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Title: History%20of%20Biological%20Warfare%20-%20Globally


1
History of Biological Warfare - Globally
  • 1925 Geneva Protocol
  • 1972 Biological Weapons
  • Convention
  • signed by 103 nations
  • 1975 Geneva Conventions
  • Ratified

2
PROTOCOL FOR THE PROHIBITION OF THE USE IN WAR OF
ASPHYXIATING, POISONOUS OR OTHER GASES, AND OF
BACTERIOLOGICAL METHODS OF WARFARE
  • Opened for signature 17 June 1925, entered into
    force 8 February 1928
  • Geneva Protocol

3
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?????????, ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????
? ?????????????????? ???????
  • ??????, 17 ???? 1925 ????

4
Biological Weapons Convention
  • Convention on the Prohibition of the Development,
    Production and Stockpiling of
  • Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons
    and on Their Destruction
  • Signed at Washington, London, and Moscow April
    10, 1972

5
Joint Statement by President George W. Bush and
President Vladimir on Cooperation Against
Bioterrorism
  • November 13, 2001
  • At Shanghai, we resolved to enhance cooperation
    in combating new terrorist threats, including
    those involving weapons of mass destruction.
  • We agree that, as a key element of our
    cooperation to counter the threat of terrorist
    use of biological materials, officials and
    experts of the United States and Russia will work
    together on means for countering the threat of
    bioterrorism, now faced by all nations, and on
    related health measures, including preventive
    ones, treatment and possible consequence
    management.

6
What role can Russia play in Combating Infectious
Diseases And Bioterrorism Threats
  • The threat of biological weapons and their use in
    bioterrorism have increased. At the same time
    there are huge improvements in the knowledge of
    infectious diseases. How do we contain the threat
    of biological warfare (BW) and bioterrorism and
    continue to make progress in eliminating and
    treating infectious diseases?

S.V. Netesov, L.S. Sandakhchiev, VECTOR,
Novosibirsk
7
In the past 20 years, more than 30 previously
unknown infectious agents have been identified.
  • They causing such diseases as AIDS, hemorrhagic
    fevers, antibiotic resistant bacterial strains,
    hepatitis C, etc., A significant part of these
    infectious diseases result from the ability of
    microorganisms to mutate and adapt to humans and
    their medical treatment environment of medical
    prophylaxes and treatments. These properties,
    combined with increasing human mobility and
    migration and the increasing number of people
    with suppressed immunity, and several other
    factors, make the emergence of new diseases and
    variants more likely.

8
Biological Warfare Nonproliferation and Threat
Reduction
  • The issues of nonproliferation and threat
    reduction of biological weapons based on
    infectious agents are different from other
    weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
  • We believe that the major nonproliferation and
    threat reduction efforts should focus on already
    working with emerging pathogens research centers,
    which might present a source of expertise for
    potential bioterrorists.

9
Russias Role in Infectious Disease Research and
International Cooperation
  • Russia has great potential in the area of
    infectious disease research, as well as in
    development and manufacture of therapeutic and
    prophylactic preparations at facilities of the
    Russian Ministry of Public Health, those of
    BIOPREPARAT and of local public health
    establishments. Two large State Research Centers
    of the Russian Ministry of Public Health for
    Applied Microbiology (Obolensk, European region)
    and Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR (Koltsovo,
    eastern region) were involved in biological
    defense programs of the former Soviet Union
    before 1990.

10
VECTOR
  • The State Research Center of Virology and
    Biotechnology VECTOR, operated by the Russian
    Ministry of Public Health, is a large research
    and production complex, whose primary activities
    are focused on basic and applied research in the
    theoretical virology, molecular biology,
    virology, immunology, aerobiology, epidemiology,
    and biotechnology. VECTOR also develops and
    manufactures preventive, therapeutical and
    diagnostic preparations.

