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Classroom Management Theorists

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Title: Classroom Management Theorists


1
Classroom Management Theorists
  • Prepared by
  • Professor J. McNair

2
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3
Dreikurs Principal Teachings
  • Discipline at its best is defined as
    self-control, based on social interest.
  • Self-controlled students are able to show
    initiative, make reasonable decisions, and assume
    responsibility in ways that benefit both
    themselves and others.
  • Social interest refers to students' efforts to
    make the classroom comfortable and productive,
    based on understanding that such classrooms
    better meet their personal needs.

4
Dreikurs Principal Teachings
  • Good discipline occurs best in a democratic
    classroom.
  • A democratic classroom is one in which teacher
    and students work together to make decisions
    about how the class will function.
  • Good discipline cannot occur in autocratic or
    permissive classrooms.

5
Dreikurs Principal Teachings
  • In autocratic classrooms, the teacher makes all
    decisions and imposes them on students, leaving
    no opportunity for student initiative and
    responsibility.
  • In permissive classrooms, the teacher fails to
    require that students comply with rules, conduct
    themselves humanely, or endure consequences for
    their misbehavior.

6
Dreikurs Principal Teachings
  • Almost all students have a compelling desire to
    feel they are a valued member of the class, that
    they belong.
  • Students sense belonging when the teacher and
    others give them attention and respect, involve
    them in activities, and do not mistreat them.
  • When students are unable to gain a sense of
    belonging in the class, they often turn to the
    mistaken goals of attention, power, revenge, and
    inadequacy.

7
Dreikurs Principal Teachings
  • When seeking attention, students talk out, show
    off, interrupt others, and demand teacher
    attention.
  • When seeking power, they drag their heels, make
    comments under their breath, and sometimes try to
    show that the teacher can't make them do
    anything.
  • When seeking revenge, they try to get back at the
    teacher and other students, by lying, subverting
    class activities, and maliciously disrupting the
    class.
  • When seeking to display inadequacy, they withdraw
    from class activities and make no effort to
    learn.

8
Dreikurs Principal Teachings
  • Teachers should learn how to identify mistaken
    goals and deal with them.
  • When teachers see evidence that students are
    pursuing mistaken goals, they should point out
    the fact by identifying the mistaken goal and
    discussing the faulty logic involved.
  • They should do this in a friendly,
    non-threatening manner.

9
Dreikurs Principal Teachings
  • Teachers should learn how to identify mistaken
    goals and deal with them.
  • When teachers see evidence that students are
    pursuing mistaken goals, they should point out
    the fact by identifying the mistaken goal and
    discussing the faulty logic involved.
  • They should do this in a friendly,
    non-threatening manner.

10
Dreikurs Principal Teachings
  • Rules for governing class behavior should be
    formulated jointly by teacher and students.
  • Tied to those rules should be the logical
    consequences of compliance or violation.
  • It is the teacher's responsibility to see that
    stipulated consequences are invoked.
  • Good behavior (following the rules) brings
    pleasant consequences such as enjoyment of
    learning and associating positively with others.

11
Dreikurs Principal Teachings
  • Misbehavior brings unpleasant consequences such
    as having to complete work at home or being
    excluded from normal class activities.
  • Punishment should never be used in the
    classroom.
  • Punishment is just a way for teachers to get back
    at students and show them who's boss, and is
    usually humiliating to the student.
  • Punishment has many bad side effects and
    therefore should be supplanted with logical
    consequences agreed to by the class.

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13
Kounins Principal Teachings
  • Teachers need to know what is going on in all
    parts of the classroom at all times.
  • Kounin verified that teachers good in discipline
    displayed this trait, which he called withitness.
  • Good lesson momentum helps keep students on
    track.
  • Kounin used the term momentum to refer to
    teachers' starting lessons with dispatch, keeping
    lessons moving ahead, making transitions among
    activities efficiently, and bringing lessons to a
    satisfactory close.

14
Kounins Principal Teachings
  • Smoothness in lesson presentation helps keep
    students involved.
  • The term smoothness refers to steady progression
    of lessons, without abrupt changes or disturbing
    incidents.
  • Effective teachers have systems for gaining
    student attention and clarifying expectations.
    Kounin called this tactic group alerting.
  • Teachers must learn how to correct one pupil's
    behavior in a way that changes the behavior of
    others. This is called the Ripple effect.

