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Infrastructure and Sustainability: Competing in the Global Economy Presented to 2009 UCEA Workforce

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Title: Infrastructure and Sustainability: Competing in the Global Economy Presented to 2009 UCEA Workforce


1
Infrastructure and Sustainability Competing in
the Global Economy Presented to 2009 UCEA
Workforce Development Forum January 9,
2009 Catherine L. Ross, Ph.D. Harry West,
Professor Direct or, CQ GRD
2006, Center for Quality Growth and Regional
Development. Please cite the Center for Quality
Growth and Regional Development whenever portions
are reproduced. IMAGE CREDITS Christian Science
Monitor City of Des Moines The Reinforced Earth
Company Google USA Today
2
Issues
  • The state of Infrastructure
  • Infrastructure and the Global economy
  • Sustainability ,Competitiveness and the Global
    Economy
  • Sustainable Growth, Education and Human Capital
    Needs in the 21st Century

3
What is infrastructure?
Making places livable
Touching our lives everyday
Failing us
Connecting us to the world
SOURCES Landscape Architecture Magazine Global
Marine Litter Information Gateway PBS Online
News Hour California Power Sau Dan Lee
4
Changes…people, technology, resources
???
IMAGE SOURCES Virtual Tour of CEE, Idaho
National Laboratory, EV World
5
Understanding urban infrastructure
Complex demands
6
Infrastructure Spending
SOURCE Congressional Budget Office, Trends in
Public Infrastructure Spending, May 1999
7
Sustainable Urban Engineering and Science, John
Crittenden
8
Florida
Dams
Drinking Water
Wastewater
Solid Waste
Schools
9
Florida
Roads
Bridges
  • http//www.asce.org/reportcard/2005/index2005.cfm

10
2005 Report Card for Americas Infrastructure
Americas Infrastructure G.P.A. D
Total Investment Needs 1.6 Trillion (estimated
5 year need)
  • http//www.asce.org/reportcard/2005/index2005.cfm

11
Cyber Infrastructure
Tremendous Opportunity to Influence Cyber
Infrastructure Implementation for Urban
Sustainability NAE Definition Human Hardware Soft
ware Examples Wireless Communication Sensors
(Remote and Embedded) Modeling Data Mining and
Fusion Visualization
Sustainable Urban Engineering and Science, John
Crittenden
12
What Is Sustainability
Roy F. Weston defined sustainability as,
Sustainable Development is a process of change
in which the direction of investment, the
orientation of technology, the allocation of
resources, and the development and functioning of
institutions transition toward longer-term
sustainable activities.
Roy F. Weston, Inc. protecting the quality of
our environment / Roy F. Weston, .and John
Crittenden ,Sustainable Urban Engineering and
science
13
What is Sustainability
Mathis Wackernagel stated this sustainability
goal succinctly as, Sustainability is
securing peoples quality of life within the means
of nature.
Wackernagel, Mathis Our Ecological Footprint
Reducing Human Impact on the Earth, Sharing
Nature s Interest, and WWF Internationals
Living Planet Report. ...
14
What is Green
Americans understand that green is not about
our retreating . Rather, it means creating new
industries, expanding economic development and
marshalling our intellectual capacity for the
21st century
Sustainable Urban Engineering and Science, John
Crittenden
15
What is Green
  • Green means making America a model of
    sustainability
  • Green means eradicating our addiction to fossil
    fuels and simultaneously enhancing our global
    economic competitiveness
  • Green means an America that leads the world in
    sustainable development and environmental
    resources management
  • Finally, green means making America globally
    dominant in the transformation of the global
    economy

Sustainable Urban Engineering and Science, John
Crittenden
16
Challenges to Sustainability
The transportation sector is the second
largest producer of CO2 in the US. So
urce EPA
  • Transportation contributes to global warming
  • Increasing traffic, poorly maintained vehicles
    and an aging fleet cause increases in vehicle
    emissions
  • Congestion continues to spread temporally and
    spatially
  • Substantial amounts of increased travel will take
    place in rural and suburban areas

