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Clean Coal Technology: Achievements and Future

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Title: Clean Coal Technology: Achievements and Future


1
Clean Coal Technology
Achievements and Future
William Fernald - Portfolio Manager
Office of Coal Fuels Industrial Systems
U.S. Department of Energy May 2-5,
2003 Energy and Nanotechnology Strategy for
the Future Conference Rice University, Houston,
Texas
2
Coal Use
  • In U.S. economy, coal accounts for about
    one-quarter of primary energy consumption
  • EIA projects total coal consumption will increase
    from 1.05 to 1.44 billion short tons between 2001
    and 2025, an average increase of 1.3 percent per
    year
  • The coal share of electricity generation is
    projected by EIA to decline from 52 percent in
    2001 to 47 percent in 2025 as natural gas share
    increases
  • However, coal remains the primary fuel for
    electricity generation through 2025, and EIA
    projects that 74 gigawatts of new coal-fired
    generating capacity will be constructed between
    2001 and 2025

3
Challenges Facing Coal
  • Challenges impacting full use of coal
  • Capability to meet changing environmental
    performance requirements
  • Ability to achieve required operational and
    economic performance goals
  • Ability to meet increased competition from
    alternate fuel sources
  • Public acceptance of coal as a clean source of
    energy
  • Environmental emissions are main threat to
    continued use of coal in U.S. economy
  • Role of clean coal technologies is to address and
    eliminate these concerns and open door to
    continued and increased demand for coal

4
Meeting the Challenges
  • Three major RD efforts in progress
  • Beginning in 1985 The Clean Coal Technology
    Demonstration Program
  • The Power Plant Improvement Initiative
  • The Clean Coal Power Initiative

5

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program
6
Clean Coal Technology Background
  • The CCT Demonstration Program is a
    Government/Industry co-funded effort to
    demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal
    utilization processes responsive to energy and
    environmental demands of the 21st century
  • Commercial scale
  • Industry technical agenda
  • At least 50 percent participant cost share
  • Participant retains equipment, real estate, and
    intellectual property
  • Participant responsible for technical management
  • Government has oversight role
  • Investment recouped if technology commercially
    successful

7
Clean Coal Technology Goals/Thrust
  • Provide a technology base to achieve
    environmental goals and allow the Nation to enjoy
    the economic and energy security benefits of
    plentiful, low-cost, domestic coal
  • For existing plants Develop or improve the
    effectiveness of pollution control technology and
    dramatically reduce its cost
  • For new plants Develop higher efficiency plants
    that are inherently clean, and lower in cost than
    current designs
  • Establish the engineering and scientific
    foundation for the next generation of clean coal
    technologies with near zero emissions and
    generation efficiencies that are double those of
    the existing fleet
  • Achieve these goals using cost-shared
    partnerships with the private sector

8
Clean Coal Technology Program Overview
  • DRIVERS
  • Program originated in 1985 from a set aside of
    funds from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation
  • In 1987, Program was expanded as an endorsement
    of the recommendations of the Special Envoys on
    Acid Rain
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • A total of 60 projects were selected over a
    series of five competitive solicitations
    conducted from 1986 through 1993
  • Total Program funding has been reduced from a
    high of 2.75 billion to the current 2.2 billion
    through a series of rescissions starting in FY95
  • Program currently has a total of 38 projects 30
    have completed operation
  • Link to www.lanl.gov/projects/cctc/ (Clean Coal
    Technology Compendium) for CCT Program results

9
Completed CCT Projects
NOx GE Energy and Environmental Research
Corporation Denver, CO
NOx SO2 ABB Environmental Systems Niles, OH
Coal Fuels Western SynCoal LLC Colstrip, MT
NOx SO2 New York State Electric Gas
Corp. Lansing, NY
SO2 Pure Air on the Lake, L.P. Chesterton, IN
NOx New York State Electric Gas Corp. Lansing
and Rochester, NY
Coal Fuels ENCOAL Corporation Gillette, WY
NOx SO2 The Babcock Wilcox Company Lorain, OH
NOx The Babcock Wilcox Company Cassville, WI
Coal Fuels ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc.,
and CQ Inc. Homer City, PA
Industrial Passamaquoddy Tribe Thomaston, ME
NOx SO2 Public Service Company of
Colorado Denver, CO
Industrial Coal Tech Corporation Williamsport, PA
Power Generation Sierra Pacific Power Co Reno, NV
SO2 Bechtel Corporation Seward, PA
Industrial ThermoChem, Inc. Baltimore, MD
Power Generation Tri-State Generation and
Transmission Association, Inc. Nucla, CO
Power Generation The Ohio Power
Company Brilliant, OH
NOx SO2 GE Energy and Environmental Research
Corporation Hennepin and Springfield, IL
NOx SO2 The Babcock Wilcox Company Dilles
Bottom, OH
NOx The Babcock Wilcox Company Aberdeen, OH
Industrial Bethlehem Steel Corporation Burns
Harbor, IN
SO2 LIFAC-North America Richmond, IN
NOx Southern Company Services, Inc. Pensacola, FL
Power Generation Wabash River Coal Gasification
Repowering Project Joint Venture West Terre
Haute, IN

