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Response to Intervention RtI

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Drs. Chantry, Hopkins, Lindsay, and Yitbarek. IDEA 2004 Changes ... Drs. Chantry, Hopkins, Lindsay, and Yitbarek. RtI Matters. Provides a school-wide initiative ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Response to Intervention RtI


1
Response to Intervention RtI
  • Williamsburg-James City County Public Schools
  • Drs. Chantry, Hopkins, Lindsay, and Yitbarek

2
W-JCC Plan Response to Intervention (RtI)
  • What is Response to Intervention?
  • RtI is a general education instructional
    framework.
  • RtI offers a three-tiered instructional approach
    to students who are struggling.
  • RtI insists that struggling students are
    systemically evaluated.

3
Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • What is RtI...................1-5
  • History
  • IDEA Changes..6-9
  • Rationale
  • Why We Need It 10-14
  • W-JCC
  • Philosophy Beliefs ..15-18
  • Phases of Implementation..19-25
  • Three Tiers26-29
  • Tier I30-36
  • Tier II..37-42
  • Tier III.43-47
  • Roles and Responsibilities of Instructors and
    Teams
  • Communicating RtI to Parents
  • Parents and Community.62-64
  • Resources for RtI
  • Assessments and General Resources.65-73
  • Key Components
  • Universal Screening74-77
  • Tiered Intervention..78-81
  • Protocols..82-85
  • Progress Monitoring86-92
  • Curriculum Based Measurements.93-97
  • RtI and Connection to Multicultural
    Education98-106
  • Elementary Plan.107-113
  • Middle School Plan114-118

4
W-JCC Plan Response to Intervention (RtI)
  • RtI assumes that quality instruction is a right
    for all learners.
  • RtI is a shared responsibility of the entire
    education system
  • RtI is part of the strategic plan both school and
    division wide

5
What Is Response to Intervention?
  • RtI provides a comprehensive, multi-tiered
    intervention strategy to enable early
    identification and intervention for students at
    academic or behavioral risk.
  • RtI is an alternative to the discrepancy model
    for the identification of students with learning
    disabilities.

6
Goals for this Session Understand Response
to Intervention (RtI)
  • View RtI as a school wide program based on
    student data
  • Realize how RtI supports teachers and
    administrators in meeting the challenge of No
    Child Left Behind (NCLB) and Adequate Yearly
    Progress (AYP)

7
  • History

8
IDEA 2004 CHANGES Eligibility Determinations
  • A child shall not be determined to have a
    disability if the determinant factors are
  • Lack of scientifically-based instructional
    practices and programs that contain the essential
    components of reading instruction.
  • Lack of instruction in mathematics
  • Limited English Proficiency
  • 614(b)(6)(B)

9
IDEA 2004 ChangesSpecific Learning Disabilities
  • The school division shall not be required to
    take into consideration whether the child has a
    severe discrepancy between achievement and
    intellectual ability in oral expression,
    listening comprehension, written expression,
    basic reading skill, reading comprehension,
    mathematical calculation, or mathematical
    reasoning.

10
IDEA 2004 ChangesSpecific Learning Disabilities
(continued)
  • In determining whether a child has a specific
    learning disability, a school division may use a
    process which determines if a child responds to
    scientific, research-based intervention.

11
RtI
  • Why We Need It

12
RtI Matters
  • Provides a school-wide initiative
  • Embeds school wide reform
  • Is fundamental to school improvement
  • Requires collaboration
  • Expects teambuilding
  • Is consistent with Professional Learning
    Community Objectives

13
RtI Matters
  • Addresses
  • Overrepresentation of students in special
    education
  • Overrepresentation of minorities in special
    education
  • Overrepresentation of males in special education

14
RtI Matters
  • If a school has students from minority groups
    over-represented in special education
  • If a school has minority students
    under-represented in gifted programs
  • If a school has a high-needs population
  • If a school has 2 of its population referred for
    special education

15
RtI Matters
  • If a school has males overrepresented in special
    education
  • If a school did not make Adequate Yearly Progress
    (AYP)
  • If a school has disproportionate numbers of
    discipline referrals, suspensions, and/or
    expulsions

16
W-JCC
  • Philosophy and Beliefs

17
W-JCC Philosophy/Beliefs
  • All children can learn and we are responsible for
    ensuring that they do.
  • A wholesome discontent with the status quo is
    healthy for the continuous improvement of our
    schools.
  • Meaningful collaboration among schools, community
    and families is necessary to help students
    achieve their maximum potential.

