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Title: Arenguuuringud Loeng 7' Organisatsiooni areng


1
Arengu-uuringudLoeng 7. Organisatsiooni areng
  • Mati Heidmets
  • 2008 sügissemester

2
Vaatepunktid organisatsiooni arengule
  • Inimestevahelise seose iseloom nominaalne grupp
    tüpoloogiline grupp assotsiatsioon
    organisatsioon.
  • Organisatsioon eesmärgistatud tegevusega,
    formaliseeritud suhetega, piiritletud
    inimkooslus. Impersonaalne sotsiaalne struktuur
    (vrdl perekond ja linnavalitsus). Näited firma,
    ülikool, ministeerium, sihtasutus
  • Igaüks kuulub X organisatsiooni, globaalne
    organisatsioonide võrgustik
  • Kas organisatsioon areneb?
  • Kas eesmärgini saab jõuda tulemuslikumalt,
    efektiivsemalt, väiksema aja ja energiakuluga?
    Kas tulemus võib olla parem või kehvem? Kas
    tulemuseni jõudmiseks vaja 10 või 100 inimest?
    Sellised küsimused alles 20 saj esimesel
    poolel.
  • Organisatsiooni hinnangu- ja arengudimensioonid
    efektiivsus, ressursisäästlikkus, inimkesksus,
    tulemuse kvaliteet
  • Organisatsiooni arendamise (vastuolulised)
    vaatepunktid omaniku perspektiiv, juhi
    positsioon, töötaja vaatepunkt, ühiskonnaliikme
    arusaam
  • Meie kuidas mõeldakse organisatsiooni arengust,
    kaks vaatepunkti põhjalikumalt

3
Ajalugu
  • Esmane organisatsiooni arengukäsitlus
    probleemilahendamine. Areng murede
    järkjärguline ületamine.
  • Kurt Lewin played a key role in the evolution of
    organization development as it is known today. As
    early as World War II, Lewin experimented with a
    collaborative change process (involving himself
    as consultant and a client group) based on a
    three-step process of planning, taking action,
    and measuring results. He first coined the term
    action research in about 1944.
  • Organisatsiooni enesereflektsioon ja
    eneseparandus vormiks tegevusuuring/action
    research
  • Action research is a reflective process of
    progressive problem solving led by individuals
    working with others in teams or as part of a
    "community of practice" to improve the way they
    address issues and solve problems. Action
    research can also be undertaken by larger
    organizations or institutions, assisted or guided
    by professional researchers, with the aim of
    improving their strategies, practices, and
    knowledge of the environments within which they
    practice.

4
Eneseparanduse kolm sammu teadvustamine, muutus,
juurdumine
  • Organisatsioon muutub, muutustes osalemine
    tähendab motiveeritust. Ühine mõttetöö tegevus
    tulemuste hindamine!
  • Concerned with social change and, more
    particularly, with effective, permanent social
    change, Lewin believed that the motivation to
    change was strongly related to action If people
    are active in decisions affecting them, they are
    more likely to adopt new ways. "Rational social
    management", he said, "proceeds in a spiral of
    steps, each of which is composed of a circle of
    planning, action, and fact-finding about the
    result of action". Lewin's description of the
    process of change involves three steps
  • Unfreezing Faced with a dilemma or
    disconfirmation, the individual or group becomes
    aware of a need to change.
  • Changing The situation is diagnosed and new
    models of behavior are explored and tested.
  • Refreezing Application of new behavior is
    evaluated, and if reinforcing, adopted
  • Oluline kolme sammu ei tee juht üksi, vaid
    organisatsiooni liikmed ühiselt. Selle mõtteviisi
    jätk strateegiline arengukavandamine,
    tagasisidestatud juhtimine
  • Teadvustamine, muutus, juurutamine rakendusliku
    MA loogika!