11
  • VECTOR is one of two scientific and experimental
    facilities in Russia mainly focusing on virus
    infection research. The State Research Center for
    Applied Microbiology, Russian Ministry of Public
    Health (Obolensk, Moscow Oblast), is a similar
    scientific and experimental center, involved in
    bacterial infections research. VECTOR and
    Obolensk are the only institutions in both Russia
    and the rest of the CIS countries in which
    studies of highly dangerous pathogens can be done
    at an up-to-date level.

12
VECTOR
  • VECTORs research and production facilities
    amount to more than 250,000 m2 on over 8,000
    hectares (19,768 acres). The research and
    experimental facilities at VECTOR are equipped
    for up-to-date scientific work with highly
    pathogenic human and animal viruses, under
    conditions of complete biosafety. Several
    buildings meet special biosafety requirements for
    high containment facilities (BSL 2, 3, and 4) an
    air-tight external perimeter, negative pressure
    in the working zone, complete sterilization
    (liquid, and solid) or reliable filtration (air)
    of all types of discharge.

13
VECTOR
  • The research and technical staff of the Center
    are highly qualified personnel, specializing in
    the field of genetic engineering, molecular
    biology, virology, theoretical virology,
    immunology, epidemiology, and ecology. The staff
    has extensive experience in highly dangerous
    viruses research and in production of diagnostic
    and prophylactic preparations for public health
    and veterinary needs.

14
VECTOR
  • The Collection of Cultures of Microorganisms in
    VECTOR contains over 10,000 deposit entries
    various viral strains, including the national
    collection of variola virus strains and strains
    of BSL-4 viral pathogens recombinant viral
    strains strains of microorganisms, including
    producer strains. The Collection received
    international recognition in 1995 when it was
    affiliated with the European Culture Collection
    Organization (ECCO).

15
VECTOR
  • VECTOR also houses one of the two WHO
    Collaborating Centers for orthopoxvirus diagnosis
    and repository for variola virus strains and
    their DNA. The other WHO Collaborating Center for
    smallpox and other poxvirus infections is at the
    CDC in Atlanta, USA. As a WHO Collaborating
    Center, VECTOR preserves and studies the Russian
    collection of variola virus isolates. The
    research collaboration between these two Centers
    is promising in terms of basic science and
    confidence building.

16
VECTOR
  • VECTORs Breeding and Holding Facility for
    laboratory animals, which includes one of only
    two monkey breeding facilities operating in
    Russia, is used for testing therapeutic and
    diagnostic preparations. Facilities for the
    performance of preclinical and clinical trials of
    new medicinal preparations are available at
    VECTOR.

17
VECTOR
  • Possible research at the proposed International
    Center could focus on arboviruses, including
    tick-borne encephalitis virus that is endemic in
    Russia HFRS virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus
    both endemic in Siberia filoviruses Marburg
    and Ebola orthopoxviruses smallpox virus,
    monkeypox, and cowpox viruses viruses causing
    hepatitis A, B, C paramyxoviruses, rabdoviruses,
    influenza viruses, etc. This list of viruses
    could be extended by bacteria and parasites, such
    as tuberculosis, which is increasing sharply now
    in Russia, and opisthorchiasis human parasitic
    disease affecting the liver. The latter is
    endemic in Siberia, too.

18
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19
The aims of the Federal Center of Hygiene and
Epidemiology
  • Sanitary and Epidemiological measures in case of
    situation with the outbreaks of infectious
    diseases or during disasters
  • Statistical monitoring for control of infectious
    diseases at the federal level, reporting

20
The structure of the Federal Center of Hygiene
and Epidemiology
  • Disaster department
  • Epidemiological department
  • Laboratory services

21
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22
The period until 1991Life expectancy (both
sexes)
23
The period until 1991Life expectancy in 1965
24
The health care principles upon which the Soviet
health care system was to be based (Nikolai
Semashko)
  • government responsibility for health
  • universal access to free services
  • a preventive approach to social diseases
  • quality professional care
  • a close relation between science and medical
    practice
  • continuity of care between health promotion,
    treatment and rehabilitation.

