ENHANCING COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR STUDENTS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD) IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ENHANCING COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR STUDENTS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD) IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM

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Title: ENHANCING COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR STUDENTS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD) IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM


1
  • ENHANCING COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR STUDENTS WITH
    AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD) IN THE GENERAL
    EDUCATION CLASSROOM
  • Module 3
  • Lesson 2
  • Expressive Language

2
  • OUTLINE
  • Lesson 2
  • Expressive Language
  • Characteristics
  • More Strategies for the Classroom

3
EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE
4
  • Students with ASD often have substantial delays
    and differences in expressive language. (Paul,
    2007 ASHA, 2006).
  • Students with ASD who develop speech typically
    use language that is sparse and repetitive. They
    often use expressive language for limited
    purposes, mostly to request or protest.
  • Potential classroom application Acknowledge and
    respond to all communicative attempts. Use
    activities of interest that happen regularly
    (such as snack time, independent play, or
    favorite toys, books, or other items), to allow
    repeated opportunities for practice include
    pauses to encourage the student to communicate
    and participate. Model vocabulary, simple
    sentence structures, and communicative intents
    (beyond requesting or protesting) such as to
    comment, get someones attention, initiate
    interaction, etc. Use pictured symbols to prompt
    the student to say target words or sentences.
    Encourage use of alternate modes of communication
    (augmentative communication), such as picture
    symbols with printed words and gestures.

5
  • Expressive vocabulary in students with ASD is
    often sparse and restricted to nouns or object
    labels . Students are also often delayed in
    combining words (such as saying Cookie instead
    of more cookie) (Paul, 2007 ASHA, 2006).
  • Potential classroom application Acknowledge and
    verbally interpret the students intentional
    communication model and stress key words and
    word combinations (e.g., student reaches for a
    cookie that is out of reach. Teacher points to
    the cookie and says You want cookie. Cookie).
    Expand the students verbal communication (e.g.,
    student says, Ball to request the big ball.
    Teacher says, Ball, big ball). Teach words that
    the student may like, such as jump while
    jumping on a mini-trampoline. Use activities that
    will provide many opportunities for practice.
    Include picture symbols and printed words as
    prompts. Encourage use of augmentative
    communication to express new words.

6
  • Students with ASD show literalness in their
    expressive use of language (Paul, 2007 ASHA,
    2006).
  • Students with ASD usually have difficulty using
    abstract concepts (such as related to time,
    direction, and math) and higher level expressive
    language skills (such as expressive
    problem-solving, reasoning, explanations, and
    creative and figurative language).
  • Potential classroom application Teach and
    practice language in various situations and
    activities to promote generalization. Use visual
    depictions of words that are difficult for the
    student to understand and use. Use picture
    symbols with printed words to prompt verbal
    labeling, explanations, and other higher level
    language skills.

7
  • Many students with ASD exhibit echolalia, either
    immediate or delayed. They may also use
    unconventional or idiosyncratic words, phrases,
    or sentences, or undesirable behaviors to
    communicate (ASHA, 2006 Wetherby Prizant,
    2000).
  • Students may hear and repeat a word or chunk of
    language and associate this word or borrowed
    phrase with a specific experience or event. An
    echolalic utterance may be equivalent to a single
    word or may refer to a situation or event.
  • Potential classroom application Try to interpret
    the communicative intent of echolalia or
    idiosyncratic words, and if this is possible,
    verbally acknowledge what the student is trying
    to communicate. Model conventional or more
    correct language. Teach language that expresses
    various communicative intents (e.g., words for
    commenting, asking, showing, expressing emotion,
    interacting, etc.). Continually expand expressive
    vocabulary and sentence structures in daily
    activities.

8
  • As for receptive language, expressive language
    may be limited in tasks requiring joint attention
    and interpersonal interaction (Paul, 2007 ASHA,
    2006).
  • Potential classroom application Encourage
    interactions even without speech. Use repetitive
    activities and modeling, giving many chances for
    practice and predictability. Encourage joint
    attention by involving a favorite activity or
    plan for a favorite activity to naturally happen
    next (reinforcement) teach the student to call
    or get attention to initiate an interaction, such
    as to ask for help with something he likes.
    Include pictured cues as prompts for the student
    to know what to say or do practice scripts of
    what to say in various situations. Encourage
    students to use alternate modes of communication,
    such as picture symbols with printed words
    (augmentative communication).