5
Action research
  • .

6
Täna
  • Tänaseks - palju vaateid organisatsioonile, palju
    hindamisskeeme ja arengudimensioone
  • Näited strateegiline planeerimine (strategic
    planning), teadmusjuhtimine (knowledge
    management), muutuste juhtimine (change
    management), organisatsiooniline õppimine
    (organizational learning), liidrikujundus
    (leadership development), kvaliteedijuhtimine
    (quality management), inimsuhete analüüs (human
    relations movement), töödemokraatia (workplace
    democracy), organisatsioonikultuur
    (organizational culture)
  • Kirjuks ka organisatsiooni (arengu?)
    hindamiskriteeriumid ja vaatepunktid
    kasumlikkus, konkurentsivõime, töötajate
    rahulolu, organisatsioonile pühendumine, tegevuse
    kvaliteet, sotsiaalne vastutus
  • Pole ÜRO globaalset organisatsiooniarengu
    indeksit, liikumine selles suunas aga olemas
  • Meie kaks vaatepunkti põhjalikumalt
    organisatsiooni sotsiaalne vastutus,
    organisatsiooni kvaliteet ja kvaliteedikindlustus
    . Põhjus Eestis mitte liiga levinud
    vaatepunktid, samas maailmas kasvava tähendusega
  • Mõlema puhul määratlused (mis see on),
    standardid/kriteeriumid hindamiseks, mõõtmine ja
    andmebaasid, kriitika

7
Organisatsiooni sotsiaalne vastutus
  • Mõtteviis organisatsioon mitte ainult oma
    eesmärke ja sisemisi huvisid. Organisatsiooni
    mõju laiem tööandja, keskkonnakasutaja,
    kuvandilooja. Siit laiem vastutus. Firmade
    vastutus kogukonna eest (globaalse korporatsiooni
    pankroti tähendus?!), ülikoolide sotsiaalne roll
  • Tõsisemalt päevakorrale alates 1980datest. Kasumi
    kõrvale vastutus.
  • Corporate social responsibility (CSR, also called
    corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship,
    responsible business and corporate social
    opportunity is a concept whereby organizations
    consider the interests of society by taking
    responsibility for the impact of their activities
    on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders,
    communities and other stakeholders, as well as
    the environment. This obligation is seen to
    extend beyond the statutory obligation to comply
    with legislation and sees organizations
    voluntarily taking further steps to improve the
    quality of life for employees and their families
    as well as for the local community and society at
    large.

8
Mis ja miks Klaus Schwab (Executive Chair of
the World Economic Forum)
  • Mis on CSR sisu vastutustundlik juhtimine,
    turvaline töökeskkond, kogukonna huvid,
    keskkonnasõbralikkus, filantroopia
  • Compared to just a decade ago, it is now common
    for business-people to talk about social
    responsibility and the importance of being good
    corporate citizens. Many business leaders today
    consider it critical to engage with shareholders,
    the communities in which their companies operate,
    and others affected by and interested in what
    they do. The diverse activities needed to respond
    to these expanded duties are widely referred to
    by the catchall phrase "corporate social
    responsibility." It incorporates a host of
    concepts and practices, including the necessity
    for adequate corporate governance structures, the
    implementation of workplace safety standards, the
    adoption of environmentally sustainable
    procedures, and philanthropy.
  • Miks firmad tugevamaks kui riigivõim. Riik
    lokaalne, äri globaalne.
  • As state power has shrunk, the sphere of
    influence of business has widened. Companies get
    involved in the health of workers, the education
    of employees and their children, and the pensions
    that sustain them in retirement. Corporations
    have an impact on everything from air quality to
    the availability of life-saving drugs. They have
    become integral to the survival of governments
    and the political stability of nations and
    regions.
  • Kas CSR vaid suurte korporatsioonide teema?

9
Kuidas Klaus Schwab
  • Five core concepts--corporate governance,
    corporate philanthropy, corporate social
    responsibility, corporate social
    entrepreneurship, and global corporate
    citizenship--define the different types of
    business engagement.
  • Juhtimine.
  • Corporate governance is more than the way in
    which a company is run. It means that a company
    complies with local and international laws,
    transparency and accountability requirements,
    ethical norms, and environmental and social codes
    of conduct. More than 3,000 companies in about
    120 countries have signed on to the UN Global
    Compact, a framework of ten core principles to
    guide business behavior in areas such as human
    rights, the environment, labor practices, and
    corruption.
  • Vastutus.
  • Corporate social responsibility - this involves
    how a corporation responds to the expectations of
    its stakeholders--the wide community of all the
    organizations and individuals that are in any way
    affected by or interested in its actions
    shareholders, owners, investors, employees,
    suppliers, clients, consumers--while trying to
    increase the company's value. Corporate social
    responsibility means addressing the wider
    financial, environmental, and social impact of
    all that a company does. It entails minimizing
    the negative effects of the actions of a company
    and maximizing the positive ones on stakeholders
    as well as on the communities in which the
    enterprise operates and the governments with
    which it must work.
  • Heategevus.
  • Corporate philanthropy was traditionally the
    preferred way for corporations to give back to
    society. Today, business leaders recognize that
    companies can make more efficient contributions
    through active engagement.