18
W-JCC Philosophy/Beliefs
  • We have the collective expertise, knowledge,
    desire and commitment to ensure that every
    student is successful.
  • A safe, challenging and inclusive environment is
    essential to teaching and learning.
  • The students well-being must be the primary
    focus of our decision-making.

19
W-JCC Philosophy/Beliefs
  • A mutual respect for the diversity of the
    students, community, and staff promotes
    awareness, cooperation, and educational success.
  • Excellence in education is crucial to the future
    success of our students, and our community.

20
Fidelity of Implementation
21
Fidelity of Implementation
  • Ensures that instruction is intentional and
    evidenced based
  • Analyzes data to determine instructional
    interventions based on Curriculum Based
    Measurements (CBMs)
  • Conducts progress monitoring in a responsible and
    reliable manner

22
Fidelity of Implementation
  • Matches Faculty Performance Objectives and
    Evaluation
  • Provides Data Driven Support Systems
  • Provides Professional Development
  • Provides Central Office Support

23
Fidelity of Implementation
  • To ensure that RtI is fully vetted, it is
    recommended that the process occur in three
    phases over five years
  • Exploration
  • Implementation
  • Sustainability and Evaluation

24
Exploration Phase
  • Will last 1-2 years and consist of
  • Reviewing best practices
  • Identifying materials
  • Analyzing or administering universal screening
    assessment tools
  • Providing professional development on progress
    monitoring and curriculum based measurement tools
    (CBMs)
  • Creating and devising monitoring forms
  • Determining professionals to serve on the RtI
    school team

25
Implementation Phase
  • Will last 1-2 years and consist of
  • Administering the identified universal screening
    assessments in reading and mathematics
  • Ensuring that instruction is intentional and
    evidence based
  • Using data to determine instructional
    interventions
  • Monitoring progress regularly in a responsible
    and reliable manner

26
Sustainability and Evaluation Phase
  • Will be ongoing and consist of
  • Ensuring that instruction is intentional and
    evidenced based
  • Evaluating faculty performance that include
    matched objectives
  • Supporting data driven assessment systems
  • Providing ongoing professional development
  • Ongoing monitoring of student performance at
    school and central office level

27
Guiding Questions for Each Tier
  • What do we want students to learn?
  • How do we authentically engage students in the
    learning?
  • How do we know if students learn what we intend?
  • What do we do with students who have learned the
    curriculum and those who have not?

28
The Three Tiers of Instruction/Intervention
29
The 3 Tiers of RtI
30
Interventions organized into a 3 tiered model.
  • Movement through the
  • tiers is managed by a
  • school-wide team
  • monitoring the non-
  • responders
  • Identifying and providing
  • supplemental materials
  • Orchestrating tier 2 3
  • supports
  • Problem solving process
  • for individuals

TIER 1
All Students
TIER 2
Some Students
TIER 3
Few Students
31
Tier I
  • Instruction/Interventions

32
Tier 1 RtI
33
Tier I Service Delivery
  • All Students
  • Small Groups
  • Individual Student
  • Entire faculty understands and use research-based
    instructional strategies
  • Entire faculty understands and delivers
    appropriate intervention strategies
  • Entire faculty understands and delivers
    instruction based on problem-solving response of
    intervention team

34
Tier 1 Interventions
  • Instruction
  • Research Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS)
  • Direct Vocabulary Instruction
  • Socratic Seminars
  • AVID Strategies
  • Multicultural Education
  • Great Books Strategies
  • AP Strategies (Taft Institute)
  • Balanced Literacy and Reading Differentiation
  • Common Lesson Planning
  • Flexible grouping in math and reading
  • Inquiry based instruction

35
Tier 1 Assessments
  • Assessments
  • Benchmarks In Reading and Math Common Assessments
  • Curriculum Based Measurements (CBMs)
  • Universal Screening Measures
  • Authentic Assessment