9
  • Students with ASD may have delayed or limited
    speech, with reduced intelligibility (ASHA, 2006
    Paul, 2007 Landa, 2007).
  • Speech characteristics can include
  • inconsistent articulation errors, limited
    consonant inventory, and simple syllable
    structures
  • fine and gross motor incoordination
  • vocal differences may also be present including
    monotone intonation, whispering, or using a
    quieter voice, abnormal pitch and rate.
  • Potential classroom application Include
    alternate modes of communication, such as picture
    symbols with printed words (augmentative
    communication), along with repetitive predictable
    routines, to facilitate speech and language.

10
Summary Ways to adapt activities to promote
expressive language
  • Provide instruction in activities of interest
    that happen regularly and with favorite items --
    This allows repeated opportunities for practice.
    In these activities, teach words that the student
    may like, such as jump while jumping on a
    mini-trampoline. Include visuals and pauses to
    encourage the student to communicate and
    participate.
  • Acknowledge and respond to all communicative
    attempts -- Recognize even subtle communication
    signals, and verbally interpret all communication
    attempts. Stress, model, and expand key words or
    vocabulary, word combinations, and communicative
    intents (beyond requesting or protesting). Try to
    interpret the communicative intent of echolalia
    or idiosyncratic words if this is possible,
    verbally acknowledge what the student is trying
    to communicate, and model conventional or more
    correct language.

  • continued on next slide

11
Summary Ways to adapt activities to promote
expressive language
  • Encourage use of alternate modes of
    communication, such as picture symbols with
    printed words (augmentative communication, or
    AAC) to facilitate speech and language -- AAC
    can be used as prompts to help students know what
    to say and how to say it, and as a way to develop
    language and communicate. AAC can be used to
    teach new words and concepts, to expand
    expressive vocabulary, sentence structures, and
    communicative intents, including to promote
    interactions. See more about AAC in Lesson 3.
  • Specific teaching strategies may depend on the
    students language level and other needs
    Collaborate with your speech-language therapist
    and other team members to individualize
    instruction that addresses students specific
    expressive language needs.

12
MORE STRATEGIES FOR THE CLASSROOM
13
  • As noted in Lesson 1, effective systematic
    instruction in the general education classroom
    includes naturalistic instruction. The next
    few slides describe some of the naturalistic
    instructional strategies that can be used to
    promote expressive language skills. Refer to
    Lesson 1, Slide 21, for more information about
    naturalistic instruction.
  • As for receptive language, naturalistic
    instruction to promote expressive language skills
    and participation involves
  • structuring the environment, and
  • adapting methods and activities to promote
    receptive language skills and increase
    participation.

14
  • Responsive interaction strategies (following the
    students lead) refer to Lesson 1, slide 22,
    for more information on these strategies.
  • Example Cathy communicates mostly to request
    items using occasional words, changes in body
    posture, screaming, and repeated phrases. To
    expand effective communicative intents, the
    teacher has targeted expressive communication for
    social interaction (i.e., to show) using this
    strategy.
  • continued on next slide

15
  • Responsive interaction strategies (continued)
  • Example continued Students in class were
    instructed to bring a photo of favorite things at
    home to share with the class. Cathy is looking at
    her picture of favorite things at home-- her mom,
    cat, and herself holding a favorite toy. The
    teacher sits down and sees that Cathy is looking
    at and touching the picture of her mom. The
    teacher does the same, looks at Cathy, and says,
    You see Mom. Mom. Cathy touches the picture
    of her mom again. The teacher again touches mom,
    looks at Cathy, and says, You see Mom. Thats
    Mom, hoping to facilitate the student saying or
    doing the same. Cathy then touches the picture
    and says, Mom.
  • Imitation acknowledges the students act and
    invites a response from her.

