International Conference on Kurt Lewin: Contribution to Contemporary Psychology. Casimirus The Great University of Bydgoszcz, Institute of Psychology September 10-12, 2004 Mogilno, Poland - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

International Conference on Kurt Lewin: Contribution to Contemporary Psychology. Casimirus The Great University of Bydgoszcz, Institute of Psychology September 10-12, 2004 Mogilno, Poland

Description:

... school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. ... It tells everyone that it will be running a four-hour workshop for the entire ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:93
Avg rating:3.0/5.0

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: International Conference on Kurt Lewin: Contribution to Contemporary Psychology. Casimirus The Great University of Bydgoszcz, Institute of Psychology September 10-12, 2004 Mogilno, Poland


1
International Conference on Kurt
LewinContribution to Contemporary
Psychology.Casimirus The Great University of
Bydgoszcz, Institute of PsychologySeptember
10-12, 2004 Mogilno, Poland
  • Symposium 2
  • Lawrence Sherman (convener) Kurt Lewin's
    contribution to the theory and practice of
    education in the United States of America The
    importance of cooperative learning.
  • Participants
  • Richard Schmuck, University of Oregon, USA
  • Patricia Schmuck, Lewis and Clark College,
    Portland, Oregon USA
  • Lawrence W. Sherman, Miami University, Oxford,
    Ohio USA
  • This Presentation will be available on the web
    from Lawrence Shermans home page at
  • http//www.users.muohio.edu/shermalw

2
Kurt Lewin Memorial Mogilno, Poland, 2004
BH f (P E) Democratic/Autocratic/Laissez-faire
Leadership Group Dynamics Action
Research Frustration/Regression Level of
Aspiration Sensitivity Training, T-groups
3
Larry Sherman (left), Richard (center) and Pat
(right) SchmuckMogilno, Poland, September 12,
2004
4
Kurt Lewin A Truly Global Man
5
Kurt Lewins Focus on Children
  • Initial post at Cornell University, Ithaca, New
    York, in the School of Home Economics.
  • University of Iowa, Professor of Child
    Psychology, Iowa Child Welfare Research Station
    (now the Institute of Child Behavior and Research
  • Comment Alfred Marrow states Although his
    academic title was Professor of Child Psychology
    and most of the studies in the years that
    followed were of children, Lewins concern
    continued to be general psychological theory and
    experiment. (Marrow, 1969, p. 87) We believe,
    however, that this heritage became an important
    influence or well spring which had considerable
    influence on American educational practice.

6
(No Transcript)
7
Alfred Marrow, Student of Kurt Lewin and author
of The Practical Theorist The Life and Work of
Kurt Lewin, (1969)
Kurt Lewin Memorial Award, 1964
8
Morton Deutsch, 1968 Kurt Lewin Memorial Award
A Theory of Cooperation and Competition, Human
Relations, 1949, 2, 129-152. An Experimental
Study of the Effects of Cooperation and
Competition upon Group Process, Human Relations,
1949, 2, 153-158. Major influence on David
Johnsons contributions to the world of
cooperative learning.
9
Ron and Peg LippittAnn Arbor, Michigan 1960s?
With Lewin and White Social Climates
(democratic, autocratic and laissez-faire
leadership styles) Action Research
10
Some other interesting Lewinian connections and
influences on American educational practice
  • Robert Rosenthal and the Experimenter Biasing
    Effect, otherwise know as the Pygmalion Effect.
    He reports that this line of study was inspired
    by his interest and eventual re-publication of
    the book, Clever Hans, originally published by
    Otto Pfunst and Carl Stumpf. Carl Stumpf was the
    director of the Psychological Laboratory at the
    University of Berlin and is also credited as
    Lewins dissertation father by Alfred Marrow.
  • This year (2004) marks the 50th anniversary of
    the United States Supreme Courts 1954 Brown vs
    the Board of Education decision regarding
    separate but equal schools. Kenneth B. Clarks
    major testimony along with Gordon Allport and
    Stuart Cook, before that court was very
    influential. Clark, Allport and Cook were all
    past member of Lewins Commission on Community
    Interrelations (C.C.I.). Details of Clarks
    involvement have recently been highlighted in the
    APAs Monitor on Psychology, Volumn 35, No. 8, pp
    56-72. I am presently interested in what some
    are calling the Re-segregation of American
    schools.