10
Kuidas Klaus Schwab
  • Sotsiaalne ettevõtlus
  • Corporate social entrepreneurship is strictly
    defined as the transformation of socially and
    environmentally responsible ideas into products
    or services. The last decade has seen many
    individuals come up with innovative ideas to
    address the specific social and environmental
    needs of the communities in which they are
    living. The role model of these social
    entrepreneurs, Muhammad Yunus, the inventor of
    microcredit, received the Nobel Peace Prize in
    2006.
  • Globaalne perspektiiv
  • Global corporate citizenship goes beyond the
    concepts of corporate philanthropy, including
    social investing corporate social
    responsibility and corporate social
    entrepreneurship in that it entails focusing on
    "the global space," which is increasingly shaped
    by forces beyond the control of nation-states.
    Global corporations have not only a license to
    operate in this arena but also a civic duty to
    contribute to sustaining the world's well-being
    in cooperation with governments and civil
    society. Global corporate citizenship means
    engagement at the macro level on issues of
    importance to the world it contributes to
    enhancing the sustainability of the global
    marketplace.

11
Suurimad annetajad
  • Warren Buffett 30.7 billion - healthcare,
    extreme poverty, education, access to information
    technology
  • Bill Gates 29 billion - Education,
    AIDS-prevention
  • Li Ka-shing 10 billion - Education,
    healthcare
  • George Soros 6 billion - Democratic
    governance, anti-fascist publications, human
    rights, economic, legal, and social reform
  • Howard Hughes 1.56 billion - Medcine

12
Miks sotsiaalne vastutus?
  • Teadlikkus, prosotsiaalsus, altruism või kaine
    ärikaalutlus?
  • Kasvav ärivõimu kriitika maailmas. Lisaks
    antiglobalistidele ka skeptilised arvamusliidrid
  • Näit U.Beck ja riskiühiskond. Individualiseerumin
    e võimas tehnoloogia varjatud ohud.
    Korporatsioonide huvides tegutsevate ekspertide
    diktatuur
  • Näit tarbijasurve - eetilise tarbimise
    liikumine
  • Avatud maailmas saanud avalik arvamus karmiks
    jõuks!

13
Tarbijasurve CSR-le
  • Eetiline tarbimine.
  • Ethical consumerism is buying products and
    services that are made ethically. This may mean
    with minimal harm to or exploitation of humans,
    animals and/or the natural environment. Ethical
    consumerism is practiced through 'positive
    buying' in that ethical products are favoured, or
    'moral boycott', that is negative purchasing and
    company-based purchasing.
  • The rise in ethical consumerism and green brands
    that identify themselves as ethical, has led to a
    rise in ethic-based decisions in the mass market,
    enabled by increased understanding and
    information about businesses practices. The term
    ethical consumerism may refer to the wider
    movement within marketing, which means that large
    corporations wish to be seen as working ethically
    and improving the ethical standards of their
    industry
  • Some argue that "Shopping is more important than
    voting", and that the disposition of money is the
    most basic role we play in any system of
    economics. Some theorists believe that it is the
    clearest way that we express our actual moral
    choices, i.e., if we say we care about something
    but continue to buy from parties that have a high
    probability of risk of harm or destruction of
    that thing, we don't really care about it, we are
    practicing a form of simple hypocrisy.
  • Selektiivse tarbimise tagasimõju
    korporatsioonidele - ühiskonnasurve toodab
    vastutustunnet!

14
Social Accountability International
  • Initsiatiivid organiseeruvad. Tööpaiga
    inimõiguste standard!
  • Social Accountability International (SAI) is a
    global standard-setting non-profit human rights
    organization dedicated to improving workplaces
    and communities. SAI provides capacity-building
    services for the implementation of its SA8000
    standard. As of March 31, 2008, 872,052 workers
    in 64 countries and 61 industrial sectors were
    employed at 1,693 factories, stores and farms
    certified to SA8000. SAI has programs in Europe,
    China, Vietnam, Central America, Turkey, and
    others.
  • Vt http//www.sa-intl.org/
  • SAI began in 1997 when Alice Tepper Marlin
    established it. In 1998, SAI convened a
    multi-stakeholder Advisory Board to develop
    SA8000, a global standard for human rights at
    work. In 1998, first organizations were
    accredited to audit for SA8000 compliance today
    SAI contracts with Social Accountability
    Accreditation Services (SAAS) for licencing and
    oversight of auditing organisations to certify
    copliance with SA8000. In 2001, SAI worked with
    Transparency International (TI) to issue
    "Business Principles for Countering Bribery" for
    public consultation.