36
Tier I Service Delivery
  • Hallmark of Tier One
  • Based on Student needs
  • Based on high quality research-based instruction

37
Successful Tier 1 Instruction
  • 75-85 of students meet
  • instructional expectations!

38
Tier 2 Instruction/Interventions
39
Tier 2
40
Tier 2 Interventions
  • Instruction
  • After-School Remediation
  • Inclusion Collaboration
  • Intervention (Grades 6-8) 45-90 minutes
  • Literacy Groups (Grades K-2) Rdg Specialist
  • Math Groups (Grades K-8) Math Specialist
  • PALS Instruction (Grades K-2)
  • Small group intervention 30 minutes daily
    Reading or Student Support Teacher
  • English Language Learning (ELL)

41
Tier 2 Interventions
  • Intervention/Monitoring Plans
  • Mathematics and Literacy Intervention Meetings
  • Student Assistance Plans
  • Mentoring
  • Parent Communication

42
Tier 2 Assessments
  • Assessments
  • Curriculum Based Measurements (CBMs)
  • Progress Monitoring (using charts)

43
Service Delivery
  • Hallmark of Tier Two
  • Based on Student needs
  • Small Group Instruction

44
Tier 3 Instruction/Interventions
45
Tier 3
46
Tier 3 Assessments
  • Assessments
  • Curriculum Based Measurements (CBMs)
  • Progress Monitoring (using charts)

47
Service Delivery
  • Hallmark of Tier Three
  • Based on Individual student needs
  • Daily intensive services
  • Problem-solving

48
Results of Tier 3
  • Identify which students have successful or
    unsuccessful response to instruction (RtI)
  • Sort students who need further help
  • Decide which students are helped in general
    education
  • Decide which students need evaluation for special
    education

49
Roles and Responsibilities of Instructors and RtI
Teams for Tiers 1, 2, and 3
50
Tier 1 Instructors
  • Who?
  • Classroom Teachers
  • Professional Learning Community Teams

51
RtI School TeamsTier 1
  • What?
  • Professional learning communities meet on a
    regular basis to discuss Tier 1 student
    performance
  • PLCs have the responsibility for the ongoing
    monitoring of student performance based on common
    and benchmark assessments

52
RtI School TeamsTiers 2 and 3
  • Who can serve on the team? (Recommend 3-9
    professionals)
  • Principal or his/her designee
  • General Education Teacher
  • Special Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialists
  • Mathematics Specialists

53
RtI School Teams Tiers 2 and 3 continued
  • Who can serve on the team? (Recommend 3-9
    professionals)
  • Counselors
  • School Psychologists
  • School Social Workers
  • School Nurses
  • Student Support Teachers
  • Other Specialty Professionals as Needed

54
RtI School Teams
  • What do they do?
  • This is a professional learning community for RtI
    issues within the school.
  • The team has the responsibility to inform the
    faculty of RtI requirements and updates.
  • The team has the responsibility for the ongoing
    monitoring of student progress.

55
RtI School Teams
  • What do they do?
  • The team has the responsibility to keep the
    parent community abreast of student progress
    within the school.
  • The team has the responsibility to ensure that
    best practices are implemented in the classroom.

56
RtI School Teams
  • What do they do?
  • The team has the responsibility to ensure that
    classroom teachers analyze test results
    throughout the year to inform instruction.
  • The team has the responsibility to inform all
    parents of appropriate grade level learning
    objectives, and to provide a copy of the school
    divisions policy on promotion and retention.