11
The International Association for the Study of
Cooperation in Education (I.A.S.C.E)
  • Our genealogy
  • Shermans first involvement in 1988 with two
    presentations, Both dealing with uses of
    Cooperative Learning pedagogy in higher
    education
  • Sherman (1988)
  • Sherman Woy-Hazelton (1988)

12
(No Transcript)
13
Five Basic Elements of Cooperative Learning
  • Positive Interdependence
  • Individual Accountability
  • Face To Face Interactions
  • Heterogeneous Grouping
  • Social Skills

14
Dick and Pat Schmuck, 1988, IASCE Conference, Tel
Aviv, Israel Pat was also a student of Ron
Lippitt. Pat is a Professor at Lewis Clark
College, Portland Oregon Dick is a Professor
Emeritus, University of Oregon
15
PAT (left) and RICHARD (center) SCHMUCK AND
SHLOMO SHARAN (right), IASCE CONFERENCE 1988,
TEL AVIV, ISRAEL
16
Richard Schmuck (right) and Shlomo Sharan
(left) Israel,1988 IASCE Conference Shlomo is a
Professor at the Tel Aviv University and a Past
President of the IASCE
17
RECENT HISTORY OF THE I.A.S.C.E
  • OUR RECENT HISTORY IS AVAILABLE AT THE FOLLOWING
    ADDRESS
  • HTTP//WWW.USERS.MUOHIO.EDU/SHERMALW/iasce's
    history.doc
  • Additional information on the IASCE is available
    on the web at http//www.iasce.net
  • First established in 1979 when it held its first
    conference in Israel. Richard Schmuck became
    its first President.
  • IASCE celebrated its 25th Anniversary this year
    at its most recent International Conference in
    Singapore.

18
Richard Schmuck
  • Action Research

19
Reflective Professional Practice
Mature

Collaborative Action Research
Gaining
Experience
Public Dialogue
Solitary Dialogue
Self
Focus on Self
Focus on Others
Focus on Results
New in Field
Individual
Increasing Collaboration
20
STP Concepts
P
T Desired Target
S Current Situation
path plan procedure project - proposal
21
Force-Field AnalysisCurrent Situation(S)
Facilitating Forces
Restraining Forces
Most desired state on this side
Undesirable state on this side
22
Defining Action Research
  • Action Research is to study a real school
    situation with a view to improve the quality of
    actions and results within it.
  • Action Research aims to improve professional
    judgment, and to give into how better to achieve
    desirable educational goals.
  • Action Research is continuous and cyclical.

23
Traditional Research
  • A social studies teacher must write a field study
    to earn a masters degree. He is required to
    state a research question, review what the
    research literature says about the question, and
    collect data in schools other than his own to
    answer the question. His research question is Do
    only children and first borns, compared to later
    borns, assume more leadership positions in the
    student government? His literature review reveals
    a mixed case with a tendency for first borns (but
    not only children) to take on student leadership
    positions more often than later borns.
  • The teacher prepares a questionnaire to measure
    birth order and involvement in student
    government. He collects data from students at ten
    high schools in a neighboring county. He writes
    up the results along with literature review,
    research methods, data analysis, and conclusion.
    In the conclusion he must return to the
    literature review- to show how his study adds to
    the accumulating literature on the subject. His
    paper is read by his wife and a colleague and
    approved by two professors. Is is stored in a
    cabinet at the College of Education.

