Sources of Pollutants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Sources of Pollutants


1
Sources of Pollutants
  • Point Source
  • Specific location of concentrated pollutants
  • Factory Waste, Sewage
  • Nonpoint Source
  • Scattered or diffuse sources of pollutants
  • Golf courses, Air-borne, Agriculture

2
Major Types of Ocean Pollution
  • Oil Pollution
  • Toxic Materials
  • Sewage and Eutrophication
  • Garbage
  • Radioactive Waste

3
Oil Pollution
(Courtesy of NOAA)
4
Global Oil Pollution
5
Oil Pollution Sources
  • Runoff 363 million gallons/year
  • Maintenance 137 million gallons/year
  • Air Pollution 92 million gallons/year
  • Natural Seeps 62 million gallons/year
  • Big Spills 37 million gallons/year
  • Offshore Drilling 15 million gallons/year

6
Effects of Oil Pollution
  • Kills marine animals
  • Destroys insulation
  • Death through ingestion
  • Damages ecosystems
  • Destroys coastal flora and fauna
  • Devastates local economies

7
Toxic Materials
(Courtesy of Student Environmental Action
Coalition)
8
Toxic Materials
  • Heavy Metals
  • Lead, Mercury, Cadmium
  • Dioxin, PCBs, PAHs
  • Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Dioxin
  • Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

9
Toxic Materials
  • Sources
  • Factory Waste
  • Agriculture
  • Air Pollution
  • Effects
  • Destroy immune function
  • Leads to cancer and other diseases
  • Biomagnification and Bioaccumulation
  • Top predators, such as orcas and tuna can have
    extremely high levels of toxics

10
Sewage and Eutrophication
(photo Gordon Dalzell)
11
Sewage and Eutrophication
  • Sources
  • Cities dump sewage, treated or untreated into
    ocean
  • Large vessels, such as cruise ships
  • Can dump in pristine areas such as Southeast
    Alaska

12
Sewage and Eutrophication
  • Effects
  • Eutrophication nutrients in sewage cause algae
    blooms
  • Decomposition of dying bloom uses up oxygen
  • Lack of oxygen kills animals such as fish
  • Introduces pathogens
  • Pathogens in human waste enter food web
  • Can infect people who eat the seafood

13
Garbage
14
Garbage
  • Sources
  • Unregulated dumping
  • Ships
  • Coastal Communities
  • 14 Billion pounds of garbage are dumped in the
    ocean each year

15
Garbage
  • Effects
  • Marine animals
  • Become ensnared and die
  • Ingest garbage and die
  • Fouls ship motors and marine machinery

16
Radioactive Waste
17
Radioactive Waste
  • Sources
  • Dumping at sea is banned
  • Discharge from coastal facilities
  • Effects
  • At sea not well known
  • On land causes birth defects and cancer such as
    leukemia

18
Global Treaties on Ocean Pollution
  • 1972 The London Convention
  • 1973 MARPOL
  • 1982 UNCLOS
  • 1995 GPA

19
1972 The London Convention
  • Purpose control all sources of marine pollution
    and prevent pollution of the sea through
    regulation of dumping into the sea of waste
    materials.
  • www.londonconvention.org

20
1972 The London Convention
  • Black and Grey List Approach
  • Blacklist items were prohibited
  • Mercury, Cadmium, Persistent Plastics, Oil,
    Radioactive Waste, Organohalogens
  • Grey list items required a permit
  • Arsenic, Copper, Lead, Cyanide, Fluorides,
    Pesticides and Scrap Metal
  • Banned most ocean dumping of waste produced on
    land

21
(No Transcript)
22
1973 MARPOL
  • International Convention for the Prevention of
    Pollution from only from ships
  • Regulated pollutants that come from ships
  • Oil, Noxious Liquids, Sewage, Garbage, Ship Air
    Pollution

23
1982 UNCOLS
  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
  • www.un.org/Depts/los/index.htm
  • Globally recognized regime dealing with all
    matters relating to the Law of the Sea

24
1982 UNCOLS
  • Key Points
  • 12-mile territorial sea around all coastal states
  • Allows for Transit Passage of foreign ships
    through territorial seas
  • Creates Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)
  • Coastal states have 200 mile jurisdiction

25
(No Transcript)
26
1995 GPA
  • Global Programme of Action for the Protection of
    the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities
  • www.gpa.unep.org
  • Aims to prevent the degradation of the marine
    environment from land-based activities

27
1995 GPA
  • Recommendations
  • Identify and assess problems related to
  • Food Security and Poverty
  • Public Health
  • Coastal Ecosystem Health and Biodiversity
  • Economic and Social Benefits
  • Physical Alteration

28
1995 GPA
  • Recommendations
  • Identify Sources of Degradation
  • Coastal and Upstream Point Sources
  • Coastal and Upstream Non-Point Sources
  • Atmospheric Deposition
  • Establish Priorities for Action
  • Set Objectives for Priority Problems
  • Determine Strategies to Achieve Objectives
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Sources of Pollutants