17
Urban Transformation
Double the urban infrastructure in the next 35
years Currently 49 of the worlds
population and 81 of the US population lives in
urban areas, a figure which is expected to grow
to 61 and 87, respectively, 2030 (UNEP, 2005)
Source Sustainable Urban Engineering and
Science, John Crittenden
Sustainable Urban Engineering and Science, John
Crittenden
18
Megaregions- A World View
  • The World at Night

Source NASA http//antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap0
20810.html
19
Megaregions
  • Why are Megaregions so important?
  • Megaregions are geographic areas that will
    contain two-thirds of the nations population by
    the middle of the 21st century.

Source Amekudzi, Thomas-Mobley, Ross, 2007
20
Megaregions
  • Megaregions…………
  • Networks of metropolitan centers and their
    surrounding areas, connected by existing
    environmental, economic and infrastructure
    relationships.

21
Transportation and Economic Development
  • How does transportation infrastructure affect
    economic growth and development?
  • How can transportation planners take economic
    development into account when planning changes to
    the transportation infrastructure?

22
Megaregions
  • Megaregions in the United States in 2000

Source Center for Quality Growth and Regional
Development (CQGRD), Georgia Institute of
Technology, 2007.
23
Megaregions- A National View
Megaregions an extended network of metro
centers and surrounding areas 8 -10 emerging
Megaregions
Source Center for Quality Growth and Regional
Development (CQGRD), Georgia Institute of
Technology, 2007.
24
Megaregions Book
Megaregions Planning for global
Competitiveness Catherine L. Ross Island Press,
Spring 2009
25
Sustainability, Transportation and the Megaregion
  • We must move towards sustainability emphasizing
    proactive measures at an appropriate spatial
    level the Megaregion.
  • To accomplish this goal, sustainable
    transportation must support the global
    competitiveness of the region.

26
Megaregions- Overview
Global Precedent Even national borders
are not an obstacle to regionalism
Sources presentation by Sang-Chuel Choe, Seoul
National University, United Nations Industrial
Development Organization Conference, July 2005
Ingérop, Elaboration of a long term polycentric
vision of the European space, December 2000
United Nations Secretariat, World Urbanization
Prospects The 1999 Revision.
27
  • Super-Metropolis Map of 1975

Megaregions- Predicted
Tomorrows map will be vastly different from
todays. Great pouches over much of it will
indicate the super-metropolis cities which are
already evolving out of our once-separated urban
centers. Published in the Chicago Tribune on
July 23, 1961.
28
Megaregions were predicted in the 1960s!
  • The regional cities of tomorrow will be
    nearly continuous complexes of homes, business
    centers, factories, shops, and service
    places.……………….……………………………
  • They will be saved from traffic self-suffocation
    by high-speed transportation perhaps monorails
    that provide luxurious nonstop service between
    the inner centers of the supercities, as well as
    links between the super-metropolises themselves.

Megaregions- Predicted
Published in the Chicago Tribune on July 23, 1961.
29
The Ecological Footprint of Cities and Regions
  • A well-functioning transport infrastructure
    network can reduce transport (and thus logistics)
    costs for firms and thus improve the regions
    economic competitiveness.
  • But a poorly-functioning or poorly maintained
    transport network may not be as competitive.

30
The Importance of Logistics
  • Logistics is comprised of all the operations
    needed to deliver goods or services, except
    making the goods or performing the services.

