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The Unbelievers Bill of Rights ... Purpose. Objective or Intention 'ongoing' Living by your word. Congruence 'being right with life' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Worldview

Personal Philosophy of Professional Ethics
  • The Student will develop a written personal
    statement of their philosophy of ethics as a
    health care professional. The student will
    articulate the ethical basis on which they make
    moral judgments and conduct their behavior as a
    health care professional. The statement will
    include guiding principles and values that the
    student uses to make critical decisions and
    resolve ethic dilemmas. Although brevity and
    conciseness are laudable, the statement should be
    at least one page or more in length providing a
    clear statement of philosophy yet avoiding
    repetitious ambiguity.

Conflicting world views?
  • I am aware that no neutral on such
    emotionally charged issues. None of us can
    tolerate the notion that our worldview may be
    based on a false premise and, thus, our whole
    life headed in the wrong direction.
  • Dr. Armand M. Nicholi Jr.

  • Read not to contradictbut weigh and consider.
  • Sir Francis Bacon
  • Seek first understand, then to be understood.
  • Steven Covey

  • Most of us make one of two basic assumptions
  • we view the universe as a result of random events
    and life in this planet is a matter of chance
  • Or we assume an Intelligence beyond the universe
    who gives the universe order, and life meaning.
  • Dr. Armand M. Nicholi Jr.

The basis for an approach to ethics
  • Worldview establishes the foundation that
    individuals rely on to form their approach to
    ethics. There are two fundamental worldviews
    from which ethics and values manifest in behavior
    and decision-making
  • A belief that humans are created beings
    accountable to a creator.
  • A belief that humans evolved from the result of a
    chance event.

  • Every individual bases his thoughts, decisions
    and actions on a worldview.
  • Because worldviews are pertinent to every
    persons lifethe way we think and the way we
    actand because virtually all worldviews promise
    salvation or utopia, the study of worldviews is
    of critical importance.
  • David Noebel

  • Our worldview informs our personal, social, and
    political lives. It influences how we perceive
    ourselves, how we relate to others, how we adjust
    to adversity, and what we understand our purpose
    to be.
  • Dr. Armand M. Nicholi Jr.

  • Our worldview helps determine our values, our
    ethics, and our capacity for happiness. It helps
    us understand
  • where we come from, our heritage
  • who we are, our identity
  • why we exist on this planet, our purpose
  • what drives us, our motivation and
  • where we are going, our destiny.
  • Dr. Armand M. Nicholi Jr.

Nothing short of a great Civil War of Values
rages today throughout North America. Two sides
with vastly differing and incompatible worldviews
are locked in a bitter conflict that permeates
every level of society.
James Dobson and Gary Bauer
The Roots of Two Worldviews.
  • The spiritual worldview, rooted primarily in
    ancient Israel, with it emphasis on moral truth
    and right conduct and its motto of Thus saith the
  • ..The materialist or scientific worldview,
    rooted in ancient Greece, with its emphasis on
    reason and acquisition of knowledge and it motto
    What Says Nature?
  • Dr. Armand M. Nicholi Jr.

To be more precise, it is a battle between
worldviews, On one side is the Christian
worldview. On the other is the Humanist
worldview divided into three easily definable
branches Secular Humanism, Marxism/Leninism,
and Cosmic Humanism or the New Age movement.
David Noebel
The Unbelievers Bill of Rights
Secular Humanism
  • The freedoms of thought and expression count
    among our most fundamental and cherished rights,
    and promote both individual welfare and the
    common good in a democratic state. Historically,
    however, unbelievers such as secular humanists,
    atheists, agnostics, rationalists, and
    freethinkers have faced prejudice, intolerance,
    and discrimination for their opinions and
  • In the firm conviction that the principle of
    Church-State separation guarantees the equal
    rights of the religious and non-religious, we the
    Campus Freethought Alliance, on this 12th Day of
    July, 1998, hereby present the following Bill of
    Rights for Unbelievers.

Unbelievers shall have the right to
  • 1.Think freely and autonomously, express their
    views forthrightly, and debate or criticize any
    and all ideas without fear of censure,
    recrimination, or public ostracism.
  • 2.Be free from discrimination and persecution in
    the workplace, business transactions, and public
  • 3.Exercise freedom of conscience in any situation
    where the same right would be extended to
    believers on religious grounds alone.
  • 4.Hold any public office, in accordance with the
    constitutional principle that there shall be no
    religious test for such office.

