty part or make it work correctly
  • Repair
  • Momentum
  • Intake stroke
  • Ignition
  • Compression Stroke
  • Maintenance

25
  • Determining what causes a malfunction in a
    machine or process.
  • All the events that take place as an engine takes
    in air and fuel, compresses the air-fuel mixture,
    burns the fuel, and expels the burned gases.
  • Device that burns fuel inside a cylinder to
    create a force that drives a piston.
  • A shaft with an offset projection that converts
    circular motion to reciprocal motion, or vice
    versa.
  • Crankshaft
  • Troubleshooting
  • Cycle
  • Internal Combustion Engine

26
  • Provides fuel and air to the engine in
    appropriate portions and volume.
  • Produces electricity by magnetism
  • The rotating part of a motor.
  • Seal between the head and the cylinder block
  • Complete the seal between the piston and the
    cylinder wall.
  • Stores and releases current to boost current in
    the Primary circuit.
  • Head gasket
  • Armature
  • Condensor
  • Magneto
  • Carburetor
  • Rings

27
  • Used to measure outside surfaces of round
    objects.
  • Inside Micrometer
  • Flat part of the valve
  • A twisting force
  • Compression leakage past pistons
  • Telescoping gauge
  • Blow-by
  • Torque
  • Head
  • Micrometer
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