15
Kounins Principal Teachings
  • Effective teachers keep students attentive and
    actively involved.
  • Such student accountability is maintained by
    regularly calling on students to respond,
    demonstrate, or explain.
  • Teachers good in behavior management are able to
    attend to two or more events simultaneously.
  • This skill, which Kounin called overlapping, is
    shown when teachers answer questions for students
    doing independent work while at the same time
    instructing a small group of students.

16
Kounins Principal Teachings
  • Effective teachers see to it that students are
    not given overexposure to a particular topic.
  • Overexposure produces satiation, meaning students
    have had their fill of the topic as shown through
    boredom, resistance, and misbehavior.
  • Boredom satiation can be avoided by providing
    variety to lessons, the classroom environment and
    by pupil awareness of progress.
  • Effective teachers make instructional activities
    enjoyable and challenging. Kounin described how
    fun and challenge delay satiation.

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18
Jones Principal Teachings
  • Approximately 95 percent of all student
    misbehavior consists of talking to neighbors and
    being out of one's seat, as well as generally
    goofing off, such as daydreaming and making
    noise.
  • But it is this behavior that most often disrupts
    teaching and learning.
  • On the average, teachers in typical classrooms
    lose approximately 50 percent of their teaching
    time because students are off-task or otherwise
    disrupting learning. This amounts to massive time
    wasting.

19
Jones Principal Teachings
  • Most teaching time that is otherwise lost can be
    recouped when teachers use Say, See, Do Teaching,
    provide efficient help to students, use effective
    body language, and use incentive systems.
  • These are the hallmarks of good behavior
    management.
  • Say, See, Do Teaching is an instructional method
    that calls for frequent student response to
    teacher input.
  • It keeps students actively alert and involved in
    the lesson.

20
Jones Principal Teachings
  • Efficient arrangement of the classroom improves
    the likelihood of successful teaching and
    learning.
  • This includes seating arrangements that permit
    the teacher to "work the crowd" as they supervise
    student work and provide help.
  • Proper use of body language is one of the most
    effective discipline skills available to
    teachers.
  • Body language includes eye contact, physical
    proximity, body carriage, facial expressions, and
    gestures.

21
Jones Principal Teachings
  • Teachers set limits on student behavior not so
    much through rules as through subtle
    interpersonal skills. These are the skills that
    convey that teachers mean business.
  • Students will work hard and behave well when
    given incentives to do so.
  • These incentives are teachers' promises that
    students will receive, in return for proper
    behavior, rewards in the form of favorite
    activities that can be learned by all members of
    the group for the enjoyment of all members of the
    group.

22
Jones Principal Teachings
  • To be effective, an incentive must be attractive
    to the entire group and be available equally to
    all.
  • Incentives that are available only to certain
    members of the class will affect only the
    behavior of those few individuals and leave the
    class as a whole little changed.
  • Students must learn to do their work without the
    teacher hovering over them.
  • Jones calls students' reliance on teacher
    presence "helpless handraising."

23
Jones Principal Teachings
  • He devised a method of providing help very
    efficiently to students who call for teacher
    assistance during independent work. Jones says to
    be positive, be brief and be gone."
  • The goal of discipline is for students to assume
    responsibility for their actions. All aspects of
    learning are improved when students do so.

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25
The Canters Principal Teachings
  • Today's students have clear rights and needs that
    must be met if they are to be taught effectively.
  • These students' rights and needs include a caring
    teacher who persistently works to foster the best
    interests of students.
  • Teachers have rights and needs in the classroom
    as well. Teachers' rights include teaching in a
    classroom that is free from disruption, with
    support from parents and administrators as they
    work to help students.

26
The Canters Principal Teachings
  • The most effective teachers are those who remain
    in control of the class while always remembering
    that their main duty is to help students learn
    and behave responsibly.
  • Teachers must continually model through their
    own behavior the kind of trust and respect for
    students that they want students to show toward
    others.
  • A good discipline plan, built upon trust and
    respect, is necessary for helping.

27
The Canters Principal Teachings
  • Students limit their own counterproductive
    behavior. Such a discipline plan contains rules
    and consequences, and it must be fully understood
    and supported by students and their parents.
  • Teachers should practice positive repetitions.
    Positive repetitions involve repeating directions
    as positive statements to students who are
    complying with class rules, for example, "Fred
    remembered to raise his hand. Good job."