The Unbelievers Bill of Rights (Cont)
  • 5.Abstain from religious oaths and pledges,
    including pledges of allegiance, oaths of office,
    and oaths administered in a court of law, until
    such time as these are secularized or replaced by
    non-discriminatory affirmations.
  • 6.Empower members of their community to perform
    legally-binding ceremonies, such as marriage.
  • 7.Raise and nurture their children in a secular
    environment, and not be disadvantaged in adoption
    or custody proceedings because of their unbelief.
  • 8.Conduct business and commerce on any day of
    their choosing, without interference from laws or
    regulations recognizing religious days of prayer,
    rest, or celebration.

The Unbelievers Bill of Rights (Cont)
  • 9.Enjoy freedom from taxation supporting the
    government employment of clergy, and access to
    secular counseling equivalent to that provided by
  • 10.Declare conscientious objection to serving in
    the armed forces under any circumstance in which
    the religious may do so.
  • 11.Live as citizens of a democracy free from
    religious language and imagery in currency,
    public schools and buildings, and government
    documents and business.

Secular humanists should be aware of a new book
recently published..By Tim Lahaye and
DavidNoebelThe main theses of LaHaye and
Noebel are, first, that secular humanism is a
"religion.".Secular humanists should be
apprehensive about this vicious indictment. Let
us hope that it is not thebeginning of a major
new assault, and that it will not be used by the
Religious Right or their cohorts in the Bush
administration and the conservative media to
restrict not only the rights and freedom of
secular humanists but of all Americans.
Another Assault From the Religious Right
by Paul Kurtz
law is based squarely on the assumptions that
God does not exist and man is an evolving
animal. law carries the burden of biological
evolution, class warfare, and its own demise.
The victory of communism brings with it the end
of all class conflicts, the elimination of
private property, and paradise on
earth. Noebel

capital ethics is based on private property, as
is the law in which that ethics is enacted.
  • Just as it is impossible to find eternal moral
    principles in the form of commandments and
    maxims, it is impossible to find eternal justice
    embodied in statutes and legal codes. Just as a
    maxim becomes obsolete through changing
    conditions, so does a principle of legal right
    require reinterpretation in each new epoch, and,
    in periods of far-reaching social reconstruction,
    complete overthrow and replacement by a new
    principle meeting new situations and needs.

Cosmic HumanismNew Age
Ethical perspective based on theological
pantheism and philosophical monism.
Free will is simply the enactment of the
realization that you are God, a realization that
you are divine free will is making everything
accessible to you. It is not possible to
judge anothers truth. Shirley MacLaine
Autonomous human beings can create and invent.
And they can change their minds, repudiating
values they once held. Gawain
Cosmic HumanismNew Age
All authority resides within the individual
we must establish a world system where
international law, courts, and enforcement are a
reality. Ferencz Keyes
As each of us connects with our inner spiritual
awareness, we learn that the creative power of
the universe is within us. We also learn that we
can create our own reality and take
responsibility for for doing so. Gawain
In the beginning was the Word, and the
Word was with God, and the Word was God. John
1 1
To cut off Law from its ethical sources is to
strike a terrible blow at the rule of law.
Russell Kirk
The fundamental basis of this nations law was
given to Moses on the Mount. The fundamental
basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the
teachings which we get from Exodus and St.
Matthew, from Isaiah and St. Paul. I dont think
we emphasize that enough these days. If we dont
have the proper fundamental moral background, we
will finally wind up with a totalitarian
government which does not believe in rights for
anybody except the state.
Harry S. Truman
HAS 4400Legal Aspects of Health Care
  • Ethical Principles and Approaches
  • Dr. Burton

Theories of Moral Obligation
  • Utilitarian and Other Teleological Theories
  • Choosing the alternative that produces the
    greatest balance of good over evil for members of
    a moral reference group.
  • Deontological Theories
  • A duty-based theory

  • Three questions are left unanswered
  • Who is to be included in the moral reference
  • What is to count as good or bad?
  • What sort of alternative is to be considered?

Source Graber 1989
Moral Reference Group
  • Egoism
  • Racism
  • Sexism
  • Nationalism
  • Ones patients
  • Utilitarianism all sentient beings (human?)