25
Next steps following the establishment of the
Semashko model in 1918
  • The health care system was under the centralized
    control of the state, which financed services by
    general government revenues as part of national
    social and economic development plans.
  • All health care personnel became employees of the
    centralized state, which paid salaries and
    provided supplies to all medical institutions.
  • The main policy orientation throughout this
    period was to increase numbers of hospital beds
    and medical personnel.

26
Next steps following the establishment of the
Semashko model in 1918 (cont.)
  • Russia made massive strides in arresting the
    spread of infectious diseases.
  • Drastic epidemic control measures were
    implemented, particularly in the cases of
    tuberculosis, typhoid fever, typhus, malaria and
    cholera.
  • These involved community prevention approaches,
    routine check-ups, improvements in urban
    sanitation and hygiene, quarantines, etc.

27
Health crisis
  • The diverging paths of Russia and other
    industrialized nations with respect to health
    status from the 1960s onward has been attributed
    to the failure of the Russian health care system
    to successfully respond to the epidemiological
    transition.

28
The leading causes of death in the Russia
Federation
  • Cardiovascular diseases with rates that are the
    highest in the European Region.
  • External causes of injury and poisoning
  • Cancer

29
CVD
Injury
Cancer
Average for 1999-2001
30
WHY was prophylaxis with Ciprofloxacin extended
to 60 days?
More on Sverdlovsk ?
Source New York Department of Health
BECAUSE in Sverdlovsk cases appeared more than 40
days after exposure, and because of data from
animal experiments
Source New York Department of Health
31
Lidia Tretyakova looks at the tombstone of her
father, Lazar Karsayev, at a cemetery in
Yekaterinburg, Russia, Thursday, Oct. 18, 2001. A
mysterious outbreak of anthrax killed at least 68
people, including Karsayev, 22 years ago in the
Russian industrial center of Sverdlovsk, today
known as Yekaterinburg. At the time, neither the
victims nor their families suspected they had
been hit by a biological weapon. (AP Photo/Alexei
Vladykin)
32
Laboratory workers at the Sverdlovsk regional
epedemiological service put on the special suits
they wear when working with anthrax and other
dangerous bacteria in Yekaterinburg, Russia,
Wednesday, Oct. 17, 2001
33
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34
Terrorism
  • Is an unlawful act of violence
  • Intimidates governments or societies
  • Goal is to achieve political, religious or
    ideological objectives

Arthur H. Garrison
35
Prevention of Terrorism
  • Primary prevention
  • Education!!!
  • Understand the differences in cultures,
    religions, beliefs and human behaviors
  • Think of the peace, freedom and equality of all
    human beings, not just my group of people
  • Eliminate the root of terrorism

36
Prevention of Terrorism
  • Secondary prevention
  • Establish surveillance and monitoring system on
    terrorism attack
  • Improve protective system for citizens

37
Prevention of Terrorism
  • Tertiary prevention
  • Early detection of the sources
  • Prevent the extension of impairments
  • Rescue the survivors
  • Console the rest of the population

38
Proportion of death from terrorism in total death
in the United States
39
Risk of Dying
Penguin Books, 1987
40
Death Rate of Various Causes in 2000 USA and that
from Terrorism
41
Why did terrorism draw considerable attention in
2001?
  • The risk of dying from terrorism was extremely
    low in 1990s, and was still relatively low
    compared with some diseases in 2001
  • But the death rate increased by 500 times in 2001
    due to Sept. 11
  • Overall the death rate of terrorism has not been
    high
  • Despite the low risk, shock, surprise and fear
    engulfed the United States and world

42
Conclusion
  • Terrorism is unlawful act
  • Terrorism has a long history of being used to
    achieve political, religious and ideological
    objectives
  • Terrorism can be conducted through firearms,
    explosive devices and biological, chemical,
    nuclear materials
  • Even through the events of 2001, the risk of
    dying from terrorism has remained much lower than
    that from motor vehicles, smoking, and alcoholic
    beverage.
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