28
The Canters Principal Teachings
  • Negative consequences are penalties teachers
    invoke when students violate class expectations.
  • They are brought to bear only when all else
    fails. They must be something students dislike
    (staying in after class, being isolated from the
    group) but must never be physically or
    psychologically harmful.
  • Positive consequences are rewards, usually words
    or facial expressions, that teachers offer when
    students comply with class expectations.
  • The Canters consider positive consequences to be
    very powerful.

29
The Canters Principal Teachings
  • Today's teachers must both model and directly
    teach proper behavior. It is not enough for
    teachers simply to set limits and apply
    consequences. They must go well beyond that to
    actually teaching students how to behave
    responsibly in the classroom.
  • Teachers can have success with a majority of
    students deemed difficult to manage.
  • They can accomplish this by reaching out to those
    students, learning about their needs, interacting
    with them personally, and showing a constant
    willingness to help.

30
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31
Ginotts Principal Teachings
  • Learning always takes place in the present tense,
    meaning teachers must not prejudge students or
    hold grudges.
  • Discipline is little-by-little, step-by-step. The
    teacher's self-discipline is key. Model the
    behavior you want in students.
  • Learning is always a personal matter to the
    student. Large classes often make teachers forget
    that each student-learner is an individual who
    must be treated as such.
  • .

32
Ginotts Principal Teachings
  • Teachers should always endeavor to use congruent
    communication, which is communication that is
    harmonious with students' feelings about
    situations and themselves
  • The cardinal principle of congruent communication
    is that it addresses situations. It never
    addresses students' character or personality.
  • Teachers at their best, using congruent
    communication, do not preach or moralize, nor
    impose guilt or demand promises. Instead, they
    confer dignity on their students by treating them
    as social equals capable of making good
    decisions.

33
Ginotts Principal Teachings
  • Teachers at their worst label students, belittle
    them, and denigrate their character They usually
    do these things inadvertently.
  • Effective teachers invite cooperation from their
    students by describing the situation and
    indicating what needs to be done. They do not
    dictate to students or boss them around, which
    provokes resistance.
  • Teachers have a hidden asset upon which they
    should always call, namely, "How can I be most
    helpful to my students right now?"

34
Ginotts Principal Teachings
  • Teachers should feel free to express their anger,
    but in doing so should use I-messages rather than
    you-messages.
  • Using an I-message, the teacher might say "I am
    very upset." Using a you-message, the teacher
    might say "You are being very rude."
  • It is wise to use laconic language when
    responding to or redirecting student misbehavior.
    Laconic means short, concise, and brief, which
    describes the sort of responses Ginott advocates.

35
Ginotts Principal Teachings
  • Evaluative praise is worse than none at all and
    should never be used. An example of evaluative
    praise is "Good boy for raising your hand."
  • Teachers should use appreciative praise when
    responding to effort or improvement. This is
    praise in which the teacher shows appreciation
    for what the student has done, without evaluating
    the student's character (e.g., "I can almost
    smell those pine trees in your drawing").

36
Ginotts Principal Teachings
  • Always respect students' privacy. Teachers
    should never pry when students do not wish to
    discuss personal matters, but should show they
    are available should students need to talk.
  • Use sane messages when correcting misbehavior.
    Address what the student is doing, don't attack
    the student's character personal traits.
    Labeling disables.
  • Use communication that is congruent with
    student's own feelings about the situation and
    themselves.

37
Ginotts Principal Teachings
  • Invite cooperation rather than demanding it.
    Teachers should express their feelings--anger--but
    in sane ways.
  • "Sarcasm is hazardous. Praise can be dangerous
    praise the act, not the student and in a
    situation that will not turn peers against the
    pupil.
  • Apologies are meaningless unless it is clear that
    the person intends to improve.
  • Teachers are at their best when they help pupils
    develop their self-esteem and to trust their own
    experience.

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39
Linda Alberts Principal Teachings
  • Students choose their behavior. How they behave
    is not outside their control. Virtually all can
    behave properly when they see the need to do so.
  • Students need to feel that they belong in the
    classroom. This means they must perceive
    themselves to be important, worthwhile, and
    valued.
  • When students misbehave, their goal is usually
    either to gain attention, gain power, exact
    revenge, or avoid failure. At times, misbehavior
    can also occur because of exuberance or simply
    not knowing the proper way to behave.

