An%20Investigation%20into%20the%20Pedagogies%20Applied%20to%20Writing%20Classrooms%20for%20the%20English%20Majors%20and%20a%20Proposal%20for%20Teacher%20Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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An%20Investigation%20into%20the%20Pedagogies%20Applied%20to%20Writing%20Classrooms%20for%20the%20English%20Majors%20and%20a%20Proposal%20for%20Teacher%20Development

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Title: An%20Investigation%20into%20the%20Pedagogies%20Applied%20to%20Writing%20Classrooms%20for%20the%20English%20Majors%20and%20a%20Proposal%20for%20Teacher%20Development


1
An Investigation into the Pedagogies Applied to
Writing Classrooms for the English Majors and a
Proposal for Teacher Development
  • Li, Jie
  • (jieli_at_bgsu.edu)
  • Xian International Studies University

2
Why teacher development?
  • Writing being a social and academic necessity,
    and an economic power
  • English majors unable to write well
  • Philosophies and pedagogies dated or not
    appropriate

3
  • Research on composition in China texts, student
    performance (e.g.TEM-4, TEM-8)
  • Williams (2003)Focusing on methods without an
    understanding of the historical and theoretical
    foundations of rhetoric is shortsighted (p.3)
  • Pedagogical foundation education linguistics,
    and psychology, and technology.

4
Research methods
  • Literature articles on English writing from the
    four conferences held in China from 2003-2006
  • Class observation
  • Experiment writing classes in regular classroom
    and in the digital environment
  • Questionnaire
  • Interviews writing teachers and specialists

5
Findings class observation
  • Writing classes mostly teacher-centered,
    product-based, exam-oriented
  • Procedure rules for writing, samples, writing
    after class, teacher grading and comments
  • Emphasis product, not process
  • Rhetoric no analysis of audience awareness,
    purpose, style, tone

6
Findings class observation
  • Research (writing to learn) not stressed,
    unfamiliar with documentation format, academic
    honesty hard to put into practice
  • Comments given by instructors just weaknesses
    some not justified
  • Rhetoric no analysis of audience awareness,
    purpose, style, tone

7
Findings interview
  • Heavy workload
  • No pre-training before teaching
  • Students failing to follow the rules, dont
    correct errors.
  • TEM-4/8 very influential, affecting daily
    instruction
  • Assessment by the end of the term timed essay
    test

8
Findings questionnaire
  • Writing very difficult
  • Help not available when needed
  • Class in the computer lab good, information
    easily available, feedback, collaboration
  • Drawbacks in the lab students out of control,
    emailing, chatting online, etc.

9
Whats rhetoric?
  • Herrick (2001) the art of employing symbols
    effectively (p. 7)
  • George Kennedy a system of signs, including
    language, such as sound, images, graphics, etc.

10
Role of rhetoric in comp. studies
  • Its value is that helps writers with planning,
  • adapting to an audience, shaping human
    motives, responding to a situation.

11
How to acquire rhetoric?
  • Rhetoric could be acquired through systematic
    study and intentional practice of effective
    symbolic expression (Herrick, 2001).

12
Major rhetorical schools and their features
  • Current-traditional rhetoric structure
  • New rhetoric process
  • Romantic rhetoric self-expression
  • Writing across the curriculum different
    conditions content
  • Postmodern rhetoric liberation from theories
    cultural studies

13
Discussion
  • Problem with teachers
  • Lack of linguistic tolerance no one
    standard language
  • Lack of awareness of students interests
  • Lack of teacher accountability
  • Lack of updated professional training

14
Discussion
  • Problem with teaching philosophy
  • Current-traditional rhetoric emphasis on
    structure, no real practical value
  • George Hillocks (1986) the current-traditional
    approach is not very effective in teaching
    students how to write. Nevertheless, it is the
    most influential and widely used approach to
    teaching writing today.

15
  • Neglect of the social function of writing
  • Writing being a private instead of a public
    action.
  • Bottom-up methodology part of whole essay

16
Discussion
  • Insufficient pedagogical strategies
  • MODE OF INSTRUCTIONEXPERIMENTAL/
  • CONTROL EFFECTS George Hillock (1988)
  • Natural process .18
  • Individualized .16
  • Presentational .02
  • Environmental .44

17
Discussion
  • Insufficient knowledge of rhetorical history and
    pedagogies
  • Unable to teach with flexibility or with a
    combination of approaches
  • Apposition to computer and other technologies
    in the writing classroom, because of extra work

18
Discussion
  • Twelve main pedagogies in A Guide to Composition
    Pedagogies by Gary Tate, et al
  • 1. process 2. expressive 3. rhetorical
  • 4. collaborative 5. cultural studies and
    composition 6. critical

19
  • 7. feminist
  • 8. community-service
  • 9. WAC
  • 10. basic writing
  • 11. technology
  • 12. writing center

20
Discussion
  • Unscientific administration of the writing course
  • No WAC (writing across the curriculum)
  • Heavy workload
  • Large student population
  • Outcomes not in the first priority
  • Improper assessment

21
Proposals and conclusion
  • Core of writing class
  • Teach critical thinking ability
  • Try different or a combination of pedagogies in
    writing classrooms
  • Use technology to facilitate writing process a
    hybrid class
  • Require students to produce multiple drafts and
    revise according to the feedback
  • Provide individualized instruction or tutoring,
    such as the Writing Center practice.

22
Proposal and conclusion
  • Encourage collaboration
  • Provide opportunities for students to write for
    different audiences
  • Stress the role of reading and research
  • Teach writing through writing, and try to involve
    students in staged writing activities
  • Try workshop-based writing classes

23
  • Lindemanne in A Rhetoric for Writing Teachers
    (1995)
  • Writing teachers should help students gain
    confidence in their ability to use the code the
    language used in compositions effectively,
    perhaps even to find pleasure in manipulating the
    symbols (p. 17).

24
References
  • Covino, W. A. (2001). Rhetorical pedagogy. In G.
    Tate, A. Rupiper K. Schick (Ed.),
  • A Guide to Composition Pedagogies (pp.36-53).New
    York Oxford University Press.
  • Herrick, J. A. (2001). The history and theory of
    rhetoric. (2nd ed.) Allognd Baca
  • Kinloch, V. F. (2005). Revisiting the promise of
    Students Right to Their Own
  • Language. College Composition and Communication.
    September 57, 83-113.
  • Lindemann, E. (1995). A rhetoric for writing
    teachers. (3rd ed.) New York Oxford University
    Press.

25
References
  • Moran, C. (2001). Technology and the teaching of
    writing. In G. Tate, A. Rupiper
  • K. Schick (Ed.), A Guide to Composition
    Pedagogies (pp. 203-224). New York Oxford
    University Press.
  • Williams, J. D. (2003). Preparing to teach
    writing Reseuarch, theory, and practice.3rd ed.
    New Jersey Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Professional development Planning for success.
    Retrieved 4 May 2007 from http//www.ascd.org/port
    al/site/ascd/index.jsp/
  • Zemelman, S., Daniels, H. (1988). A Community
    of writers Teaching writing in the junior and
    senior high school. Heinemann Portsmouth.
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