57
What Makes RTI Successful?
58
Successful Implementation of RtI
  • Commitment of resources that includes staff
    development, technological support, and
    supplemental programs and materials
  • Fidelity of Implementation
  • Consensus building

59
Successful Implementation of RtI
  • Collaboration between special education and
    general education
  • Adequate system to support data collection
  • Flexible staffing to accommodate the delivery of
    Tier 2 interventions

60
Successful Implementation of RtI
  • School divisions commitment to the philosophical
    principles of RtI and vigilance of implementation
  • Development of an infrastructure
  • All components need to be implemented with a high
    degree of integrity

61
Benefits of RtI
  • Earlier identification
  • Earlier correction of difficulties
  • Enhanced communication between home and school
  • Parents are informed more frequently of their
    childs progress
  • More frequent home-school collaboration allows
    parents to become meaningful participants

62
Benefits of RtI
  • Provides collaborative assistance to teachers
  • Identifies prevention efforts needed for children
    entering Kindergarten
  • Coordinates existing intervention efforts (i.e.
    Child Study, SOL remediation)
  • Communicates schools expectations for monitoring
    of student performance

63
Communicating RTI to Parents
64
Promoting Understanding of RtI with Parents and
Community
  • RtI is based on federal law based on experiences
    of practitioners and researchers in general and
    special education
  • RtI is designed to provide instructional
    interventions for struggling students at the
    earliest signs of difficulty

65
Promoting Understanding of RtI with Parents and
Community
  • Student progress for struggling students will be
    specific and frequent
  • Interventions are used at each tier
  • Parents will be informed of their childs
    response to intervention on a regular basis
  • Parents will be included in all instructional
    decisions about their child

66
Resources for RtI
  • Web-based

67
RtI Resources--Assessment
  • Research Institute on Progress Monitoring
  • www.progressmonitoring.net
  • EdCheck-up
  • www.edcheckup.com
  • AIMSweb
  • www.aimsweb.com
  • National Center on Student Progress
  • www.studentprogress.org
  • Dynamic Indicators of Basic Literacy Skills
  • http//dibels.uoregon.edu

68
RtI Resources--Intervention
  • PALS
  • http//kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals
  • PALS
  • http//pals.virginia.edu
  • Intervention Central
  • www.interventioncentral.com
  • What Works Clearinghouse
  • www.whatworks.ed.gov
  • Florida Center for Reading Research
  • www.fcrr.org

69
RtI Resources---General
  • National Association of School Psychologists
  • www.nasponline.org/resources/rti/index.asp
    x
  • National Center on Resonse to Intervention
  • www.RTI4Success.org
  • National Association of State Directors of
    Special Education
  • www.nasdse.org/projects.cfn
  • RTI Partnership
  • www.rti.uce.edu
  • The IDEA Partnership
  • www.ideapartnership.org

70
RtI Resources
  • Best Evidence Encyclopedia
  • www.bestevidence.org/math/math_summary.htm
  • DOE An Introduction to Effective Schoolwide
    Discipline in Virginia A Statewide Initiative
    to Support Positive Academic Behavioral Outcomes
    for All Students

71
RtI Resources
  • DOE Functional Behavioral Assessment,
    Behavioral Intervention Plans, and Positive
    Intervention and Supports An Essential Part of
    Schoolwide Discipline in Virginia

72
RtI Resources
  • www.coe.iup.edu/kovaleski
  • http//www.nationalreadingpanel.org/default.htm

73
Evaluating Your Core Reading Curriculum
  • http//www.fcrr.org/
  • http//reading.uoregon.edu/curricula/con_guide.php
  • http//oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu/downloads/10
    6_High_Priority_Programs.pdf

74
Standard Protocol Websites
  • http//www.fcrr.org/
  • http//reading.uoregon.edu/curricula/con_guide.php
  • http//oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu/downloads/10
    6_High_Priority_Programs.pdf

75
Key ComponentsOf RTI
76
Universal Screening
77
Universal Screening
  • Description
  • Involves assessments of all students performance
    usually 3x a year
  • W-JCC will begin with universal screening 2x a
    year (fall and spring) using PALS in grades K-2
    and the Stanford Diagnostic Test in reading and
    mathematics for students in grades 1-8

78
Universal Screening
  • Purpose
  • Identification of individual students in need of
    further assessments and interventions
  • Provision of feedback about how a class is
    performing so that instructional issues can be
    addressed

79
Tiers of Instructionand Intervention Protocols
80
W-JCCResponse to Intervention (RtI) Plan
  • An intervention is only an intervention if it is
    tied to curriculum and progress monitoring.