15
SA8000 Elements
  • Child Labor No workers under the age of 15
    minimum lowered to 14 for countries operating
    under the ILO Convention 138 developing-country
    exception remediation of any child found to be
    working
  • Forced Labor No forced labor, including prison
    or debt bondage labor no lodging of deposits or
    identity papers by employers or outside
    recruiters
  • Health and Safety Provide a safe and healthy
    work environment take steps to prevent injuries
    regular health and safety worker training system
    to detect threats to health and safety access to
    bathrooms and potable water
  • Freedom of Association and Right to Collective
    Bargaining Respect the right to form and join
    trade unions and bargain collectively where law
    prohibits these freedoms, facilitate parallel
    means of association and bargaining
  • Discrimination No discrimination based on race,
    caste, origin, religion, disability, gender,
    sexual orientation, union or political
    affiliation, or age no sexual harassment
  • Discipline No corporal punishment, mental or
    physical coercion or verbal abuse
  • Working Hours Comply with the applicable law
    but, in any event, no more than 48 hours per week
    with at least one day off for every seven day
    period voluntary overtime paid at a premium rate
    and not to exceed 12 hours per week on a regular
    basis overtime may be mandatory if part of a
    collective bargaining agreement
  • Compensation Wages paid for a standard work week
    must meet the legal and industry standards and be
    sufficient to meet the basic need of workers and
    their families no disciplinary deductions
  • Management Systems Facilities seeking to gain
    and maintain certification must go beyond simple
    compliance to integrate the standard into their
    management systems and practices.

16
Sekkujad AccountAbility
  • AccountAbility was established in London, United
    Kingdom in 1996 with the stated aim to develop
    new tools, thinking and connections that enable
    individuals, institutions and alliances to
    respond better to global challenges
  • Vt http//www.accountability21.net/
  • AccountAbility's work is closely related but not
    limited to the Corporate Social Responsibility
    (CSR) field. The organisation is often labelled
    as a global think-tank, and has undertaken work
    in the areas of Responsible Competitiveness,
    Partnership Effectiveness, Collaborative
    Governance and Sustainability Assurance and
    Reporting.
  • AccountAbilitys members include businesses, NGOs
    and research bodies, who elect the international,
    multi-stakeholder Council, with representatives
    from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas,
    spanning the business, non-profit, consultancies
    and academia sectors.
  • AccountAbilitys Chief Executive, Simon Zadek is
    also a Senior Fellow at the John F. Kennedy
    School of Government at Harvard University, and
    is a member of the Clinton-Dalberg Task Force
    programme effectiveness in leveraging private
    enterprise for development. In 2003, he was named
    the World Economic Forums Global Leaders for
    Tomorrow.'

17
AA võimu tsiviliseerimine
  • Accountability is about holding those with power
    to account. We believe that this  civilizing of
    power is critical to reconciling conflict and
    mobilising action, to address global challenges,
    from climate change to poverty and from HIV/AIDs
    to the needs of an aging population.
  • We are an international not-for-profit
    organisation  working with partners in business,
    the public sector and civil society. We bring
    together people working in apparently diverse
    fields to learn from each other about
    accountability experiences and innovations and
    to understand and disseminate global best
    practice.
  • Our role is to act as an innovation hub,
    developing and promoting new tools and  systems
    which enable people to hold to account those
    individuals and institutions whose decisions and
    actions affect their lives.  At the core of our
    work is the AA1000 Series of Standards.
  • AccountAbility's standards, the AA1000 Series,
    are principles-based standards that provide the
    basis for improving the sustainability
    performance of organisations. They are applicable
    to organisations in any sector, including the
    public sector and civil society, of any size and
    in any region.

