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Science Policy and Social Change

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For some, science has made life comfortable and secure. ... Addresses. Conduct of S&T. Products and processes of S&T. Assumes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Science Policy and Social Change


1
Science Policy and Social Change
  • December 2003

2
ST Drive Economic Growth
  • Scientific and technical changes accounts for as
    much as 50 of long-run economic growth, even
    perhaps as much as 75.

3
Public Science is Pillar of Industry
  • 73 of science papers cited by U.S. industrial
    patents were based on research financed by
    government or nonprofit agencies.

Trends in Basic Research Funding FY 1976-2004
4
Science is a Principal Driver of Change
SOCIAL CHANGE Internet
HEALTH AND MEDICAL CHANGE Biotechnology
  • Science has the power to completely transform
    civilization. For some, science has made life
    comfortable and secure. For others, it has meant
    death and destruction

SCIENCE- BASED ECONOMY
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE Climate
NATIONAL SECURITY CHANGE Weapons of Mass
Destruction
5
Science Policy Can Drive Outcomes
Types of Benefits
Emergence of New Problems
Given the impact of science, science policy is
the key variable, yet almost entirely ignored.
SCIENCE POLICY
Distribution of Benefits
Distribution of Problems
6
DISCUSSION
  • What are the major science policy issues in
    China and how do they affect you?

7
Evolution of the U.S. NIS
  • Laissez-Faire (1790-1940)
  • War and Post-War (1940-1950)
  • Federalization (1950-1975)

8
Laissex-Faire (1790-1940)
  • Government has no distinct ST policy or mission
  • Key institutions in NIS were independent
    corporate RD labs
  • In the late 19th century, universities emerge as
    the home of basic science and advanced training

9
War and Post-War (1940-1950)
  • Government establishes RD institutions and
    expanded academic role to support the war effort
  • Large-scale federal investment, federally
    mandated objectives, targeted funding and
    industry-government cooperation are the norm
  • By end of war, hundreds of new labs established
    and potential of large-scale RD to meet national
    objectives is demonstrated

10
Science the Endless Frontier
  • President Roosevelt asks Vannevar Bush, the
    director of the war-time OSRD, to look ahead to
    the role of science in peacetime
  • Science the Endless Frontier becomes the
    foundation for U.S. science policy

11
Foundations of U.S. Science Policy
  • Republic of Science
  • Self-regulation by scientists
  • Market Failure Model
  • Basic science as a public good
  • Unpredictability
  • Science as experimentation

12
Current Approach to Science Policy
Inputs Processes Products Outcomes
  • Addresses
  • Conduct of ST
  • Products and processes of ST
  • Assumes
  • All societal outcomes will be positive
  • Linear model of innovation and societal benefit

13
Federalization NIS Institutions
  • Hundred of large industrial labs
  • Dozens of large federal labs
  • Thousands of small technology-oriented labs and
    companies
  • Hundred of unconnected and unplanned federal labs
  • Hundreds of thousands of researchers at
    universities

14
  • But where are we going?

15
Indications of Societal Transformation
  • GMO controversy
  • Affordability of AIDS drugs
  • Lack of medical insurance
  • Aging of the population
  • Changing climate

16
Satisfaction (is not tied to wealth)
17
Health (is not entirely tied to wealth)
18
Health (is not always tied to spending)
Country Disability-Adjusted Life Expectancy
Japan 74.5
France 73.1
Sweden 73.0
U.K. 71.7
U.S. 70.0
China 62.3
Iran 60.5
India 53.2
Country Health Expenditures as of GDP
U.S. 13.7
France 9.8
Sweden 9.2
Japan 7.1
U.K. 5.8
Iran 5.5
China 5.3
India 5.2
19
DISCUSSION
  • How can science and science-based technology
    most effectively contribute to an improved
    quality of life for the greatest number of
    people?
  • Malaria is the leading cause of death in young
    children. It is estimated that if malaria had
    been eradicated in Africa by 1960, GDP would be
    32 higher than it is today.
  • Until the 1950s, polio crippled thousands of
    children every year in industrialized countries.

20
Dual Agenda Science and Social Equity
  • The challenge is to develop ST policy that
    reaches a significant proportion of the
    population
  • ST and social issues are critically
    interdependent
  • Technology strategy drives government spending
    and its social outcomes
  • Linear thinking in technology policy is linear
    thinking in social outcomes

21
DISCUSSION
  • How does the science that we do affect the
    social choices we make?
  • The two atomic bombs dropped during WWII killed
    150,000 people.
  • More than 100 million women are on birth control
    pills. More than 80 of women in the U.S. born
    after 1945 have used the pill.

22
DISCUSSION
  • How do the ST programs we implement affect the
    distribution and equity of outcomes?
  • Sub-Saharan Africa holds 2 of the worlds
    population, but 30 of the AIDS population
  • Three million people worldwide died of AIDS this
    past year, 2.3 million of them in southern Africa

23
Lessons from Old Science Policy
  • Desired outcomes can drive the science
  • Societal value of new knowledge is determined by
    how it is used and by whom it is used
  • Societal outcomes reflect who is making science
    policy
  • Desired outcomes emerge when scientific advance
    is well-matched by societal needs

24
Cycle Dynamics
Education
New skills
Societal Outcomes
Economic Outcomes
New social structures
POLICY
New industries
New institutions
ST Outcomes
Conduct of Science
Tech transfer
Knowledge Networks
Knowledge transfer
25
New Science Policy
  • New Science Policy aims to create knowledge,
    cultivate public discourse and foster policies
    that help society grapple with the immense power
    of science.

26
A New Science Policy Framework
  • Outcome-driven
  • Integrated
  • Informed
  • Self-correcting
  • Recognizes and responds to the inextricable links
    between science and technology and societal
    evolution

27
Morality and Science
  • What is the collective good we want inquiry to
    promote?
  • Philip Kitcher, Professor of Philosophy,
    Columbia University
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