81
Tiers of Instruction
  • Tier 1
  • Tier 2
  • Tier 3
  • Refer to Special Education
  • All Students
  • Some Students
  • A Few Students
  • Individual Students

82
Tiered Interventions
  • Is based on assessed student skill deficit
  • Addresses specific skill deficits
  • Involves short-term and explicit instruction
  • Monitor student performance frequently to ensure
    progress and revise as needed
  • Johnson, Mellard, Fuchs, and McKnight (2006)

83
Intervention Protocols
  • Determined one of three ways
  • Standard Protocol
  • Match RBIS to predictable patterns of
    under-performance
  • Strategic Problem Solving
  • Individually-designed interventions
  • Hybrid
  • Combination of the standard protocol and
    problem-solving

84
Intervention Protocols
  • Standard Protocol
  • Uses a set of interventions based on the
    particular problem (i.e. a reading series
    protocols for addressing reading comprehension
    problems)
  • Problem Solving
  • Uses a decision-making process utilizing the
    skills of the professionals to develop and
    evaluate intervention plans
  • Hybrid
  • Uses a combination of the standard protocol and
    strategic problem solving

85
A Standard Protocol Intervention
  • is scientifically based.
  • has a high probability of producing change for
    large numbers of students.
  • is designed to be used in a standard manner
    across students.
  • is usually delivered in small groups.
  • is often scripted or very structured.
  • can be orchestrated by a problem-solving team.

86
A Problem Solving Protocol
  • Define the problem (What is it?)
  • Analyze the problem (Why is it happening?)
  • Develop a plan (What shall we do about it?)
  • Implement the plan (Have interventions been
    implemented with reliability and fidelity?)
  • Evaluate the plan (Did the plan work?)

87
Progress Monitoring
88
Progress Monitoring
  • Evaluating the students response to
    scientifically based instruction.
  • What was the students progress during the
    intervention?

89
Progress Monitoring
  • Provides ongoing, systematic method of
    collecting data to determine the academic,
    social, or behavioral performance of a student
  • Is used throughout all tiers, but
  • particularly in Tiers 2 and 3

90
Progress Monitoring
  • Documents student learning over time to
    determine progress and
  • intervention effectiveness
  • Involves a formative evaluation process
  • Analyzes repeated data collections of
    student performance (2-3x per wk)
  • Provides tiered interventions based on student
    need

91
Progress Monitoring
  • Successful progress monitoring includes
  • A well-defined behavior
  • A measurement strategy
  • Identification of students current level of
    performance (baseline)
  • Intervention
  • Goal
  • Graph
  • Decision-making plan

92
Progress Monitoring
  • The team sets goals based on the diagnostic
    data and sets a goal line on a graphic
    representation depicting the desired rate of
    progress a student needs to reach the goal from
    the current baseline. The students baseline is
    plotted along with the class benchmark and takes
    into account other students typical rate of
    progress.

93
Progress Monitoring
  • Two decision rules
  • If there are three or four consecutive data
    points below the goal for the students
    performance at the end of a pre-determined time,
    a change in instructional strategies is needed
  • If there are three or four consecutive data
    points above the goal line , the performance goal
    for the student is too low and needs to be raised.

94
Curriculum Based Measurement
95
How Do You Know They Are Learning?
  • Curriculum Based Measurements
  • (CBM)
  • Formative Assessments
  • Progress Monitoring

96
What are Curriculum Based Measurements (CBMS)?
  • CBMs are a set of data collection tools derived
    directly from the curriculum that the student is
    expected to learn.

97
Benefits of Curriculum Based Measurements
  • Allows for graphic representation of progress
  • Allows teachers to identify specific curriculum
    deficiencies and instructional strategies
  • Aids teachers increasing superior student
    achievement

98
Benefits of Curriculum Based Measurements
  • Aligns instruction and assessment
  • Fosters data-driven instruction
  • Aids students motivation by students plotting
    their progress
  • CBM is directly tied to the curriculum

99
RTI and theConnection to Multicultural Education
100
Multicultural Education
  • Culturally Responsive Teaching is using the
    cultural characteristics, experiences, and
    perspectives of students with diverse backgrounds
    as conduits for teaching more effectively (G.
    Gay, 2002).