24
Action Research
  • A social studies teacher joins a network of
    teachers doing action research. She is expected
    to choose a problem in her own classroom or
    school. She focuses on her school because as a
    faculty advisor she sees a problem with the
    student council. She notes that over the last
    three years fewer students have been volunteering
    to serve on the council and that more students
    who do volunteer have been dropping out after
    only a couple of meetings. She decides to study
    all students perceptions and attitudes about
    student council with a questionnaire. She gets
    help with the questionnaire from teachers in the
    network. She collects and analyzes data
    distributes the results to students,
  • faculty, and the administration and works with
    an action-research team of council and faculty
    members to improve council functioning. She
    announces new practices at a faculty meeting and
    a student assembly and works with the team to
    implement them. Later, team members interview new
    council members to see how the new practices are
    going. At the end of the school year, council
    members interview a sample of students and
    faculty members about the councils work. After
    the teacher reports on the project at a network
    meeting, a counselor from another school asks her
    to help him do a similar project.

25
Differences Between Action and Traditional
Researchers
Improvement versus Explanation Development versus Knowledge Perspectives versus Experimentation Local versus Universal
Action researchers seek a shared understanding of how those who work together affect one another. They are concerned with intervention for continuous improvement. Traditional researchers seek to explain how social relations function, why people influence one another, and what characterizes an effective group or organization. They are concerned with explanation and truth. Action researchers wish to foster development and self-renewal of their own group or organization. They are concerned with planned change. Traditional researchers seek to build a body of knowledge about social relations that grows over time. They are concerned with accumulation of knowledge. Action researchers strive to reach beyond their own, limited points of view by collecting data on multiple perspectives of significant others, they are concerned with obtaining trustworthy information from the right people. Traditional researchers strive to move outside their subjective realities by collecting data in controlled experiments or field studies. They are concerned with obtaining objective data from a representative sample. Action researchers work by themselves or engage colleagues in self-study and problem solving to increase local effectiv- eness. They are con- cerned with building tentative theories to guide future steps in the change and improv- ement process. Traditional researchers engage other researchers worldwide in studies to build universal theory. They are concerned with establishing generalized principles.
26
Two Kinds of Research
Traditional
Action
What one is personally doing Seek continuous
change Reflective Strive for development and
planned change Personally involved
What others are doing Seek explanation and
truth Objective Strive for knowledge Removed from
research site
Data collection Inquiry Problem solving
27
PROACTIVE ACTION RESEARCH
  1. TRYING A NEW PRACTICE (to have a different effect
    or to bring about better outcomes)
  2. INCORPORATING HOPES AND CONCERNS INTO PRACTICE
  3. COLLECTING DATA TO TRACK STUDENTS REACTIONS
  4. CHECKIG ON WHAT THE DATA MEAN
  5. REFLECTING ON ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO BEHAVE
  6. TRYING ANOTHER NEW PRACTICE

28
(No Transcript)
29
Steps to Proactive Research
Steps Examples
1. Try a new practice to have a different effect on others or to bring about better outcomes. A new way to prepare students to work in groups A new method to teach some part of the curriculum A new procedure to have students assess their own learning
2. Incorporate hopes and concerns into the new practice. Hopes are what one strives to accomplish. Hopes Student will work more diligently together and not hitchhike on the hard work of a few peers. Students will work harder and make fewer mistakes. The new assessment procedures will lead to portfolio assessments that are meaningful and engaging to students.
30
2 (contd). Concerns are what one predicts might happen, creating cautionary expectations about the new actions. Concerns Some students will require one-on-one counseling before they are ready to work cooperatively with their peers. Some students will be confused with the new method and show their frustration by resisting parts of the new method Some students- particularly those who now get high grades- might not wish to use portfolio assessment.
3. Collect data regularly to keep track of the students reactions and behavioral changes. Once a week, the teacher asks students to fill out questionnaires about their reactions to group work. The teacher also asks a committee of five students to observe the work groups and give feedback to the class about what it finds. The teacher asks a colleague to observe the class while the new method of teaching is being used. The teacher also asks the colleague to keep a journal about the new practice. The teacher sends questionnaires to parents about the new assessment procedures. The teacher also interviews a random sample of students about portfolio assessment.
31
4. Check what the data mean. The teacher holds discussions once a week with the class to analyze the data on group work. Colleague-to-colleague exchanges occur regularly about the new teaching method. A committee of parents meets to review the new assessment procedures.
5. Reflect on alternative ways to behave. How is what is happening during group work related to what is said about and done with the group work? The teacher writes a solitary dialogue between her caring self and challenging (or confrontational) self. How else might the new practice be carried out? The teacher writes a solitary dialogue between her past self and future self about the new practice. How can the students be motivated and evaluated? The teacher finishes a sentence stems such as, As a modern educator, I prefer to motivate students to work hard by emphasizing the following ways of evaluating their academic performance The teacher writes a solitary dialogue between her stern self and permissive self.
32
6. Try another new practice. (The sequence has traveled full circle back to step 1. Revisions are made in the original practices to make them more effective). In the next group assignment, students start in pairs before creating large work groups. The teacher tries a few of her colleagues suggestions for revising the new teaching method. The teacher prepares a one-page explanation of portfolio assessment for parents.
33
RESPONSIVE ACTION RESEARCH
  1. COLLECTING DATA TO DIAGNOSE THE SITUATION
  2. ANALYZING THE DATA FOR THEMES AND ACTION IDEAS
  3. PRESENTING THE DATA AND ANNOUNCING CHANGES
  4. TRYING A NEW PRACTICE
  5. CHECKING TO SEE HOW OTHERS ARE REACTING
  6. COLLECTING DATA TO ASSESS THE SITUATION