SO2 Southern Company Services, Inc. Newnan, GA
Power Generation Tampa Electric Company Polk
Power Station Mulberry, FL
Power Generation Alaska Industrial Development
and Export Authority Healy, AK
NOx Southern Company Services, Inc. Lynn Haven, FL
SO2 AirPol, Inc. West Paducah, KY
10
CCT Projects in Design, Construction, or Operation
Design CPICORTM Management Company,
L.L.C. Vineyard, UT
Design Kentucky Pioneer Energy L.L.C Trapp, KY
Operation Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion
Company, L.P. Kingsport, TN
Operation Southern Company Services, Inc. Coosa,
GA
Construction Arthur D. Little, Inc. Fairbanks, AK
Design City of Lakeland McIntosh Unit
4A Lakeland, FL
Operation JEA Jacksonville, FL

Design City of Lakeland McIntosh Unit
4B Lakeland, FL
11
CCT Demonstration Program Projects by Technology
Application
  • Advanced Power Generation Systems
  • 4 IGCC Systems
  • 2 Atmospheric Circulating Fluidized Bed
    Combustion
  • 3 Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion
  • 1 Advanced Slagging Combustor
  • 1 Coal-Slurry Fired Diesel
  • Environmental Control Systems
  • 5 SO2 Control Systems
  • 7 NOx Control Systems
  • 6 Combined SO2/NOx Control Systems
  • Coal Processing for Clean Fuels
  • - 3 Coal Beneficiation
  • 1 Mild Gasification
  • Industrial Application
  • 2 Steel
  • 3 Industrial

12
Overall Successes CCT and Coal RD Program
  • The CCT Demonstration Program and the Coal RD
    Program, working in partnership with industry,
    developed and demonstrated a suite of clean,
    efficient, and cost effective technologies,
    including the following examples
  • NOx Controls
  • Low NOx Burners 75 of existing coal power
    plants are equipped with low NOx burners.
  • SCR SCR technology now costs half of what it
    cost in the 1980s and is now deployed or being
    deployed on about 30 of U.S. coal power plants.
  • Benefits 25 million ton reductions in U.S. NOx
    emissions through 2005 with a national benefit of
    about 25 billion in the same time frame.

13
Overall Successes - CCT and Coal RD Program
  • SO2 Controls
  • FGD (Scrubbers) FGD technology now costs
    one-third of what it did in the 1970s and more
    than 400 commercial systems have been deployed
  • Benefits Seven million ton reduction in SO2
    (beyond what would have occurred without DOE RD)
    through 2005 and an overall 50 billion savings
    from the lower FGD costs and environmental
    improvement
  • Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC)
  • Status 170 units deployed in U.S. 400 units
    worldwide representing 9 billion in sales
  • Benefits Inherently low-NOx emitting combustion
    technology capable of using coal waste fuels not
    previously usable, providing an
    economic/environmental benefit of 2 billion
    through 2020

14
Overall Successes CCT and Coal RD Program
  • Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)
  • Status Revolutionary new, clean, and highly
    efficient technology that is just now reaching
    its technical and economic potential. Over 1500
    MW of coal-fired IGCC plants are operating today.
    An additional 2200 MW are in design. Increasing
    deployment will occur as the technology continues
    to mature.
  • Benefits Even at this early stage,
    economic/environmental benefits are estimated at
    over 12 billion through 2020. In the long term,
    IGCC is capable of achieving near zero emissions
    (including carbon emissions when coupled with
    sequestration) and efficiencies of 60 percent
    (almost doubling todays fleet average of 32
    percent) under the proposed FutureGen Initiative.
    Todays IGCC generation efficiency has already
    been improved to the mid-40 percent range (a
    30-50 percent improvement).