18
Järjestus
  • AA1000 is promoted as a standard for the
    measuring and reporting of ethical behaviour in
    business. It provides a framework that
    organisations can use to understand and improve
    their ethical performance, and a means for others
    to judge the validity of claims to be ethical
  • AccountAbility and Csrnetwork have launched the
    fifth Accountability Rating published annually
    in Fortune International.
  • The top ten companies in 2006 Rating are
  • Vodafone
  • General Electric
  • HSBC
  • France Telecom
  • HBOS
  • Nokia
  • EDF
  • Suez
  • BP
  • Royal Dutch/Shell

19
Sotsiaalse vastutuse dilemmad
  • Sotsiaalne vastutus organisatsiooni keskne
    hindamisdimensioon. Arenenud firma
    vastutustundlik firma.
  • Lähtepunkt ühiskonna positiivne hoiak
  • Vastuolud kasum vs laimead huvid, töötajate
    rahulolu vs ühiskonna positiivne hoiak?
  • Eetilised ja ebaeetilised tegevusvaldkonnad -
    vaibakudumine, karusnahad, kaevandus
  • Korporatsioonide globaalne vastutus reaktsioon
    ühiskonna halvakspanule. Avatus kui mehhanism ja
    usaldus kui kapital. Ühiskonna ja äri debatt!

20
Kvaliteet kui arengudimensioon
  • Kvaliteet - palju määratlusi klassikirjeldus
    (kvaliteetvein), väljapaistvus (parim auto),
    veatu toodang, hinnang ja võrdlus (elukvaliteet),
    süsteemne eneseparandus (kvaliteedikindlustus),
    vastandumist kvantiteedile (kvalitatiivne uuring)
  • Organisatsiooni kontekstis kvaliteet tõsise
    tähelepanu alla viimased 20-30 aastat
  • Kaks aspekti produkti/ toodangu kvaliteet,
    organisatsiooni juhtimise, töökorralduse
    kvaliteet
  • Kvaliteet väärtustatud dimensioon. Liikumine
    kvaliteedi suunas positiivne! Kvaliteet see,
    mida kvaliteedi puhul mõõdetakse!
  • Järgnev kvaliteediteema (äri)organisatsioonis ja
    kvaliteet elus (elukvaliteet)

21
Kvaliteet ärimaailmas - TQM
  • Palju kvaliteediliikumisi, lähenemisi ja
    mõõtmisviise!
  • TQM kvaliteedi teadvustamine
  • Total Quality Management (TQM) is a business
    management strategy aimed at embedding awareness
    of quality in all organizational processes. TQM
    has been widely used in manufacturing, education,
    call centers, government, and service industries,
    as well as NASA space and science programs.
  • One theory is that Total Quality Management was
    created as an misinterpretation from Japanese to
    English since no difference exist between the
    words "control" and "management" in Japanese.
    TQM was first mentioned by Koji Kobayashi at
    (Nippon Electrical Company) in his speech when he
    received the Deming Prize in 1974.

22
TQM
  • Kõik toimingud nähtavaks, korratavaks,
    mõõdetavaks, igaüks teeb oma asja parimal viisil,
    toimingud peavad olema ilusad! Vigadeta töö!
  • In Japan, TQM comprises four process steps,
    namely
  • Kaizen Focuses on "Continuous Process
    Improvement", to make processes visible,
    repeatable and measurable.
  • Atarimae Hinshitsu The idea that "things will
    work as they are supposed to" (for example, a pen
    will write).
  • Kansei Examinating the way the user applies the
    product leads to improvement in the product
    itself.
  • Miryokuteki Hinshitsu The idea that "things
    should have an aesthetic quality" (for example, a
    pen will write in a way that is pleasing to the
    writer)
  • TQM requires that the company maintain this
    quality standard in all aspects of its business.
  • This requires ensuring that things are done right
    the first time and that defects and waste are
    eliminated from operations.

23
Kvaliteedistandardid ja kvaliteedimõõtmine
  • The International Organization for
    Standardization (Organisation internationale de
    normalisation), widely known as ISO is an
    international-standard-setting body composed of
    representatives from various national standards
    organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the
    organization promulgates worldwide proprietary
    industrial and commercial standards. It is
    headquartered in Geneva.
  • While ISO defines itself as a non-governmental
    organization, its ability to set standards that
    often become law, either through treaties or
    national standards, makes it more powerful than
    most non-governmental organizations. In practice,
    ISO acts as a consortium with strong links to
    governments.
  • ISO's main products are the International
    Standards. ISO also publishes Technical Reports,
    Technical Specifications, Publicly Available
    Specifications, Technical Corrigenda, and Guides.

