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Adam Overholtzer presents


Adam Overholtzer presents... ROBOCOP. Err. RoboCup. RoboCup: The Robot World ... though his method requires perfect knowledge and RoboCop does now allow for it ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Adam Overholtzer presents

Adam Overholtzer presents…
RoboCup The Robot World Cup Initiative
  • http//
  • Kitano, Asada, Kuniyoshi, Noda, Osawa

RoboCups Ultimate Goooooooooooooooooal!!
  • By mid-21st century, a team of fully autonomous
    humanoid robot soccer players shall win a soccer
    game against the most recent World Cup champions
    while fully complying with the official rules of
    the FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football

What is RoboCup?
  • an international research and education
  • an attempt to foster AI and intelligent robotics
    research by providing a standard problem where
    wide range of technologies can be integrated and
    examined, as well as being used for integrated
    project-oriented education
  • for this purpose, a soccer game was chosen as the
    primary domain
  • Why Soccer?
  • RoboCup is a task for a team of multiple
    fast-moving robots under a dynamic environment
  • in order for a robot team to actually play
    soccer, various technologies must be
    incorporated, such as autonomous agents,
    multi-agent collaboration, strategy acquisition,
    and real-time reasoning

A New Standard Problem?
  • a standard problem is a clearly-defined,
    realistic and affordable challenge that can be
    used to evaluate and compare various algorithms,
    theories, and architectures
  • Turing proposed chess as a standard problem for
    AI (because chess is hard)
  • the authors propose that RoboCup should be a new
    standard problem for intelligent robotics

A New Standard Problem Why RoboCup?
Well, Deep Blue already defeated human Grand
Master Garry Kasparov. The chess problem is
(virtually) solved and has become too simple to
spur innovation, whereas RoboCup is cutting-edge
Standard Problems Criticisms and Responses
  • standard problems are often abstract tasks and
    thus they ignore essential difficulties of real
    world problem solving
  • however, solving any real world problem must
    involve domain-specific restraints
  • additionally, work on real world systems is far
    too expensive for many groups

RoboCup is designed to meet the need of handling
real world complexity, though in a limited
environment, while maintaining an affordable
problem size and research cost.
Research Issues Robot Design
  • existing robots have been designed to perform
    mostly single behavior actions, such as pushing,
    kicking, juggling, etc.
  • a RoboCup player would need to be able to perform
    multiple subtasks such as shooting and passing,
    while also avoiding opponents
  • such a multitasking robot could be built with
    either (1) many combined single task components
    or (2) a smaller number of components each able
    to perform several subtasks
  • approach 2 seems preferable, since a player would
    need to be compact and quick
  • ideally the robots would be humanoid, though this
    is obviously a long term goal

Research Issues Sensors
  • sensors need to provide visual representation of
    the world and information about the results of
    the robots actions
  • Computer Vision researchers seek to convert 2-D
    sensor data into complex 3-D geometry, but this
    is slow and processor-intensive
  • RoboCup players need a simpler and faster vision
    system so player can react in real time
  • other possible sensing devices for detecting
    information not provided by sight include sonar,
    touch, and force/torque sensors

Research Issues Learning
  • each player has to be able to perform one of
    several behaviors depending on the current
  • considering the uncertainties of RoboCups
    dynamic and nondeterministic environment,
    programming behaviors for every situation seems
  • thus, reinforcement learning seems promising
    because the robots can evolve advanced behaviors
    with little pre-programmed knowledge
  • so far, almost all of the existing applications
    have been done with computer simulations, not

Research Issues Learning
  • the first step would be to evolve one-on-one
    competition, though this is quite complex because
    the player must take the opponents motions into
  • to reduce complexity, task decomposition can be
  • some work so far
  • Asada et al. proposed a system where the shooting
    and avoiding behaviors are acquired independently
    and coordinated through the learning, though this
    method is slow due to the huge state space needed
  • Sahota proposed a reactive deliberation approach
    architecture, though his method requires perfect
    knowledge and RoboCop does now allow for it

Research Issues Learning
  • the ultimate goal would be a many-to-many
    competition, i.e., a full game of soccer
  • this would require dynamic team interaction, and
    defining all such collective behaviors seems
    infeasible, so learning them would seem promising
  • unfortunately, it is difficult to find simple
    methods for learning collective behaviors, so
    instead you would need to use pattern finding
    methods or a coordination by imitation system
  • other issues, such as task representation
    environment modeling are also challenging, so,
    uh, clearly there is lots of good work to be done!