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14 Billion pounds of garbage are dumped in the ocean each year. Effects. Marine animals ... Grey list items required a permit ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Sources of Pollutants


1
Sources of Pollutants
  • Point Source
  • Specific location of concentrated pollutants
  • Factory Waste, Sewage
  • Nonpoint Source
  • Scattered or diffuse sources of pollutants
  • Golf courses, Air-borne, Agriculture

2
Major Types of Ocean Pollution
  • Oil Pollution
  • Toxic Materials
  • Sewage and Eutrophication
  • Garbage
  • Radioactive Waste

3
Oil Pollution
(Courtesy of NOAA)
4
Global Oil Pollution
5
Oil Pollution Sources
  • Runoff 363 million gallons/year
  • Maintenance 137 million gallons/year
  • Air Pollution 92 million gallons/year
  • Natural Seeps 62 million gallons/year
  • Big Spills 37 million gallons/year
  • Offshore Drilling 15 million gallons/year

6
Effects of Oil Pollution
  • Kills marine animals
  • Destroys insulation
  • Death through ingestion
  • Damages ecosystems
  • Destroys coastal flora and fauna
  • Devastates local economies

7
Toxic Materials
(Courtesy of Student Environmental Action
Coalition)
8
Toxic Materials
  • Heavy Metals
  • Lead, Mercury, Cadmium
  • Dioxin, PCBs, PAHs
  • Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Dioxin
  • Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

9
Toxic Materials
  • Sources
  • Factory Waste
  • Agriculture
  • Air Pollution
  • Effects
  • Destroy immune function
  • Leads to cancer and other diseases
  • Biomagnification and Bioaccumulation
  • Top predators, such as orcas and tuna can have
    extremely high levels of toxics

10
Sewage and Eutrophication
(photo Gordon Dalzell)
11
Sewage and Eutrophication
  • Sources
  • Cities dump sewage, treated or untreated into
    ocean
  • Large vessels, such as cruise ships
  • Can dump in pristine areas such as Southeast
    Alaska

12
Sewage and Eutrophication
  • Effects
  • Eutrophication nutrients in sewage cause algae
    blooms
  • Decomposition of dying bloom uses up oxygen
  • Lack of oxygen kills animals such as fish
  • Introduces pathogens
  • Pathogens in human waste enter food web
  • Can infect people who eat the seafood

13
Garbage
14
Garbage
  • Sources
  • Unregulated dumping
  • Ships
  • Coastal Communities
  • 14 Billion pounds of garbage are dumped in the
    ocean each year

15
Garbage
  • Effects
  • Marine animals
  • Become ensnared and die
  • Ingest garbage and die
  • Fouls ship motors and marine machinery

16
Radioactive Waste
17
Radioactive Waste
  • Sources
  • Dumping at sea is banned
  • Discharge from coastal facilities
  • Effects
  • At sea not well known
  • On land causes birth defects and cancer such as
    leukemia

18
Global Treaties on Ocean Pollution
  • 1972 The London Convention
  • 1973 MARPOL
  • 1982 UNCLOS
  • 1995 GPA

19
1972 The London Convention
  • Purpose control all sources of marine pollution
    and prevent pollution of the sea through
    regulation of dumping into the sea of waste
    materials.
  • www.londonconvention.org

20
1972 The London Convention
  • Black and Grey List Approach
  • Blacklist items were prohibited
  • Mercury, Cadmium, Persistent Plastics, Oil,
    Radioactive Waste, Organohalogens
  • Grey list items required a permit
  • Arsenic, Copper, Lead, Cyanide, Fluorides,
    Pesticides and Scrap Metal
  • Banned most ocean dumping of waste produced on
    land

21
(No Transcript)
22
1973 MARPOL
  • International Convention for the Prevention of
    Pollution from only from ships
  • Regulated pollutants that come from ships
  • Oil, Noxious Liquids, Sewage, Garbage, Ship Air
    Pollution

23
1982 UNCOLS
  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
  • www.un.org/Depts/los/index.htm
  • Globally recognized regime dealing with all
    matters relating to the Law of the Sea

24
1982 UNCOLS
  • Key Points
  • 12-mile territorial sea around all coastal states
  • Allows for Transit Passage of foreign ships
    through territorial seas
  • Creates Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)
  • Coastal states have 200 mile jurisdiction

25
(No Transcript)
26
1995 GPA
  • Global Programme of Action for the Protection of
    the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities
  • www.gpa.unep.org
  • Aims to prevent the degradation of the marine
    environment from land-based activities

27
1995 GPA
  • Recommendations
  • Identify and assess problems related to
  • Food Security and Poverty
  • Public Health
  • Coastal Ecosystem Health and Biodiversity
  • Economic and Social Benefits
  • Physical Alteration

28
1995 GPA
  • Recommendations
  • Identify Sources of Degradation
  • Coastal and Upstream Point Sources
  • Coastal and Upstream Non-Point Sources
  • Atmospheric Deposition
  • Establish Priorities for Action
  • Set Objectives for Priority Problems
  • Determine Strategies to Achieve Objectives
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