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Principles of Infection Control and Personal Protective Equipment

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Title: Principles of Infection Control and Personal Protective Equipment


1
Principles of Infection Control and Personal
Protective Equipment
May, 2007
2
Learning Objectives
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the principles of
    infection control
  • Recognize gaps in infection control
    infrastructure
  • Recognize ways to address gaps in infection
    control infrastructure in different situations
  • Demonstrate proper selection and use of personal
    protective equipment

3
Session Overview
  • Disease transmission
  • Introduction to personal protective equipment
    (PPE)
  • How to use PPE
  • Demonstration
  • Infection control precautions
  • In health care facilities
  • In the community

4
Routes of Disease Transmission
5
Chain of Infection

Sensitive host
6
Routes of Transmission
  • Respiratory
  • Cough
  • Sneeze
  • Fecal-oral
  • Feces contaminate food, environment, or hands
  • Vector-borne
  • Transmitted by insects

7
Routes of TransmissionContact
Examples
  • Indirect Contact
  • Disease is carried from reservoir to host
  • Contaminated surfaces (fomites)
  • Direct Contact
  • Host comes into contact with reservoir
  • Kissing, skin-to-skin contact, sexual intercourse
  • Contact with soil or vegetation

8
Routes of TransmissionDroplet
  • Large droplets within 1 meter (3 feet)
  • transmit infection via
  • Coughing, sneezing, talking
  • Medical procedures
  • Examples
  • Diphtheria
  • Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
  • Meningococcal meningitis

9
Routes of TransmissionAirborne (droplet nuclei)
  • Very small particles of evaporated
  • droplets or dust with infectious agent
  • may
  • Remain in air for a long time
  • Travel farther than droplets
  • Become aerosolized during procedures
  • Examples
  • Tuberculosis
  • Measles (Rubeola)

10
Transmission of Influenza Viruses
11
Infection Control Methodsand Personal
Protective Equipment
12
Hand Washing
  • Method
  • Wet hands with clean (not hot) water
  • Apply soap
  • Rub hands together for about 20 seconds
  • Rinse with clean water
  • Dry with disposable towel or air dry
  • Use towel to turn off faucet

13
Alcohol-based Hand Rubs
  • Effective if hands not visibly soiled
  • More costly than soap water
  • Method
  • Apply appropriate (3ml) amount to palms
  • Rub hands together, covering all surfaces until
    dry

14
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • When used properly can protect you from exposure
    to infectious agents
  • Know what type of PPE is necessary for the duties
    you perform and use it correctly

15
Types of PPE
  • Gloves
  • Gowns
  • Masks
  • Boots (for agricultural settings, not used for
    human healthcare)
  • Eye protection

16
Types of PPE
  • Gloves
  • Different kinds of gloves
  • Housekeeper gloves
  • Clean gloves
  • Sterile glove
  • Work from clean to dirty
  • Avoid touch contamination
  • Eyes, mouth, nose, surfaces
  • Change gloves between patients

17
Types of PPE
  • Gowns
  • Fully cover torso
  • Have long sleeves
  • Fit snuggly at the wrist

18
Types of PPE
Masks and Respirators Barriers and Filtration
  • Surgical masks
  • Cotton, paper
  • Protect against body fluids and large particles
  • Particulate respirators (N95)
  • Fit testing essential
  • Protect against small droplets and other airborne
    particles
  • Alternative materials (barrier)
  • Tissues, cloth

19
Types of PPE
  • Particulate Respirators
  • Three types disposable, reusable, powered air
    purifying respirators
  • Disposable Particulate Respirators
  • Classified N95, N99, N100, R95, R99, R100, P95,
    P99, P100
  • Letter indicates oil resistance N not
    resistant, R somewhat resistant, P strongly
    resistant
  • Number is percent of airborne particles filtered
    (e.g. N95 filters 95 of particles)

20
Types of PPE
  • Boots
  • (non-hospital settings)
  • Eye Protection
  • Face shields
  • Goggles

21
PPE Supplies
  • Maintain adequate, accessible supplies
  • Creative alternatives (studies not done to asses
    effectiveness)
  • Mask tissue, scarf
  • Gown laboratory coat, scrubs

22
Working with Limited Resources
  • Avoid reuse of disposable PPE items
  • Consider reuse of some disposable items only as
    an urgent, temporary solution
  • Reuse only if no obvious soiling or damage
  • When prioritizing PPE purchase
  • Masks
  • Gloves
  • Eye protection

23
Infection Control Precautions
24
Precaution Levels
  • All levels require hand hygiene
  • Standard
  • Transmission based precautions
  • Contact
  • Droplet
  • Airborne

25
Standard Precautions
  • Prevent the transmission of common infectious
    agents
  • Hand washing key
  • Assume infectious agent could be present in the
    patients
  • Blood
  • Body fluids, secretions, excretions
  • Non-intact skin
  • Mucous membranes

26
PPE for Standard Precautions
  • Wear
  • Gloves
  • Gowns
  • Eye Protection and / or Mask
  • If
  • Touching
  • Respiratory secretions
  • Contaminated items or surfaces
  • Blood body fluids
  • Soiling clothes with patient body fluids,
    secretions, or excretions
  • Procedures are likely to generate splashes /
    sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions,
    excretions

27
Contact Precautions
  • Taken in addition to Standard Precautions
  • Limit patient movement
  • Isolate or cohort patients
  • Gown gloves for patient / room contact
  • Remove immediately after contact
  • Do not touch eyes, nose, mouth with hands
  • Avoid contaminating environmental surfaces