16
  • Environmental arrangement strategies See Lesson
    1, slide 24, for more information about these
    strategies which can also be used to promote
    expressive language.
  • Example Mary says one to two-word combinations,
    usually in response to questions. During lunch,
    to promote initiations of communication, the
    teacher gives her a little bit to drink and a
    quarter of a sandwich, instead of a full glass
    and half a sandwich. Mary cries and holds out her
    glass. The teacher, says, More drink. More drink
    please and gives her a little more to drink. The
    teacher moves away and Mary raises her cup and
    says, More. The teacher asks and points to
    each one, More drink? Or more sandwich? Mary
    says, Drink. The teacher, says, More drink,
    please and gives her a little bit more.
  • In this case, including materials of interest,
    offering small portions at a time, and a choice
    making setup encourage Mary to initiate
    communication.

17
  • Modeling See Lesson 1, slide 26, for more
    information on modeling. In the example below,
    Sam wants play dough but cant open the box.
  • Step 1 Establish joint attention Sam is in
    his seat, looking at his play dough box. The
    teacher gets beside Sam, and also looks at it.
  • Step 2 Present a verbal model that labels or
    describes the focus of interest - The teacher
    says, Open to show Sam how to ask for help.
  • Step 3 When the student imitates the model,
    acknowledge and expand his/her response and
    provide access to the material or activity Sam
    says, Open. The teacher says, Yes, open box,
    opens it, and gives it to Sam.
  • Step 4 If the student does not imitate or
    respond appropriately, repeat the model. If the
    student again does not respond correctly, provide
    corrective feedback and help him access the
    material or activity - In this case, the teacher
    could say, Open box as she opens the box lid
    partially and gives it to Sam saying, Here, open
    box.

18
  • Incidental Teaching See Lesson 1, slide 28, for
    more information on this.
  • Example Mandy likes to say or imitate students
    names during roll call. When the teacher calls
    out a name, Mandy says it too. The teacher
    decides to use that activity for Mandy to
    practice using communication to interact with
    others and to combine words. Mandy first gets to
    call out each students name during roll call
    (this takes place at the bulletin board that has
    a picture of each child and first name). The next
    step is for Mandy to ask, Where is plus the
    students name or say the students name and
    direct them to raise hand.
  • Any naturalistic or other instructional technique
    could be used here to expand Mandys expressive
    language.

19
  • Embed instructional episodes for classroom goals
    in regularly occurring activities. See Lesson 1,
    slide 29 for the steps involved. The next two
    slides include more information and examples
    about each step.

20
  • Step 1 As for Lesson 1, select activities and
    arrange the environment (adapted from Noonan
    McCormick, 2006 from Bricker Norstad, 1990
    Landa, 2007)
  • Select activities that group similar objects for
    different students. Example telling stories with
    props is an activity that lends itself to
    teaching identifying objects by their function
    (using expressive language to label functions).
  • Select activities that group different
    goals/objectives for the same student. Example
    Joe has three objectives that can be taught in
    the context of snack preparation a language
    objective (naming adjectives), a cognitive or
    pre-linguistic objective (labeling colors and
    shapes), and a fine motor/self-care objective
    (labeling or requesting pour).
  • Select activities that can be adapted for varying
    age and skill levels. Example see Lesson 1,
    slide 30, for information.
  • continued on next slide

21
  • Select activities that require minimal adult
    direction and assistance. Example see Lesson 1,
    slide 31, for more information.
  • Select activities that provide many opportunities
    for student initiations. Example the activity
    Up, up, and away requires children to name a
    peer and then pass a balloon to that peer each
    game provides many opportunities for children to
    initiate communication with peers.
  • Select activities that are motivating and
    interesting. See Lesson 1, slide 31, for more
    information.
  • continued on next slide