24
ISO liikmesmaad    (members, correspondent
members, subscriber members)      
  • .

25
ISO kvaliteedistandardid organisatsioonile
(juhtimisele)
  • ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality
    management systems. ISO 9000 is maintained by
    ISO, the International Organization for
    Standardization and is administered by
    accreditation and certification bodies. Some of
    the requirements in ISO 9001 (which is one of the
    standards in the ISO 9000 family) include
  • Reflektsioon a set of procedures that cover all
    key processes in the business
  • Monitooring monitoring processes to ensure they
    are effective
  • Dokumenteerimine keeping adequate records
  • Reageerimine defektidele checking output for
    defects, with appropriate and corrective action
    where necessary
  • Tagasiside regularly reviewing individual
    processes and the quality system itself for
    effectiveness and
  • Püsiv eneseparandus facilitating continual
    improvement
  • A company or organization that has been
    independently audited and certified to be in
    conformance with ISO 9001 may publicly state that
    it is "ISO 9001 certified" or "ISO 9001
    registered". Certification to an ISO 9000
    standard does not guarantee any quality of end
    products and services rather, it certifies that
    formalized business processes are being applied.
    Indeed, some companies enter the ISO 9001
    certification as a marketing tool.
  • Although the standards originated in
    manufacturing, they are now employed across
    several types of organization.
  • Individuaalne õppetöö ISO 9000 põhimõtete
    kohaselt!

26
Six Sigma
  • Six Sigma is a business management strategy,
    originally developed by Motorola, that today
    enjoys widespread application in many sectors of
    industry.
  • Six Sigma seeks to identify and remove the causes
    of defects and errors in manufacturing and
    business processes. It uses a set of quality
    management methods, including statistical
    methods, and creates a special infrastructure of
    people within the organization ("Black Belts"
    etc.) who are experts in these methods.
  • The term "six sigma process" comes from the
    notion that if one has six standard deviations
    between the mean of a process and the nearest
    specification limit, there will be practically no
    items that fail to meet the specifications. This
    is based on the calculation method employed in a
    process capability study.
  • In a capability study, the number of standard
    deviations between the process mean and the
    nearest specification limit is given in sigma
    units. As process standard deviation goes up, or
    the mean of the process moves away from the
    center of the tolerance, fewer standard
    deviations will fit between the mean and the
    nearest specification limit, decreasing the sigma
    number.
  • Six Sigma 3.4 DPMO 99.9997 efficiency

27
Six Sigma näide DMADV
  • Tegevuse dekonstruktsioon!
  • DMADV is used to create new product or process
    designs.
  • The basic methodology consists of the following
    five steps
  • Define design goals that are consistent with
    customer demands and the enterprise strategy.
  • Measure and identify CTQs (characteristics that
    are Critical To Quality), product capabilities,
    production process capability, and risks.
  • Analyze to develop and design alternatives,
    create a high-level design and evaluate design
    capability to select the best design.
  • Design details, optimize the design, and plan for
    design verification. This phase may require
    simulations.
  • Verify the design, set up pilot runs, implement
    the production process and hand it over to the
    process owners.
  • DMADV is also known as DFSS, an abbreviation of
    "Design For Six Sigma".

28
Six Sigma kvaliteedikindlustuse
professionaliseerumine
  • One of the key innovations of Six Sigma is the
    professionalizing of quality management
    functions.
  • Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its
    successful implementation.
  • Executive Leadership includes the CEO and other
    members of top management. They are responsible
    for setting up a vision for Six Sigma
    implementation. They also empower the other role
    holders with the freedom and resources to explore
    new ideas for breakthrough improvements.
  • Champions are responsible for Six Sigma
    implementation across the organization in an
    integrated manner. The Executive Leadership draws
    them from upper management. Champions also act as
    mentors to Black Belts.
  • Master Black Belts, identified by champions, act
    as in-house coaches on Six Sigma. They devote
    100 of their time to Six Sigma. They assist
    champions and guide Black Belts and Green Belts.
    Apart from statistical tasks, their time is spent
    on ensuring consistent application of Six Sigma
    across various functions and departments.
  • Black Belts operate under Master Black Belts to
    apply Six Sigma methodology to specific projects.
    They devote 100 of their time to Six Sigma. They
    primarily focus on Six Sigma project execution,
    whereas Champions and Master Black Belts focus on
    identifying projects/functions for Six Sigma.
  • Green Belts are the employees who take up Six
    Sigma implementation along with their other job
    responsibilities. They operate under the guidance
    of Black Belts

29
Haridus ja kvaliteet
  • Tõsiseks teemaks 1990datel. Areng järgib sama
    loogikat, kuidas kvaliteediparadigma jõudis
    äriorganisatsioonidesse
  • Arenguetapid rahulolematus (massiharidus),
    väline kontroll (akrediteerimine), ühised
    standardid (standards and guidelines),
    rahvusvaheline kontroll ja pingeread (agentuur),
    sisemised mehhanismid (eneseparandus),
    kvaliteedikultuur (sisemine norm)
  • Analoog tsiviliseerumisega normi
    internaliseerumine. Kui kaugele erinevad
    eluvaldkonnad (äri, meditsiin, haridus,
    riigikaitse) on (kvaliteedi) arengus jõudnud?