40
Linda Alberts Principal Teachings
  • Teachers can only influence student behavior
    they cannot directly control it. By knowing which
    goal students are seeking teachers can exert
    positive influence on behavior choices that
    students make.
  • Teachers in general reflect three styles of
    classroom management permissive, autocratic, and
    democratic. Of the three, the democratic style
    best promotes good discipline. Albert refers to
    these three styles as the hands-off, hands-on,
    and hands-joined styles.

41
Linda Alberts Principal Teachings
  • The Three C's -- capable, connect, and contribute
    -- are essential in helping students feel a sense
    of belonging. When students feel capable, they
    are able to connect personally with peers and
    teachers and able to make contributions to the
    class and elsewhere. With the three C's in place,
    the incidence of misbehavior drops dramatically.
  • Teachers should work cooperatively with students
    to develop a classroom code of conduct. The code
    of conduct stipulates the kind of behavior
    expected of everyone in the class.

42
Linda Alberts Principal Teachings
  • Teachers should also work cooperatively with
    students to develop a set of consequences to be
    invoked when the classroom code of conduct is
    transgressed. When students participate in
    developing consequences, they are more likely to
    accept them as fair and reasonable.
  • When conflicts occur between teacher and
    students, the teacher should remain cool and
    relaxed. Teachers should adopt a businesslike
    attitude and use a calm yet firm tone of voice.

43
Linda Alberts Principal Teachings
  • Encouragement is the most powerful teaching tool
    available to teachers. Few things motivate good
    behavior as much as does teacher encouragement.
  • Teachers should remember that in order to develop
    a good system of discipline, they require the
    cooperation of students and parents. Both should
    be valued as partners and their contributions
    brought meaningfully into cooperative discipline.

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45
B.F. Skinners Principal Teachings
  • Even before Redl and Wattenberg published their
    suggestions for working with the group, a Harvard
    psychologist named Burrhus Frederic Skinner was
    making interesting findings about how our
    voluntary actions are affected by what happens to
    us immediately after we perform a given act.

46
B.F. Skinners Principal Teachings
  • Skinner is respected as perhaps the greatest
    behavioral psychologist of all time. He earned
    his doctorate in psychology at Harvard in 1931
    and from that time almost until his death in 1990
    published articles and books based on his
    findings and beliefs about human behavior.
  • During all those years, Skinner never concerned
    himself with classroom discipline.
  • However, his followers saw the applicability of
    his findings, especially
  • in regard to encouraging students to behave
    acceptably in the classroom. Those followers,
    sometimes referred to as "Neo-Skinnerians,"
    devised and popularized the procedure of behavior
    modification which is used extensively in
    different realms of human learning

47
B.F. Skinners Principal Teachings
  • Behavior modification (not a term Skinner used)
    refers to the overall procedure of shaping
    student behavior intentionally through
    reinforcement. This procedure still comprises a
    major part of many teachers' discipline systems,.
    particularly at the primary grade level.
  • Constant reinforcement, provided every time a
    student performs a desired act, helps new
    learnings become established. The teacher might
    praise Jonathan every time he raises his hand, or
    privately compliment Mary every time she turns in
    required homework.

48
B.F. Skinners Principal Teachings
  • Intermittent reinforcement, in which rewards are
    supplied only occasionally, is sufficient to
    maintain desired behavior once it has become
    established. After students have learned to come
    into the room and get immediately to work, the
    teacher will only occasionally need to express
    appreciation.
  • Behaviors that are not reinforced soon disappear
    or, as Skinner said, become extinguished. If
    Roberto raises his hand in class but is never
    called on, he will sooner or later stop raising
    his hand.

49
B.F. Skinners Principal Teachings
  • Successive approximation refers to a
    behavior-shaping progression in which behavior
    comes closer and closer to a preset goal. This
    process is evident when skills are being built.
    Here students are rewarded regularly for
    improvement.
  • Punishment often has negative effects in behavior
    modification and hence is not used in the
    classroom. Skinner believed punishment could not
    extinguish inappropriate behavior.

50
B.F. Skinners Principal Teachings
  • Although Skinner did not concern himself with
    classroom discipline per se, his discoveries
    concerning the shaping of desired behavior
    through reinforcement led directly to behavior
    modification, still used to speed and shape
    academic and social learning.
  • Years ago many primary grade teachers used
    behavior modification as their entire discipline
    system, rewarding students who behaved properly
    and ignoring those who misbehaved.
  • Very few teachers now use behavior modification
    as their discipline system,yet Skinner's
    principles of reinforcement are applied in
    classrooms everywhere.

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