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Suicide Bombers

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Department of Higher Education, Campus Safety and Violence Prevention Task Force ... use of personal and specialized firearms including shotguns and assault rifles ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Suicide Bombers


1
Campus Violence Prevention and Response Best
Practices for Massachusetts Higher
Education Prepared by Applied Risk Management
2
Introduction
  • Applied Risk Management
  • Department of Higher Education, Campus Safety and
    Violence Prevention Task Force
  • Consulting Team
  • Security Experts from ARM
  • Criminologists / Academics
  • Law Enforcement / Violence Prevention

3
Process
  • What information did we use?
  • National and local crime statistics
  • National and local best practices
  • Surveys
  • Dr. Foxs other research

4
20 Reports
Recommendations AG's COPS Exp. FL IACLEA IL KY MO NJ NM NSU NC OK PA Rep. Pres. U of CA U of NC VA Tech Panel VA Work Grp WI
Create an all-hazards EmergencyResponse Plan   95
Adopt an emergency mass notification and communications system   95
Establish multidisciplinary team to respond to crises (e.g., Threat Assessment Team)         80
Review and train personnel regarding privacy/info sharing policies such as FERPA and HIPAA         80
Have a MOU with local health agencies and other key partners in the community           75
Practice/train for emergency plans           75
Educate and train students, faculty, and staff about mass notification system, and their roles and responsibilities in an emergency             70
5
Nature and Scope of the Problem
6
Nature and Scope of the Problem
  • Violent Crime criminal homicide, sexual
    offenses and aggravated assault
  • Campus environment free and open

7
Nature and Scope of the Problem
  • Serious Violence is remarkably low
  • Tragedy of VA Tech has fixed our gaze
  • Severe and long-lasting consequences
  • Contagion

8
National and Local Best Practices
9
National Best Practices
  • 20 previous reports
  • ERP plans and exercises
  • Mass Notification systems and training
  • Threat Assessment Teams
  • FERPA and HIPAA

10
National Best Practices
  • 20 previous reports
  • MOU with local agencies
  • Train community to recognize threats
  • Conduct risk assessments
  • Interoperable communications
  • NIMS Training

11
MA Public Colleges Universities
  • 5 Campus Visits
  • Free training from State Police and FBI
  • Comprehensive Mass Notification
  • Detailed Risk Assessment
  • Advanced equipment
  • Threat Assessment Teams
  • Extensive CCTV deployment

12
Existing Conditions133 Question Survey
13
The Nature of the Problem
  • 90 of schools surveyed reported an increase of
    students with severe psychiatric problems in
    recent years

14

15
The Good
  • 100 of schools have ERP
  • 100 of schools have a mass notification system
  • 83 have on-campus mental health services

16
Not so good
  • 65 have Threat Assessment Teams
  • 52 have conducted active shooter training
  • 54 do not have CCTV
  • 50 non-interoperable communications equipment

17
Bad
  • 88 have not conducted vulnerability assessments
  • 81 of schools do not submit violent writings to
    experts for review
  • 70 do not train faculty, staff and students on
    how to recognize signs of risk and violence
  • 66 of campuses do not have armed police
  • 65 do not have trained trauma response teams

18
Recommendations
19
Recommendations
  • 27 Recommendations
  • National best practices
  • Research
  • ARM Survey

20
Recommendations
  • Self-Evident
  • Exterior door locks
  • Functioning exterior doors at dorms
  • Controversial
  • Expensive
  • Difficult
  • Debatable

21
Improving the Quality of Communications The
Campus Community as Your Eyes and Ears
  • Prevention
  • Reaction

22
Recommendations to improve communications between
faculty / staff and TAT / campus police
23
Recommendation 15
  • Faculty and staff should receive training in
    identifying students at risk
  • GOAL increase the probability that a possibly
    violent individual will receive help avert any
    violence
  • Issues
  • Efficacy
  • Making judgments
  • Liability issues

24
Recommendation 3
  • Writings, drawings, and other forms of individual
    expression reflecting violent fantasy and causing
    a faculty member to be fearful or concerned about
    safety, should be evaluated contextually for any
    potential threat.
  • Higher education must permit, even encourage,
    free and individual expression
  • Must be mechanisms in place to get help when
    concerns arise

25
Example Seung-Hui Cho
  • Lucinda Roy "I've been teaching for 22 years,
    and there've only been a couple of times when I
    thought that this is a really, really worrying
    thing. And this was one of them."

26
Recommendation 17
  • Faculty and staff should be informed about the
    appropriate protocol in the event of a crisis
  • Help or get out of the way?
  • Faculty/staff responsibility?

27
Recommendations to improve communications between
students and administration
28
Recommendation 1
  • Campus mental health services should be clearly
    available and easily accessible to students
  • Many violent individuals do not seek out help
  • Real goal is to make it so easily accessible that
    we encourage help-seeking behaviors among
    troubled individuals

29
Recommendation 19
  • Graduate student applicants should be directly
    queried regarding any unusual academic histories,
    as well as criminal records and disciplinary
    actions

Shooter, Age Role at School
Gang Lu, 28 Graduate student
Lo, 18 Undergraduate student
Wendell Williamson, 26 Former law student
Frederick Davidson, 36 Graduate student
Jan Chen, 42 Medical student
James Kelly, 36 Former graduate student
Donald Cowan, 55 None
Peter Odighizuwa, 42 Former law student
Robert Flores, 40 Graduate student
Douglas Pennington, 49 Parent of students
Seung-Hui Cho, 23 Undergraduate student
Williams, 23 Undergraduate student
Steven Kazmierczak, 27 Former graduate student
30
Assessments
31
Recommendation 20
  • Schools should conduct vulnerability assessments
    and update the assessment annually

32
Recommendation 24 25
  • Every school should institute, train and maintain
    a threat assessment team
  • The TAT should consist of representatives from
    various departments and agencies including
    student services, counseling, faculty, police, HR
    and legal.

33
Recommendation 6
  • Schools should install CCTV Cameras at strategic
    locations throughout their campuses

34
Response
35
Recommendation 8
  • Campus police should have up-to-date active
    shooter response plans in place and train their
    officers in active shooter tactics

36
Recommendation 10
  • Campus police should be armed and trained in the
    use of personal and specialized firearms
    including shotguns and assault rifles

37
Conclusions
38
Conclusions Considerations
  • Serious violence on campus is rare but
    consequences are devastating
  • Security entails costs fiscal and otherwise
    that must be considered and weighed

39
Conclusions Prevention
Information sharing is the best prevention, but
it is not enough by itself
40
Conclusions Response Recovery
  • Campus police must have appropriate tools to
    respond to the rare but serious events that can
    occur today
  • Campuses should prepare prevention, response and
    recovery plans

41
Final Conclusions
  • Universities present unique challenges security
    versus free thought
  • Recommendations are designed to balance both
    needs
  • Recommendations address both serious violence and
    more prevalent issues
  • The new reality education and law enforcement
    must collaborate

42
Questions
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