101
Multicultural Education
  • RtI activities incorporate an understanding of
    each students ethnic and cultural
    characteristics and how these contribute to a
    childs unique educational profile

102
Multicultural Education
  • The W-JCC goal is to frame multicultural
    education using best practices to help students
    and teachers succeed in ways that best reflect
    their cultural styles and values. This will
    impact classroom instruction, school climate, and
    community involvement.

103
Components of Multicultural Education
  • Professional Development
  • Instruction
  • School Climate
  • Community Outreach

104
Multicultural Professional Development Topics
  • Culturally Responsive Classrooms
  • The Achievement Gap
  • Cultural Styles
  • Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values
  • Teaching Styles

105
Multicultural Pedagogy
  • Rigorous Curriculum
  • Relevance of Lessons Learned
  • High expectations for all students
  • Instruction is Student Centered
  • Involve Students in Goal Setting
  • Provide for Student Recognition
  • Appreciation for learning styles

106
Framing a Multicultural School Climate
  • Relationships of Trust
  • Caring
  • Communication
  • Courageous Conversations
  • Community
  • Celebrating Cultures and Student Success

107
Framing Community Outreach
  • Parental Involvement
  • Teaching/Learning for Parents
  • Volunteerism and Mentoring
  • Learning in the Home

108
Elementary School Plan
109
Response to Intervention Three Tiers of
Instruction Elementary School Plan
  • Tier I gtWhole School -entire school understands
    and uses research-based instructional strategies.
  • Tier IIgtSmall Group -entire faculty understands
    and uses research-based instructional strategies
    and can deliver appropriate intervention
    strategies. In addition, specialists provides
    supplemental services.
  • Tier IIIgtIndividual Student -student receives
    supplemental services based on the School RTI
    Teams individual learning plan that includes
    professionals responsible for the learners
    success.

110
Year One Elementary Level
  • Identify your school intervention team
  • Administer universal screening instruments in
    fall 2008
  • PALS (Grades K-3)
  • Stanford Diagnostic Reading and Math
  • (Grades 1-5)

111
Year One Elementary Level
  • Use research-based instructional strategies for
    all students
  • Utilize flexible groupings
  • Re-teach as needed using different approaches
  • Use common assessments to monitor progress
  • Meet in PLCs to discuss students progress

112
Year One Elementary Level
  • Use research-based instructional strategies for
    all students
  • Analyze benchmark assessments and common
    assessments with students

113
Year One Elementary Level
  • School intervention team to meet on a regular
    basis to
  • determine interventions for Tier II and Tier III
    students
  • coordinate the ordering of materials to use with
    Tier II and Tier III students
  • Devise forms for monitoring progress and track
    progress of students

114
Year One Elementary Level
  • Meet frequently to analyze CBMs and progress
    monitoring

115
Middle School Plan
116
Response to Intervention - Three Tiers of
Instruction Middle School Plan
  • Tier I gtWhole School -entire school understands
    and uses research-based instructional strategies.
  • Tier IIgtSmall Group -entire faculty understands
    and uses research-based instructional strategies
    and can deliver appropriate intervention
    strategies.
  • Tier IIIgtIndividual Student -student receives
    services based on the problem-solving model of
    the professionals responsible for the learners
    success.

117
Year One Middle School
  • Identify your school intervention team
  • Administer the Stanford Diagnostic test in
    reading and math for students in grades 6-8
  • Use research-based instructional strategies for
    all students

118
Year One Middle Level
  • School intervention team determine interventions
    for Tier II and Tier III students
  • Schools order materials to use with Tier II and
    Tier III students
  • Schedule training on curriculum based
    measurements (CBMs) and progress

119
Year One Middle Level
  • Analyze benchmark assessments and common
    assessments
  • Meet frequently to analyze CBMs and progress
    monitoring

120
Division Plan
121
Division Plan
  • Devise forms to evaluate materials
  • Utilize Academic Services to monitor data from
    the schools
  • Coordinate training on CBMs and Progress
    Monitoring
  • Assist in devising monitoring forms
  • Catalog purchase materials
  • Evaluate year 1 implementation
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