Research Issues Collaboration
  • a soccer game can be viewed as a real time
    multi-agent environment great for distributed
    AI and multi-agent research (like that Ant
    Algorithm stuff)
  • each team has a team-wide common goal (to win)
    and these goals are incompatible (i.e., both
    teams cant win)
  • a team might have global (team-wide) strategies
    to fulfill this common goal, as well as both
    local and global tactics to achieve subgoals
    (scoring points, blocking an enemy, etc.)
  • the opposing team could be seen as a dynamic and
    obstructive environment that can prevent our team
    from achieving its goal

Research Issues Collaboration
  • there are many challenges to overcome
  • the environment, i.e. the movements of both
    teams, is highly dynamic
  • each players perception is locally limited (no
    global perception or knowledge)
  • each player may have a different role
  • communication between teammates is limited and so
    a player must be able to act autonomously
  • in summary, a soccer team can be viewed as a
    cooper-ative distributed real-time planning
    scheme, embedded in a highly dynamic environment
    and it still aint as bad as real life!

The Rules of RoboCup
  • RoboCup consists of three competitions the real
    robot competition, the software (or simulated)
    robot competition, and the special skills
  • for the real robot competition, the real
    worldness of RoboCup arises from the vast
    complexity of the overall situation due to
    uncertainty and uncontrollability in the
    structures and functions of the real robots along
    with real physical phenomena
  • therefore the authors have aimed for minimal
    regulations and the simplest possible environment
    in the real robot competitions

Rules of RoboCup Real Robots
  • for both the small and medium sized real robot
    leagues, the size and structure of the
    environment, as well as the number of players, is
  • the colorings of the ball, field and robots are
    also predetermined so robots can be designed
  • fouls are called when a robot intentionally
    attacks another robot, or when a robot holds the
    ball or crowds the defense zone

The field for small robots.
Rules of RoboCup Real Robots
  • the Simulation Track for the field of play is
    based on a server-client system where the server
    provides the virtual field and simulates all
  • the simulated environment is extremely
    straightforward, with a 2-D field and players
    represented as circles with simple stepwise
    motion and collision
  • a player is only aware of its position relative
    to nearby landmarks, not its absolute position
    on the field
  • each player is controlled by a client program
    connected to the Soccer Server and every action,
    including player-to-player communication, is
    handled through the server

Rules of RoboCup Simulated
  • Soccer Server is also used to simulate games
    using client programs as virtual robots, just as
    discussed on the previous slide
  • these virtual games are especially useful for
    comparing multi-agent systems without having to
    deal with all the physical limitations of robot
  • thus complex player coordination can be developed
    while others develop workable robots

Rules of RoboCup Special Skills
  • in order to fine-tune various advanced physical
    skills, these humanoid robots are designed to
    compete at only one or two key abilities
  • this is the newest completion at RoboCup and very
    few groups can afford to compete
  • such a robot is needed to accomplish RoboCups
    ultimate goal, but theyve got a long way to go
    see this kicking robot in action!

In Summary
  • RoboCup should be a new standard AI problem
  • RoboCup provides rich research issues for a wide
    range of AI and robotics studies
  • building a robot soccer team would require
    integration of a broad range of technologies and
    fundamental breakthroughs on some of the key
    issues in agent design
  • the authors hope that the RoboCup initiative will
    play a key role in promoting the state-of-the-art
    in AI and robotics research
  • someday, robots will win the World Cup and the
    fans will riot in the streets Domo arigato, Mr.

Web Sites of Interest
  • Main RoboCup Site
  • RoboCup Soccer Simulator
  • Special Interest Developer Groups
  • Multi-agent Learning
  • Multi-agent Modeling
  • Vision
  • Simulation Tools for Real Robots
  • Configurable and Modular Robotics
  • Lots of Movies by the Carnegie Mellon Team