22
  • Select activities that involve play. See Lesson
    1, slide 32, for more information.
  • Design activities in which modeling can be used
    and the students imitation skills can be
    facilitated and practiced. Example Students are
    to request colored pencils for a task but Tom
    needs help. The teacher has Tom choose the colors
    he wants, models each color name for him to
    imitate (to request) and get the pencils he
    wants.
  • Arrange physical space in the classroom to
    promote student learning. Examples To promote
    use of adjectives, the classroom may have
    adjective words and pictures in the room that can
    be used as cues. If teaching math principles, the
    room can have a grocery store configuration to
    make the activity more interesting, etc. Also see
    slide 14 in this lesson.
  • continued on next slide

23
  • Step 2 Decide how targeted skills will be
    taught.
  • See Lesson 1, slide 33, for more information.
  • The instructional plan or matrix can be organized
    to include
  • Activity or occasion for instruction e.g., art
    class-- student likes to color
  • Schedule- e.g., 200 art class, possibly 100
    free play
  • Physical positioning or materials- e.g.,
    materials will be kept in a bin labeled art
    with picture symbol for art have word and
    picture prompts nearby
  • Intervention strategies- e.g., for student
    objective to say three action verbs (color, cut,
    and paste), always ensure joint attention,
    student must request item to use, based on
    choices of preferred and non-preferred items
    include visuals and modeling as needed
  • Continued on next slide

24
  • Student Response e.g., student will describe
    what he did color, cut, and paste, using speech
    and picture symbols as needed
  • Consequence for correct response- e.g., verbal
    acknowledgement and reinforcement (Cut, you cut
    paper) student may get to color longer when
    finished with project.
  • Consequence for incorrect response- e.g., teacher
    will model correct words, include augmentative
    communication to express the verbs, and use
    visuals as prompts

25
SUMMARY Ways to promote expressive language
across everyday classroom activities, using
naturalistic instruction
  • Follow the students lead
  • Make environmental arrangements
  • Model communication skills and request that the
    student imitate
  • Continually expand the students communication
    skills by elaborating on what they say and asking
    elaboration questions
  • Plan learning opportunities in regularly
    occurring activities-- create a matrix or a list
    of the students communication goals and the
    classroom activities to show where and how
    instruction can be implemented
  • Collaborate with team members, including
    speech-language therapist, to address students
    specific language needs
  • Use naturalistic strategies above, with other
    teaching techniques, to promote language.
    Examples
  • Use time delay or pause, and then model and
    request imitation
  • Include extra prompts or cues to help students
    expand language and know what to say gradually
    reduce prompts and cues over time

26
Module 3 Lesson 2 Activity
  • Create an instructional matrix for three
    different students in your classroom, based on
    information in slides 21 and 22. Plan how and
    where instruction is to occur to promote
    expressive language objectives in your classroom
    activities.
  • Create one matrix for one activity, such as art
  • On the matrix, list the objectives for 3
    different students, and the materials, strategies
    to include naturalistic instruction, response,
    and consequences for each student
  • Explain why you selected the targeted activity
    for the students
  • Explain why you selected the instructional
    strategies for each student

27
References
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
    (2006). Principles for Speech-Language
    Pathologists in Diagnosis, Assessment, and
    Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders Across the
    Life Span Technical Report. Available from
    222.asha.org/policy.
  • Beukelman, D.R., Mirenda, P. (2005).
    Augmentative and Alternative Communication
    Supporting children adults with complex
    communication needs (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD
    Brookes Publishing.
  • Landa, R. (2007). Early communication development
    and intervention for children with autism. Mental
    Retardation and Developmental Disabilities
    Research Reviews, 13, 16-25.
  • Noonan, M.J., McCormick, L. (2006). Young
    children with disabilities in natural
    environments. Baltimore, MD Brookes Publishing.
  • Paul, R. (2007). Language disorders from infancy
    through adolescence (3rd ed.). St. Louis,
    Missouri Mosby Elsevier.
  • Wetherby, A.M., Prizant, B.M. (Eds.). (2000).
    Autism spectrum disorders A transactional
    developmental perspective (Vol. 9). Baltimore,
    MD Brookes Publishing.
  • Woods, J.J., Wetherby, A.M. (2003). Early
    identification of and intervention for infants
    and toddlers who are at risk for autism spectrum
    disorder. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services
    in Schools, 34, 180-193.
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