15

Power Plant Improvement Initiative
16
Power Plant Improvement Initiative
  • Eight projects were selected from 24 proposals
    submitted to DOE in April 2001
  • Two projects were withdrawn
  • Most projects focus on technologies enabling
    coal-fired power plants to meet increasingly
    stringent environmental regulations at the lowest
    possible cost
  • DOE expects to provide about 51 million and the
    private sector nearly 61 million for these
    projects

17
Power Plant Improvement Initiative
Operation Otter Tail Power Company Big Stone
City, SD
Withdrawn 11/02 Alliant Energy Corporation Sheboyg
an, WI
Negotiation CONSOL Energy Inc. Torrey, NY
Negotiation TIAX LLC No Site
Design Universal Aggregates, LLC Birchwood, VA
Design Sunflower Electric Power
Corporation Garden City, KS
Construction Tampa Electric Company Apollo Beach,
FL
Withdrawn 3/02 Tampa Electric Company Mulberry, FL

18

Clean Coal Power Initiative
19
Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI)
  • On January 15, 2003, Secretary Abraham announced
    the first eight projects chosen by DOE in the
    initial phase of the CCPI
  • These projects are the first in a series of
    competitions to implement President Bushs
    10-year, 2 billion commitment to clean coal
    technology
  • Three projects are directed at ways to comply
    with the Clear Skies initiative which calls for
    dramatic reductions in air pollutants from power
    plants over the next decade and a half
  • Three other projects are expected to contribute
    to the Climate Change initiative to reduce
    greenhouse gases
  • Two additional projects will reduce air pollution
    through advanced gasification and combustion
    systems designed to extract the energy potential
    of waste coal piles

20
Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI-1)
Negotiation Great River Energy Underwood, ND
Negotiation Wisconsin Electric Power Marquette, MI
Negotiation WMPI PTY, LLC Gilberton, PA
Negotiation Western Greenbrier Co-Generation,
LLC Rainelle, WV
Negotiation Colorado Springs Utilities Company Fou
ntain, CO
Negotiation University of Kentucky Research
Foundation Ghent, KY
Negotiation LGE Energy Corporation Carrollton, KY
Negotiation NeuCo, Inc. Baldwin, IL

21
Anticipating Concerns of the Future through
Programs and Projects
  • The FutureGen Project
  • The Vision 21 RD Program

22
FutureGen Demonstration Project
  • U.S. to sponsor a 1 billion, 10-year project to
    create worlds first coal-based, zero emissions
    power plant
  • Project to establish technical and economic
    feasibility of producing electricity and hydrogen
    from coal while capturing and sequestering the
    CO2 generated in the process
  • A Consortium will be responsible for the design,
    construction and operation of the FutureGen
    plant, and for monitoring, measuring, and
    verifying CO2 sequestration
  • The Consortium shall collectively own and produce
    at least one-third of the Nations coal and at
    least one-fifth of its coal-fueled electricity
  • FutureGen plant envisioned to employ coal
    gasification technology, be 275 MW equivalent
    electricity output, and sequester CO2 in deep
    geologic formation(s)

23
Vision 21 Plant
  • New generation of coal-based power plants are
    required to meet demands of 21st Century
  • Fluidized-bed combustors (atmospheric,
    pressurized)
  • Integrated gasification combined-cycle
  • Advanced clean coal concepts are redefining these
    concepts by providing the building blocks for
    achieving
  • Low-cost production of electricity, process heat,
    and high-value fuels and chemicals
  • Capable of using a multiplicity of feedstocks
  • Virtually no pollution emissions, and
  • Efficiencies greater than 60
  • These advanced technologies are being developed
    in the program Vision 21 The Power Plant of
    Tomorrow

24
Coal and Nanotechnology
  • With advances in fuel cell development, hydrogen
    the power behind the fuel cell is expected to
    be the fuel of the future
  • One of the promising areas of RD is in employing
    nanotubes to store hydrogen for use as fuel in
    automobiles
  • But disagreement abounds over just how much
    hydrogen nanotubes can store
  • Also, RD is needed to prove the feasibility of
    using novel carbon nanotube membranes for
    separating CO2 from flue gas effluent of power
    plants
  • Researchers at DOEs National Energy Technology
    Laboratory (www.netl.doe.gov) are studying these
    and related issues
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