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The Cold War Abroad and at Home

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Title: The Cold War Abroad and at Home


1
The Cold War Abroad and at Home
  • 1945-1952

2
Polarization and the Cold War
  • Fellow Traveler
  • Sympathizer of the Communist Party but without
    openly joining
  • Fellow travelers in FDR administration in Media
  • Joseph E. Davies, ambassador to Moscow
  • Walter Duranty

3
Show Trials / Great Purge
  • Stalins way of eliminating potential rivals
  • Old Boshevik accused of treason and put on trial
  • Evidence derived from torture and intimidation
  • Public face of Great Terror millions sent to
    gulags

4
FDR Communism
  • I think that if I give Stalin everything I
    possibly can and ask nothing from him in return,
    noblesse oblige, he wont try to annex anything
    and will work with me for a world of democracy
    and peace.
  • FDR to Churchill

5
Communist Expansion
  • At Yalta Conference (Feb 1945), FDR acquieces to
    Stalins territorial demands
  • Outer Mongolia
  • Southern Sakhalin
  • Kuril Islans
  • And other territorial rights

6
Soviet Satellites
  • FDR rejects Churchills request for
    American-British co-ordination
  • FDR rejects Churchills request international
    team to supervise Polands elections
  • FDRs policy of speedy de-mobilization
  • Allows Stalin to set up totalitarian states
  • Eastern Europe
  • Half of Germany
  • Most of Balkins
  • Poland, etc

7
Truman Communism
  • I do not think we should play compromise any
    longer . . . I am tired of babying the Soviets.
  • Truman, January 5, 1946

8
Beginning of Cold War
  • There can be no lasting peace with capitalism and
    vowed to overcome the American lead in weaponry
    no matter the cost
  • Stalin, Feb 1946

9
Cold War
  • a conflict over ideological differences carried
    on by methods short of overt sustained military
    action and usually without breaking off
    diplomatic relations.

10
Long Telegram
  • Communist expansion moves inexorably along a
    prescribed path . . . stopping only when it meets
    some unanswerable force.
  • Concluded the US Policy must be the long term,
    patient but firm and vigilant containment of
    Russian expansive tendencies.
  • George Kennan, Feb 1946

11
Containment
  • a doctrine uniting military, economic, and
    diplomatic strategies to prevent communism from
    spreading becomes US policy and Washington
    gospel until Ronald Reagan.

12
Iron Curtain
  • From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the
    Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the
    Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals
    of the ancient states of Central and Eastern
    Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest,
    Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia all these famous
    cities and the populations around them lie in
    what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are
    subject, in one form or another, not only to
    Soviet influence but to a very high and in some
    cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.
  • Churchill, Westminster College, 1946

13
  • June 1946 Stalin rejects Trumans offer for
    bilateral nuclear disarmaments.
  • Americans continue to disarm conventional
    weapons unaware of soviet espionage
  • Congress established Atomic Energy Commission
    (AEC)

14
Containing Communism
  • Feb 21, 1947 Great Britain informs Truman they
    can no longer support Greece and Turkey
  • Truman invites Congressional leader to White
    House to make Case for aid
  • scare the hell out of the County

15
Truman Doctrine
  • I believe it must be the policy of the United
    States to support free peoples who are resisting
    attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by
    outside pressure.
  • Truman, March 12, 1947

16
  • 400 million in military assistance to Greece and
    Turkey
  • National Security Act (1947)
  • National Security Council
  • Central Intelligence Agency
  • Department of Defense
  • Heads of Army, Navy, Air Force leadership under
    Joint Chiefs of Staff

17
Marshall Plan
  • June 5, 1947 George Marshall unveils plan to
    assist all European Countries, including USSR
  • February 1948 Stalin stages brutal coup in
    Czechoslovakia
  • 17 Billion is US assistance went to Europe
  • Reinvigorated France, W. Germany, Italy
  • Aided American exports

18
Confrontation in Germany
  • Germany divided into Four Zones
  • Stalin blockaded Berlin
  • Operation Vittles
  • 4500 tons of supplies a day by Dec. 1948
  • 8100 tons of supplies a day by Spring 1949
  • Directly demonstrated the evil of Stalin to the
    West
  • Blockade made apparent need for rearmed West
    Germany and collective security alliance.

19
  • Still unelected president whistle stop campaign
  • giveem hell Harry

20
North Atlantic Treaty
  • On April 4 1949 the North Atlantic Treaty was
    signed in Washington by the United States,
    Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain,
    Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
    Norway, and Portugal (Greece and Turkey joined in
    1952, West Germany in 1955).