34
(No Transcript)
35
Steps to Responsive Action Research
Steps Examples
1.Collect data to diagnose the situation. A school-climate committee collects questionnaire data from all staff members on their perceptions and feeling about the staffs social-emotional climate. Members of a site council interview a random sample of parents about their views on the schools strengths and weaknesses. The administrative cabinet uses observations in several behavior settings to assess citizens participation in the schools extracurricular programs.
2. Analyze the data for themes and ideas for action. The school-climate committee notes a large communication gap between the certified faculty and the classified staff. The site council concludes that parents tend to be satisfied with the schools math and science offerings but are not please with students writing and speaking skills. The administrative cabinet believes that while a considerable number of citizens attend boys sports events, too few attend girls sports events.
36
3. Distributes the data to others and announce changes that will be tried The school-climate committee announces its findings at a whole-staff meeting. It tells everyone that it will be running a four-hour workshop for the entire staff in a few weeks. The focus of that workshop will be on improving communication between classroom teachers and other staff members. The site council distributes its data back to the teachers and announces it will run a series of small-group discussions with heterogeneous groups of teachers. The administration cabinet presents its data to the staff and PTA. It announces, in both settings, that it will ask for volunteers to participate in an advertising campaign to get more adults to attend girls sports events.
37
4. Try a new practice to have a different effect on others. The school-climate committee designs and orchestrates a four-hour workshop for the entire staff. The topic of the workshop is getting to know our colleagues better-it takes all of us working together to educate our youngsters. The site council runs eight discussions for eight different teacher groups of seven each. It concludes with a new task force to work on speaking and writing across the curriculum. The administrative cabinet attracts fifteen volunteers (six teachers, seven parents, and two citizens without children in school) to create an advertising campaign for girls sports events.
38
5. Check to see how others are reacting. The school-climate committee closely watches to see that certified and classified staff become better acquainted and share information about the school with one another. The site council decides to talk informally with the language teachers to give the special encouragement during the change process. The administrative cabinet strives to give the fifteen volunteers ample reinforcement and support for their participation in organizing and running the campaign for girls sports.
6. Collect data to diagnose the situation. (Again the sequence has circled back to step 1 however, in this second data collection, the general methods used will be supplemented with specific questions about the particular issues worked on). What happened to the communication gap between certified and classified staff members? What is going on in the effort to implement a program on speaking and writing across the curriculum? What is happening with citizen participation at girls sports events?
39
Patricia SchmuckLewis Clark CollegePortland,
Oregon
  • Ronald Lippitts Social Science Curriculum and
    Action Research

40
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESOURCE BOOK LABORATORY UNITS
  • AUTHORS
  • RONALD LIPPITT, PROFESSOR OF PSYCHOLOGY AND
    SOCIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
  • ROGERT FOX, PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF
    MICHIGAN
  • LUCILLE SCHAIBLE, EDUCATOR AND WRITER
  • SCIENCE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC., CHICAGO, IL