Theories of Value
  • Subjective Preference
  • Maximize satisfaction of preferences and minimize
  • Hedonism
  • Pleasure is good, pain is bad.
  • Pluralism
  • Four fundamental intrinsic goods
  • Pleasure
  • Knowledge
  • Virtue
  • Justice

Act versus Rule
  • Should a standard be applied to individual
    concrete actions or more generally in formulating
    policies for action in all situations of a
    certain type?

Kants Deontological Theory
  • Maintained that it is absolutely and always wrong
    to treat persons merely as a means and not at
    the same time as an end in themselves.
  • Absolute duties
  • It is wrong to kill an innocent person.
  • It is wrong to tell a lie.
  • It is wrong to do physical harm to an innocent

Rosss Prima Facie Duties
  • Fidelity
  • Reparation
  • Gratitude
  • Justice
  • Beneficence
  • Self-Improvement
  • Nonmaleficence

Beauchamp and Childress(Four basic principles)
  • Autonomy
  • Free to make choices
  • Nonmaleficence
  • Do no harm
  • Beneficence
  • Doing good
  • Justice
  • Strive for equality in welfare and opportunity

Making ethical decisionsEdmund Erde
  • A methodology
  • 1. Characterize the dilemma as fully as possible
  • 2. Keeping the nature of morality in mind,
    discard those constituents that arise as a result
    of inclinations and prejudices.
  • 3. If step 2 does not suffice to solve the
    problem, consider fully the characterized case in
    the light of the available moral theories.

Common Rationalizations
  • Its not really illegal or immoral.
  • Its in my (or the organizations) best
  • No one will find out.
  • Since it helps the organization, the
    organization will condone it and protect me.

Exhibit 5-7 Three views on ethics.
Ethical questions
The Utilitarian View
The Rights View
The Justice View
Times are changing. Individual rights and social
justice are challenges which will require
supervisors to base ethical standards on
nonutilitarian criteria.
A guide for ethical behavior.Questions to ask
  • 1. How did this problem occur in the first place?
  • 2. Would you define the problem differently if
    you stood on the other side of the fence?
  • 3. To whom and to what do you give your loyalty
    as a person and as a member of your organization/
  • 4. What is your intention in making this
  • 5. What is the potential for your intentions to
    be misunderstood by others in the organization?
  • 6. How does your intention compare with the
    probable result?
  • 7. Whom could your decision injure?
  • 8. Can you discuss the problem with affected
    parties before you make the decision?
  • 9. Are you confident that your position will be
    as valid over a long period of time as it seems
  • 10. Could you disclose your decision to your boss
    or your immediate family?
  • 11. How would you feel if your decision was
    described, in detail, on the front page of your
    local newspaper?

There is no right way to do a wrong thing
Values Clarification Process
Choosing Values
Prizing Values
Acting on Values
The Five Ps of Ethical Power
  • Objective or Intention
  • ongoing
  • Living by your word
  • Congruence
  • being right with life
  • Your epitaph?

  • NOT Big I,
  • little you.
  • Self-worth vs Worthless
  • No one can make you feel inferior without your


People with humility dont think less of
themselves.. They just think about themselves

Nice guys may appear to finish last, but usually
they are running in a different race
Never! Never! Never! Never! Give up!
  • Nothing can take the place of Persistence
  • Talent will not nothing is more common than
    unsuccessful men with great talent
  • Genius will not unrewarded genius is almost a
  • Education will not the world is full of educated
  • Persistence and determination alone are

  • Every problem
  • can be solved
  • if you take
  • some quiet time
  • to reflect,
  • seek guidance,
  • and put things
  • into
  • Perspective.

Ethical dilemmas.
I dont care how you get results just get
How can you get acceptable bottom-line results,
stay competitive, and at the same time, be
committed to ethical practices?
If you are always confrontedwith easy
choices,you dont buildCHARACTER
IfWeTake CareIn theBeginning,The
EndWillTake careIfItself
Blanchard and PealesEthics Check
  • Ethics Check
  • 1. Is it legal?
  • 2. Is it balanced?
  • 3. How will it make me feel about myself?
  • Consider
  • Will I be violating either civil law or company
  • Is it fair to all concerned in the short term as
    well as the long term?
  • Does it promote win-win relationship?
  • Would I feel good if my decision were published
    in the news paper?
  • Would I feel good if my family knows about my