21
Soviet Response
  • 1949 created German Democratic Republic
  • Exploded a nuclear bomb
  • 1955 Warsaw Pact

22
Cold War in Asia
  • Japanese islands governed by American Occupation
    force
  • General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander
    Allied Pacific (SCAP)
  • MacArthur threatened to arrest any Soviet soldier
    who set foot on Japan
  • Occupation lasted until 1952 (7 years)

23
China
  • China ravaged by revolution, warlordism, Japanese
    occupation, and civil war
  • Chinese communist Mao Zedong
  • Chinese Nationalists Chiang Kaishek
  • US government encourages rapprochement

24
Rapprochement
  • 1945 Ambassador Hurley escorts Mao for talks with
    Chiang
  • November 1945 Chiang attacks Communist position
  • November 1945 Hurley resigns accused US
    foreign service of undermining US efforts
  • George Marshall mediates several cease fires
    between Dec 1945 Jan 1947 all failed.

25
  • A China disunited and torn by civil strife could
    not be considered realistically as a proper place
    for American assistance.
  • Harry Truman
  • Truman administrations cuts off aid to the
    Nationalist between Jan 1947 Nov. 1948
  • CCP received constant supplies and aid from USSR
    solidifies position in North China

26
China Hands
  • Leading authorities on China advising Truman and
    Marshall
  • Owen Lattimore and John Stewart Service
  • Both Communists or Fellow Travelers
  • Advised Truman to cease supporting the
    Nationalists and withdraw from both Korea and
    Japan

27
  • April 1949 CCP capured Beijing
  • By November all of China was controlled by CCP
    Nationalists retreated to Taiwan
  • Oct 1949 Mao proclaims the Peoples Republic of
    China (PRC) from a top the Gate of Heavenly Peace
    (tiananmen square)

28
China Lobby
  • Truman received pressure from anticommunists not
    to recognize the PRC block admission to UN and
    to recognize the nationalist government on Taiwon
  • Labeled the China lobby coined by the New York
    Communist Party conveys impression they are
    paid lobbyists for Chiang
  • Only one person a public relations consultant
    took money from Chiang rest were independent
    people with various ties to China

29
Korean War
  • Film

30
Containment, Soviet Atrocities, Communist Threat
  • Doctrine of Containment unmitigated failure
  • Limited but important successes
  • By early 1980s, Communism controlled more than a
    third of world population
  • Domino theory
  • Marxist ideology worldwide revolution

31
Communist Atrocities
  • USSR 20 65 million killed
  • China 65 million killed
  • Vietnam 1 million killed
  • North Korea 2 million killed
  • Cambodia 2 million killed
  • Eastern Europe 1 million
  • Total apx 100 million
  • Source Courtois, et. al., The Black Book of
    Communism

32
Communist Threat Anticommunism
  • Party line above all else
  • Threat of subversion and espionage was real
  • Republican Party and Christianity
  • Whitaker Chambers
  • William F. Buckley
  • Solzhenitsyn
  • Democrats such as Kennedy and Dies
  • Anti-anti-communism

33
Anti-Communism
  • Democratic Congress Martin Dies
  • 1938 House Committee on Un-American Activities
    (HUAC)
  • Investigates Nazi and Communist subversives
  • During the 1930s and WWII, attacks on right wing
    and fascist americans
  • 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact
  • Sept 2, 1939 Whitaker Chambers confessed to
    Assist Secy of State Adolf A. Berle, Jr.

34
Smith Act of 1940
  • Democrat controlled House and Exectutive branch
    passes Smith Act with support of liberals and
    CPUSA
  • Banned all political groups that advocated the
    violent overthrow of the government
  • Eventually used to prosecute Communists

35
Japanese Internment
  • Japanese Americans rounded up and housed in
    internment camps
  • Supported by liberals and democrats
  • Opposed J. Edgar Hoover and Republican Robert Taft

36
Soviet Espionage
  • 1945 evidence of soviet espionage
  • Raid on Amerasia Journal
  • Exposed secret state department and naval
    intelligence documents
  • Canadian government uncovers spy network

37
Executive Order 9835
  • Established Federal Employee Loyalty Board to
    root out subversives
  • Barred members of Communist party and its front
    groups from employ in the federal government
  • Queer Baiting
  • Many known communists engaged in homosexual acts
  • Subversive of traditional morality also inclined
    to other subversive activity
  • Homosexuals might be susceptible to blackmail