41
UNIT 1 - Learning to Use Social Science
  • Scientists Who Ask Questions About People
  • Behavior
  • What Is a Behavior Specimen
  • Three Ways to Use Observation
  • Who Goes There?
  • Cause and Effect
  • The New Neighbor
  • Miltiple Causation
  • Circular Process
  • Special Ways of Asking Questions
  • Asking Qauestions About the Future
  • How Social Scientists Test Predictions

42
Unit 2 - Discovering Differences
  • What Makes People Different
  • No Girls Allowed
  • Six Years of Silence
  • We See the Same Things Differently
  • Squash Makes Me Sick!
  • Where Do We Get Likes and Dislikes?
  • What Is a Group?
  • Stereotypes

43
Unit 3 - Friendly and Unfriendly Behavior
  • Friendly and Unfriendly Behavior
  • Friendly or Unfriendly?
  • The Present - Feelings and Intentions
  • Once Burned, Twice Shy
  • Warm or Cold?
  • The Hill Club
  • Unfriendliness off Target?
  • Robbers Cave Experiment

44
Unit 4 - Being and Becoming
  • Being and Becoming
  • Growth and Development
  • Charlotte
  • Cliff
  • Intelligence - Can It Be Tested?
  • Viki - Chimp and Child
  • Expectations - The Science Report

45
Unit 5 - Individuals and Groups
  • Individual - Group Behavior
  • Alone or Together?
  • Jamie Alone
  • The Aquarium Committee
  • Autocracy and Democracy
  • Group Pressure - The Majority Wins
  • The Deviant in the Group

46
Unit 6 - Deciding and Doing
  • Who Makes Decisions?
  • What Happened?
  • Lingons Lake I
  • Lingons Lake II
  • Making a Poster
  • What Links Deciding to Doing?
  • Whats the Problem?
  • Solving Problems

47
Unit 7 - Influencing Each Other
  • What Is Influence?
  • Five Kinds of Influence
  • Influencers in Johns Morning
  • Children with Influence
  • The Halo Effect
  • Group Ignorance
  • Glossary

48
Lawrence Sherman
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Humor and Childrens Gleeful Behavior
  • Classroom management and behavior settings

49
Lawrence W. Sherman, Oxford, Ohio, Miami
University December, 2003
Student of Jacob S. Kounin, 1966-1971, Wayne
State University School environments as behavior
settings Group Glee (Childrens Humor) Locus of
Control Cooperative Learning (Treasurer,
IASCE) Computer Supported Intentional Learning
Experiences (CSILE)
50
Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan1965 -
1971Major Influences
  • Jacob S. Kounin, Ph. D. Dissertation Advisor
  • William Wattenberg, Dissertation Committee
  • Fritz Redl, Dissertation Committee
  • A. F. Citron, Graduate course work.
  • Both Redl and Citron were associated with the
    Commission on Community Interrelations (C.C.I)

51
Jacob Kounin Professor Emeritus, Wayne State
University, Detroit, Michigan, 1970
Experimental Studies of Rigidity and
co-satiation Exploratory Ecological
Research Classroom management and
Discipline. Signal systems and
Behavior Settings. Many collaborations
with Paul Gump.
52
Kounins Issues in Classroom Management
  • The Ripple Effect
  • Withitness
  • Transitions
  • Overlapping
  • Group Focus
  • Variety
  • Satiation and co-satiation connections
  • Signal Systems and Behavior Settings