30
Elukvaliteet
  • Teemaks 1970datel, koos heaoluühiskonnaga.
    Väärtuspilt eemale ellujäämisvajadustest,
    päevakorrale vaba aeg, eneserealisatsioon, hea
    elu, elu mõte
  • Väliste näitajate (sissetulek, eluiga,
    elamistingimused) kõrvale subjektiivne pilt ja
    hinnang toimuvale
  • Elukvaliteet kui loend nn hea elu tunnustest või
    kui ootuste ja võimaluste suhe? Välispilk ja
    sisemine hinnang.
  • Vangi, miljardäri ja kindrali elu kvaliteet!?

31
Mercer linnaelu kvaliteet
  • Mercer
  • is the global leader for trusted HR and related
    financial advice, products and services. In our
    work with clients, we make a positive impact on
    the world every day. We do this by enhancing the
    financial and retirement security, health,
    productivity and employment relationships of the
    global workforce. 
  • Mercer has more than 18,000 employees serving
    clients in over 180 cities and 40 countries and
    territories worldwide.
  • http//www.mercer.com/referencecontent.htm?idConte
    nt1128060top50all
  • Välised tunnused!
  • What makes one person's quality of life better or
    worse cannot be quantified in an objective index.
    Therefore, Mercer's Quality of Living report
    reflects only the tangible aspects of living in a
    city on expatriate assignments, and leaves the
    question of the quality of one's life to those
    living it!

32
Mercer 39 key quality of living determinants,
grouped in the 10 categories
  • Political and social environment (political
    stability, crime, law enforcement, etc)
  • Economic environment (currency exchange
    regulations, banking services, etc)
  • Socio-cultural environment (censorship,
    limitations on personal freedom, etc)
  • Health and sanitation (medical supplies and
    services, infectious diseases, sewage, waste
    disposal, air pollution, etc)
  • Schools and education (standard and availability
    of international schools, etc)
  • Public services and transportation (electricity,
    water, public transport, traffic congestion, etc)
  • Recreation (restaurants, theatres, cinemas,
    sports and leisure, etc)
  • Consumer goods (availability of food/daily
    consumption items, cars, etc)
  • Housing (housing, household appliances,
    furniture, maintenance services, etc)

33
 worldwide Quality of Living Survey Mercer Human
Resource Consulting 2007 Top 50 Base City New
York, USA (100)
  •    Rank 2007  Rank 2006 
  • 1 ZURICH Switzerland  108.1  108.22
  • 2 GENEVA Switzerland  108.0  108.13
  • 3 VANCOUVER Canada  107.7  107.73 
  • 4 VIENNA Austria  107.7  107.55 
  • 5 AUCKLAND New Zealand  107.3  107.35
  • 6 DUSSELDORF Germany  107.3  107.27 
  • 7 FRANKFURT Germany  107.1  107.08 
  • 8 MUNICH Germany 106.9  106.89
  • 9 BERN Switzerland  106.5  106.59 
  • 9 SYDNEY Australia  106.5  106.511 
  • 11 COPENHAGEN Denmark  106.2  106.212 
  • 12 WELLINGTON New Zealand 105.8  105.813 
  • 13 AMSTERDAM Netherlands  105.7  105.714
  • 14 BRUSSELS Belgium  105.6  105.615 
  • 15 TORONTO Canada  105.4  105.416
  • 16 BERLIN Germany  105.2  105.117 
  • 17 MELBOURNE Australia  105.0  105.018 
  • 18 LUXEMBOURG Luxembourg 104.8  104.818
  • 27 HONOLULU, HI USA  103.3  103.329 
  • 28 SAN FRANCISCO, CA USA  103.2  103.230 
  • 29 ADELAIDE Australia  103.1  103.1
  • 30 29 HELSINKI Finland  103.1  103.132
    31 OSLO Norway  103.5  102.827  
  • 31 BRISBANE Australia  102.8  102.833 
  • 33 PARIS France  102.7  102.734 
  • 34 SINGAPORE Singapore  102.5  102.535 
  • 35 TOKYO Japan  102.3  102.336
  • 37 LYON France  101.9  101.636 
  • 36 BOSTON, MA United States  101.9  101.938 
  • 37 YOKOHAMA Japan  101.7  101.639 
  • 39 LONDON United Kingdom  101.2  101.240
  • 40 KOBE Japan  101.0  101.041 
  • 44 BARCELONA Spain  100.6  100.242 
  • 45 MADRID Spain  100.5  100.142 
  • 51 OSAKA Japan  100.5  99.644 
  • 41 WASHINGTON, DC United States  100.4 
    100.444 
  • 41 CHICAGO, IL United States 100.4  100.446 