38
HUAC Hearings
  • Hearings to expose Communist influence in
    American life
  • Investigates Hollywood
  • Friendly and unfriendly witness
  • Hollywood Ten
  • Hollywood Blacklist

39
HUAC and Alger Hiss
  • Alger Hiss, former top Department of State
    official
  • HUAC dominated by young Richard Nixon
  • Nixon was introduced to Chambers who repeated his
    story
  • Chambers brought before HUAC testified that
    Alger Hiss brought him state department documents

40
  • Hiss denied accusation liberal establishment
    supported Hiss
  • Truman denounced hearings as a Red Herring
  • Hiss challenges Chambers to repeat allegations
    outside hearing
  • Invited on Meet the Press
  • Alger Hiss was a communist and may be now

41
Pumpkin Papers
  • Saved documents and microfilm in a pumpkin on his
    farm
  • Proved to be written on Hisss typewriter
  • Hiss convicted of perjury statute of limitations
    on espionage run out
  • Hiss used as an example of excesses of
    anti-communism
  • Soviet archive prove Hiss was a traitor and
    communist

42
Fuchs Rosenbergs
  • 1950 Klaus Fuchs arrested in Britain for
    espionage
  • Leads to arrest of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
  • Coconspirators in Soviet spy ring that passed
    atomic secrets to Soviets
  • Refused to plea bargain executed for treason
  • Immediately became caus celebre for leftists
  • Soviet archives prove their guilt

43
Senator Joseph McCarthy
  • Born 1908 to Irish-Catholic Family
  • Dropped out of school to raise chickens and sell
    eggs
  • Returned to high school at age of 21
  • 1935 recd law degree
  • Elected Judge enlisted with marines
  • 1943 elected to Senate

44
  • November 1948 accused State department of being
    honey-combed and run by Communists
  • Communists in government was very much on
    Americans mind

45
Wheeling Speech
  • Feb 9, 1950 delivered speech to Ohio County
    Republican Womens Club
  • Acquired Lee list from Ed Neller
  • House Appropriations Comm prepared a list of 108
    security risks 57 cases still pending
  • Gained widespread fame reporters followed him
    everywhere
  • McCarthy becomes object of investigation

46
  • Feb 20 6 hour speech on floor of Senate
  • McCarthy was a politician and demagogue but his
    point was correct there were security risks in
    the state department
  • Negative editorials and investigations not
    against security risks, but against McCarthy

47
Investigating McCarthy
  • Tydings Committee
  • Did not allow subpoena of state department
    documents
  • Constantly antagonized to name names
  • Names Owen Lattimore
  • Labeled McCarthy a fraud and a hoax

48
McCarren Committee
  • Much more thorough than Tydings
  • Lattimore a conscious and articulate instrument
    of Stalinism
  • McCarthy blurred lines between spy and
    sympathizer
  • McCarthy wins in court of public opinion
  • 80 favorable ratings in Gallop Polls

49
Americas Retreat From Victory
  • If Marshall were merely stupid, the laws of
    probability would have dictated that at least
    some of his decisions would have served this
    countrys interest.
  • Joseph McCarthy

50
Downfall
  • Jan 1953 Roy Cohn recd leaked info regarding
    security risks in the Army
  • Nov 1953 David Schine drafted Cohn influence
    peddles to get Schine a desk job
  • Army-McCarthy hearings
  • Army accuses McCarthy of influence peddling
  • McCarthy defends himself shows poorly
  • 1954 Senate Censure
  • 1957 McCarthy dies from effects of Alcoholism

51
Venona Project
  • Began in 1943 by National Security Agency
  • Not made public until 1995
  • 1945 broke Soviet code
  • Decrypted cables show that more than 349 people
    in US maintained a covert relationship with
    Soviets

52
Spies uncovered by Venona
  • Alger Hiss
  • Harry Dexter White 2nd highest official at
    Treasury
  • Lauchlin Curry personal aide to FDR
  • Maurice Halperin section head at Office of
    Strategic Services
  • Almost every military and diplomatic office was
    compromised

53
  • Theodore Hall youngest scientist on Manhattan
    Project
  • Not publicly prosecuted or implicated to protect
    secrecy of Venona
  • Implicates Julius Ethel Rosenberg
  • But not as important to spy ring as previously
    thought
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