53
Roger Barker, 1963, Kurt Lewin Memorial
Award With Dembo and Lewin Frustration
Regression With Jacob Kounin Child Behavior
and Development Stream of Behavior Behavior
Settings With Paul Gump Big School Small
School
54
Paul Gump with Edna Friedman, WSU, Detroit,
Michigan, 1970
55
Some Useful General References
  • Brody C.(Chair), Baloche, L., Schmuck, R.,
    Sherman, L., and Sharan, Y. (2004). The Past and
    Future of Cooperative Learning Perspectives from
    Leaders in the IASCE. Panel Session at IASCE
    Conference (draft version), Singapore, June ?2004
    http//www.users.muohio.edu/shermalw/iasce's
    history.doc
  • Morton Hunt (1993). The Story of Psychology.
    New York Doubleday.
  • Alfred F. Marrow (1969). The Practical Theorist
    The Life and Work of Kurt Lewin. New York Basic
    Books.
  • The Journal of Social Issues and The Society for
    the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI),
    especially the list of Lewin Memorial Award
    Winners.
  • Monitor on Psychology. American Psychological
    Association, Vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 56-72.
    (Desegregation to Diversity? Psychology takes a
    look at a half century of response to Americas
    watershed decision of Brown v. Board of
    Education). Special emphasis is made on
    Clarks work and how it was grounded in Kurt
    Lewins social action research - work in the
    community rather than only in a lab. Like Lewin,
    Clark believed that research could spur social
    activism and empower community members to change
    society for the better p. 60.
  • Philogene, G. (editor), (2004). Racial identity
    in context The Legacy of Kenneth B. Clark.
    Washington, D.C. American Psychological
    Association.

56
Richard Schmuck References
  • Richard A. Schmuck (1997). Practical action
    research for change. Arlington Heights, IL
    IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing.
  • Richard Schmuck (editor) (2000). Practical
    action research a collection of articles.
    Arlington Heights, IL Skylight Training and
    Publishing.
  • Richard and Patricia Schmuck (2001, 8th
    edition)). Group Processes in the Classroom.
    Boston, MA McGraw Hill.

57
Jacob Kounin References
  • Roger Barker, Jacob Kounin Ralph. White (1943).
    Child Behavior and Development. New York
    McGraw Hill.
  • Jacob S. Kounin (1970). Discipline and Group
    Management in Classrooms. New York Holt,
    Rinehart Winston.
  • Kounin, J. S., and Sherman, L. W. (1979). School
    environments as behavior settings. Theory Into
    Practice, 18(3), 145-151.

58
Lawrence Sherman References
  • Sherman, L. W. (2001). Cooperative Learning and
    Computer-Supported Intentional Learning
    Experiences. In (Chris Wolfe, editor), Learning
    and Teaching on the World Wide Web. San Diego,
    CA Academic Press, 113-130. http//www.users.muo
    hio.edu/shermalw/wolf_chapter-draft3-25.htm
  • Sherman, L. W. (2000). Postmodern Constructivist
    Pedagogy for Teaching and Learning Cooperatively
    on the Web. CyberPsychology and Behavior
    Special Issue. (Volume 3, No 1, 2000).
  • Sherman, L. W. (1993). Organizer of the 11th
    4th (ISHS) International Conference on Humor
    and Laughter (October, 1993). Miami University's
    John E. Dolibois Campus, Grand-Duche de
    Luxembourg, Europe.
  • Sherman, L. W. Woy-Hazelton, S. (1988). The
    student team project A long-term cooperative
    strategy in graduate environmental studies. Paper
    presentation to the Fourth Convention of the
    International Association for the Study of
    Cooperation in Education. Kibbutz Shefayim,
    Israel, July 5-8, 1988. ERIC DOCUMENT, ED
    299-872.
  • Sherman, L. W. (1988). Cooperative classroom
    pedagogies in undergraduate education. Paper
    presentation to the Fourth Convention of the
    International Association for the Study of
    Cooperation in Education. Kibbutz Shefayim,
    Israel, July 5-8, 1988. ERIC DOCUMENT ED 299-873.
  • Sherman, L. W. (1985). Humor and social distance.
    Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61, 1274.
  • Kounin, J. S., and Sherman, L. W. (1979). School
    environments as behavior settings. Theory Into
    Practice, 18(3), 145-151.
  • Sherman, L. W. (1984). Development of children's
    perceptions of internal control A
    cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis.
    Journal of Personality, 52(4), 338-354.
  • Sherman, L. W. (1975). An ecological study of
    glee in small groups of preschool children. Child
    Development, 46, 53-61.
About PowerShow.com