34
The Economist Intelligence Unit globaalne
elukvaliteet
  • Subjektiivne objektiivne pilt!
  • The Economist Intelligence Units quality of life
    index is based on a unique methodology that links
    the results of subjective life-satisfaction
    surveys to the objective determinants of quality
    of life across countries. The index was
    calculated in 2005 and includes data from 111
    countries and territories
  • Elukvaliteedi näitajad
  • The survey uses nine quality of life factors to
    determine a nation's score. They are listed below
    including the indicators used to represent these
    factors
  • Health Life expectancy at birth (in years.)
    Source US Census Bureau
  • Family life Divorce rate (per 1,000 population),
    converted into index of 1 (lowest divorce rates)
    to 5 (highest). Sources UN Euromonitor

35
The Economist Intelligence Unit Quality of life
index
  • Community life Dummy variable taking value 1 if
    country has either high rate of church attendance
    or trade-union membership zero otherwise.
    Source World Values Survey
  • Material well being GDP per person, at PPP in .
    Source Economist Intelligence Unit
  • Political stability and security Political
    stability and security ratings. Source Economist
    Intelligence Unit
  • Climate and geography Latitude, to distinguish
    between warmer and colder climes. Source CIA
    World Factbook
  • Job security Unemployment rate (.) Source
    Economist Intelligence Unit
  • Political freedom Average of indexes of
    political and civil liberties. Scale of 1
    (completely free) to 7 (unfree). Source Freedom
    House
  • Gender equality measured using ratio of average
    male and female earnings. Source UNDP Human
    Development Report

36
Quality of life index, 2005 Allikas Economist
Intelligence Unithttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qua
lity-of-life_index
  • 1 Ireland 8.333
  • 2 Switzerland 8.068
  • 3 Norway 8.051
  • 4 Luxembourg 8.015
  • 5 Sweden 7.937
  • 6 Australia 7.925
  • 7 Iceland 7.911
  • 8 Italy 7.810
  • 9 Denmark 7.797
  • 10 Spain 7.727
  • 11 Singapore 7.719
  • 12 Finland 7.618

13 United States 7.615 14 Canada 7.599 15 New
Zealand 7.436 16 Netherlands 7.433 17 Japan 7.392
18 Hong Kong 7.347 19 Portugal 7.307 20 Austria 7.
268 58 Romania 6.106 59 Venezuela 6.090 60 China
6.084
37
Quality of life index, 2005 Allikas Economist
Intelligence Unithttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qua
lity-of-life_index
  • 61  Vietnam 6.081
  • 62  Bahrain 6.036
  • 63  Lithuania 6.034
  • 64  Jamaica 6.023
  • 65  Morocco 6.019
  • 66  Latvia 6.009
  • 67  Oman 5.917
  • 68  Estonia 5.906
  • 69  Pakistan 5.230
  • 98  Ukraine 5.033
  • 99  Moldova 5.010
  • 100 Belarus 4.978
  • 101 Uganda 4.879
  • 102 Turkmenistan 4.870
  • 103  Kyrgyzstan 4.846
  • 105  Russia 4.796
  • 108  Nigeria 4.505
  • 109  Tanzania 4.495
  • 110  Haiti 4.090
  • 111  Zimbabwe 3.892

38
Kokkuvõtteks
  • Kvaliteet universaalne ja rõhutatult
    mitmetähenduslik mõõdupuu
  • Organisatsioonide puhul produkti ja tegevuse
    kvaliteet, sisepilk ja välispilk, kvaliteet kui
    surve ja kvaliteet kui sisemine norm
  • Kvaliteedimõõdikud, kvaliteedijärjestused,
    sisusse süüvimine ja skeptiline pilt
  • Organisatsiooni hindamise kriteeriumid
    sotsiaalne vastutus, kvaliteet, innovaatilisus
    ja nende sarnane arenguloogika teadvustamine
    tähtsustamine mõõtmine järjestamine -
    mõjutamine
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