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Pasture Renovation

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Chemical Desiccation of Dallisgrass Sod. Prescribed Burning ... standard chisel or disc. Timing. During dormancy. preferably drier soil. increase pan shatter ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pasture Renovation


1
Pasture Renovation
2
Pasture Renovation
  • Restore pasture production
  • Causes
  • Compaction
  • Machinery
  • Livestock
  • Drought Damage
  • Poor Fertility Management
  • pH, K, micronutrients
  • nutrient stratification

3
Symptoms for Renovation
  • Reduced forage production
  • Thin stands
  • Reduced rhizome number vigor
  • Weed invasion
  • Broadleaves
  • Grasses
  • annual
  • perennial
  • Poor infiltration and drainage
  • Rough surface

4
Renovation Practices and Requirements
  • Minimum
  • Soil testing
  • Fertilization
  • Weed Control
  • Prescribed burning
  • Grazing management
  • Reduced stocking rate
  • Increase stubble ht.
  • Extensive
  • Intensive grazing management
  • Subsoiling/chiseling
  • Discing/plowing
  • Replanting
  • Heavy fertilization

5
Soil Testing
  • Identify Fields
  • Multiple samples
  • Individual fields
  • Stratification
  • 0-2
  • 2-6
  • Composite and Mail
  • Multiple Labs
  • TAMU
  • others

6
Nutrient Stratification
  • Nutrient Movement
  • Root interception
  • Mass Flow
  • Diffusion
  • Stratification
  • P, Ca, Zn, Cu, etc.
  • mostly during cold (January) or dry (August)
    periods

7
Soil Fertility
  • Chemical
  • Soil pH
  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Secondary
  • Micronutrients
  • Physical
  • Texture
  • Structure
  • Infiltration rate
  • Utility
  • Aesthetics
  • Crop selectivity

8
Liebergs Law of Limits
9
Nutrient removed (lbs./ac) by grazing and hay
production
10
Fertility Management
  • Nitrogen Bermudagrass
  • Grazing180 units/year include recycled
  • Hay most responsive with early harvests
  • Hybrid Bermuda 100 units/cutting, split
  • others 60 units/cutting
  • Phosphorus
  • 60 - 120 units per year
  • pH dependent
  • build up with manure

11
Fertility Management
  • Potassium Tricky
  • Grazing limited
  • Hay depletion
  • First indication Winter kill
  • Late application may be more important
  • examine roots in late summer
  • fertilize for Ryegrass Requirements

12
Fertility Management
  • Soil pH
  • limits nutrient availability
  • Cool season more intolerant
  • Ryegrass/small grains pHgt5.8
  • Clover
  • pHlt7 white, crimson, subterranean, arrowleaf,
    lespedeza
  • pHgt7alfalfa, berseem, sweetclover, vetch, medics
    (?)

13
Fertility Management
  • Secondary Ca, Mg, S.
  • Ca, Mg adjust with lime
  • Sulfur becoming more important
  • Micronutrients Zn, Cu, others
  • responsive if major nutrient needs are met
  • pH regulates
  • pHlt5.5 Zn, Cu, others
  • pHgt7.5 Fe, others
  • manure build up of Cu

14
Weed Control
  • Limited Herbicides
  • Multiple options
  • Integrated Management
  • Multiple uses
  • Multiple methods

15
Weed Control Methods
  • Herbicides
  • Tillage
  • Defoliation
  • Mowing
  • Grazing
  • Good Management
  • Fertility
  • Carbohydrate Management
  • Shading/mulching

16
Basic Principles of Chemical Weed Control
  • Know your weeds
  • Choose the right herbicide
  • Calibrate your sprayer
  • Spray at the proper time

17
Know Your Weeds
  • 300 different species in East Texas Pastures

18
Few Economically Significant
  • Woolly Croton Milkweed
  • Pigweed Berryvine
  • Ragweed Thistles
  • Bitterweed Buttercup
  • Horsenettle Grassburs
  • Dogfennel Bahiagrass
  • Dallisgrass Crabgrass

19
Weed Identification
  • Plant type
  • Growing pattern
  • annual, biennial, perennial
  • Leaf Shape
  • Reproductive organs
  • Flowering heads
  • stems and roots

20
Battle Plan Chemical Weed Control Principles
  • Starve the weed, feed the crop
  • Spray annual weeds when they are young and
    actively growing
  • Spray perennial weeds when they are at full leaf
    or fruit set

21
Labeled Herbicides
  • 2,4-D annual broadleaf
  • Banvel Weedmaster
  • pre-emergent activity
  • Picloram Grazon PD
  • Sulfanyl Urea Ally, Amber
  • specific weed tolerance and susceptibility
  • Rave Amber Banvel
  • Roundup new uses
  • Gramoxone Use late in afternoon
  • Velparsmutgrass

22
Integrated Weed Control
  • Establishment
  • timely planting date
  • timely appropriate fertility
  • timely herbicide application
  • Established
  • Proper NPK ratio
  • Reduce overgrazing
  • Multiple benefit herbicide application

23
Effect of N Rate, herbicide and covercrop on weed
production
24
Chemical Desiccation of Dallisgrass Sod
25
Prescribed Burning
  • Earliest recorded form of grass management
  • Multiple benefits (residue removal, control of
    spring weeds, increased infiltration)
  • Effective on young annual weeds
  • Ineffective on many perennial weeds
  • Fuel load is critical

26
Fire
  • Timing is critical
  • May damage crop plant
  • VERY RISKY, HIGH LIABILITY
  • Not recommended to most producers, land owners or
    anyone
  • Check with Law Enforcement and Fire Stations
    first.

27
Stocking rate responses
  • Animal Production
  • decreases with increased stocking rate (decrease
    forage availability)
  • Forage availability
  • decreases with increased stocking rate and/or
    forage growth. So do TNCs
  • Soil and sward
  • compaction increases with increased stocking rate
    during wet periods

28
Stubble height
  • Carbohydrate management
  • overgrazing fall regrowth depletes TNCs
  • weakened plant is susceptible to winter kill
  • leave 4 stubble going into winter
  • Mulching
  • fall weed control
  • Burning
  • fire fuel

29
Tillage Plowing/Subsoiling
  • Sod Damage
  • Bahiagrass control
  • Discing/plowing
  • Incorporates OM Nutrients
  • Smoothes surface
  • Expensive/replant
  • Subsoiling/chiseling
  • Breaks pans
  • loosens soil

30
Subsoiling/plowing
  • Multiple Implements
  • paraplow, aeroway, etc.
  • standard chisel or disc
  • Timing
  • During dormancy
  • preferably drier soil
  • increase pan shatter
  • prior to spring rains
  • bermuda recovery

31
Replanting
  • Annuals
  • Sudans Clay
  • Millets Sand
  • Perennials
  • Bermudagrass
  • hybrid nonhybrid
  • Bahiagrass
  • Pensacola, Tifton 9
  • Dallisgrass, others

32
Replanting
  • Bermudagrass
  • Standards
  • Coastal, Tifton-44
  • New
  • Hybrid Tifton-85, Jiggs, Brazos
  • Seeded Varieties
  • easy replanting
  • Cheyenne, others
  • GiantNK37
  • None severely tested by cold weather

33
Intensive Grazing
34
Renovation Summary
  • Minimum
  • Soil testing Fertilization
  • Weed Control
  • Limited herbicides
  • Integrated control
  • Prescribed burning
  • Grazing Mgmt
  • Reduced stocking rate
  • Stubble ht.
  • Extensive
  • Subsoiling/chiseling or Discing/plowing
  • Replanting
  • Heavy fertilization
  • Intensive grazing management
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