INPUTS (raw materials, items needed to perform
the service)
OUTPUTS (goods or services)
The Firm or Manufacturer
Sustainable Urban Engineering and Science, John
Crittenden
Definition comes from Baudin, M. Lean Logistics
The Nuts and Bolts of Delivering Goods
(Productivity Press, 2004).
31
Supply Chains
  • The supply chain is the process by which raw
    materials get brought to a central processing
    facility, processed, and sold in final-product
    form.
  • In the last two decades, companies have sought to
    reduce their inventory costs by using
    just-in-time managementi.e. they dont get the
    raw materials until the last possible minute.
    That puts a lot of pressure on the supply chain.
  • Sustainable Urban Engineering and Science, John
    Crittenden

32
Dells Supply Chain
I SourceBillkerr.blogspot.com/2006/04/dell
33
Characteristics Of Work in the Future
  • Tech World - economic growth is extremely high,
    natural resources availability is assumed to be
    unconstrained, new technology yields new products
    and uses new materials, and the environment is
    not a priority
  • (2) Green World - strong economic focus on green
    products, practices and processes, sustainability
    becomes a major ideological driver for society,
    rapid technological change focuses on lower
    material intensities, and industrial ecology is
    widely practiced and regions internalize
    environmental externalities.

Source Sustainable Urban Engineering and
Science, John Crittenden, 2008
34
How are we doing in higher education?
35
School Overall Grade
  • SSource Sustainable Endowments institute, 2007

36
School Overall Grade
  • Source Sustainable Endowments institute, 2007

37
Nearly 75 percent of employers report severe
conditions when trying to hire qualified workers,
40 percent say that applicants are poorly
skilled, and 30 percent say that applicants have
the wrong skills for available jobs, according to
a 2002 survey by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce's
Center for Workforce Preparation.
Source Sustainable Endowments institute, 2007
38
Tracking Resource Consumption and Natural Capital
  • We must know how much we have and how much we
    use.
  • Think of it as you would your checkbook

39
The Ecological Footprint of Cities and Regions
  • A well-functioning transport infrastructure
    network can reduce transport (and thus logistics)
    costs for firms and thus improve the regions
    economic competitiveness.
  • But a poorly-functioning or poorly maintained
    transport network may not be as competitive.
  • EnvironEnvironment and Urbanization Wackernagel
    et al

40
Core and Periphery
  • A better-maintained, or more extensive, transport
    infrastructure network can be a competitive
    advantage for a region.
  • This can lead to heavier transport investment in
    the core, the growing region already served,
    and a lack of investment to the periphery.
  • Krugman, Paul. Transportation as a Competitive
    advantage

41
The Ecological Footprint of Cities and Regions
  • Ecological Footprints document the extend to
    which human economies stay within the
    regenerative capacity of the biosphere, the
    requirement to produce the renewable resources
    this population consumes and assimilate the waste
    it generates, using prevailing technology.
  • EnvironEnvironment and Urbanization Wackernagel
    et al

42
Defining Economic Development
  • Local economic development preserves and raises
    the communitys standard of living through a
    process of human and physical infrastructure
    development based on principles of equity and
    sustainability.
  • (from Fitzgerald and Leigh, Economic
    Revitalization Cases and Strategies for City
    and Suburb, Sage, 2002)

43
Changes in the built environment
  • Population growth means new construction

In 2030, about half of the buildings in which we
live, work, and shop will have been built after
2000.
Source Toward a New Metropolis The Opportunity
to Rebuild America, Arthur C. Nelson, Brookings
Institute, 2004.
44
Changes…people and technology
12 million people over 70 by 2050
45
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
ENERGY We will launch a massive effort to
make public buildings more energy-efficient ROA
DS AND BRIDGES We will create millions of
jobs by making the single largest new investment
in our national infrastructure since the creation
of the federal highway system in the
1950s SCHOOLS My economic recovery plan
will launch the most sweeping effort to modernize
and upgrade school buildings that this country
has ever seen. BROADBAND As we renew our
schools and highways, well also renew our
information superhighway. It is unacceptable that
the United States ranks 15th in the world in
broadband adoption. Here, in the country that
invented the Internet ……. because thats how
well strengthen Americas competitiveness in the
world.
  • Barack Obama
  • President -Elect
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