28
Contact Precautions
  • Wash hands immediately after patient contact
  • Use dedicated equipment if possible
  • If not, clean and disinfect between uses
  • Clean, then disinfect patient room daily
  • Bed rails
  • Bedside tables
  • Lavatory surfaces
  • Blood pressure cuff, equipment surfaces

29
Cleaning and Disinfection for Contact Precautions
  • Detergents
  • Remove dirt, soiling
  • Mechanical force essential
  • Flush with clean water
  • Disinfectants
  • Kill viruses, bacteria
  • Decontaminate surfaces
  • Type depends on infectious agent
  • Use after detergent

30
Droplet Precautions
  • Prevent infection by large droplets from
  • Sneezing
  • Coughing
  • Talking
  • Examples
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Pertussis
  • Seasonal influenza

31
Droplet Precautions
  • Taken in addition to Standard Precautions
  • Place patients in single rooms or cohort 3 feet
    apart
  • Wear surgical mask within 3 feet or 1 meter of
    patient
  • Wear face shield or goggles within 3 feet or 1
    meter of patient
  • Limit patient movement within facility
  • Patient wears mask when outside of room

32
Airborne Precautions
  • Taken in addition to Standard Precautions
  • Prevent spread of infection through inhalable
    airborne particles
  • Examples
  • Tuberculosis
  • Measles
  • Varicella
  • Variola

33
Airborne Precautions
  • Use for confirmed or suspected avian influenza
    cases

34
Airborne Precautions for Avian Influenza
  • N95 respirator (or equivalent) for personnel
  • Check seal with each use
  • Patient in isolation
  • Airborne isolation room, if available
  • Air exhaust to outside or re-circulated with HEPA
    filtration
  • Patient to wear a surgical mask if outside of the
    isolation room

35
Negative Pressure Isolation Room
36
Natural Ventilation Cohorting Room
1 meter
37
Aerosol-generating Procedures (Example
Endotracheal intubation)
  • N95 particulate respirator
  • If not available, wear tight fitting surgical
    mask and face shield
  • Eye protection
  • Gloves and hand washing
  • Gown and waterproof apron
  • Isolation room with negative pressure, if
    available
  • Hair cover optional

38
Choosing the Appropriate PPE
39
Avian Influenza
  • Currently not easily transmitted human to human
  • Routes of transmission to humans not known,
    cannot rule-out any routes
  • Current transmission from poultry to human or
    human to human for H5N1 requires very close
    contact

40
Interviewing - Asymptomatic Exposed Persons and
Contacts
  • Low-risk activity
  • Routine use of PPE not recommended
  • Maintain 3 feet distance between interviewer and
    interviewee
  • Use proper hand hygiene
  • May use hand sanitizer (at least 60 alcohol) if
    hands not visibly soiled

41
Interviewing - Symptomatic Exposed Persons
  • Higher risk activity
  • PPE recommended in community and healthcare
    facility
  • Contact precautions
  • Droplet precautions
  • N95 respirator
  • In healthcare facility, person should be placed
    in airborne isolation room
  • Maintain a distance gt 3 feet if possible

42
Specimen Collection Exposed Persons and Birds
  • High-risk aerosol-generating procedure
  • PPE recommended
  • Gloves
  • Gown
  • Goggles or face-shield
  • N95 or better respirator

43
Avian InfluenzaInfection Control in Health Care
Facilities
44
Influenza Transmission
  • Effective Infection Control Prevents
    Transmission From ...
  • Patients to health care workers
  • Patients to patients
  • Patients to family members providing care

45
Avian Influenza Precautions
Standard precautions
Droplet precautions
Airborne Precautions
46
Precautions for Suspected or Confirmed Cases of
Influenza A (H5N1)
  • Place patient in a negative air pressure room
  • To create a negative air pressure room
  • Install exhaust fan and direct air from inside to
    an outside area where no people are located
  • Place patients in rooms alone
  • Alternative cohort patients away from other
    patient care areas with beds gt 3 feet apart
  • Avoid placement in rooms with stagnant air and
    poor airflow/ventilation

47
Precautions for Suspected or Confirmed Cases of
Influenza A (H5N1)
  • Limit number of health care workers, family
    members and visitors
  • Designate experienced staff to provide care
  • Limit designated staff to avian influenza
    patient care
  • Teach family and visitors to use PPE

48
Precautions for Suspected or Confirmed Cases of
Influenza A (H5N1)
  • Keep isolated from others as much as possible
    until
  • At least 7 days after symptom onset AND
  • At least 48 hours after fever has subsided
    without taking fever-reducing medicines
  • (Whichever is longer)
  • Depending on the specific circumstances suspect
    or confirmed cases that have completed isolation
    for at least 7 days,and who are no longer
    symptomatic, may not be considered a source of
    exposure to others.

49
Precautions for Collecting Specimens
  • Notify laboratory in advance
  • Health care worker collecting specimen should
    wear full barrier PPE
  • Place specimen in leak-proof bag
  • Hand deliver, if possible
  • Label specimen clearly as suspected avian
    influenza

50
Precautions for Suspected or Confirmed Cases
Patient
Infection Control Precaution
Acute influenza symptom travel to AI country in
10 days
Surgical mask for patient, use respiratory hygiene
Isolation room, use of PPE Apply all infection
control precautions
Test for influenza A/H5
Re-evaluate the precaution measures
Different diagnosis
Confirmed Influenza A/H5
Maintain required infection control precautions
Adults and adolescents gt 12 years Continue for
10 days after resolution of fever unless case is
ruled-out through confirmatory laboratory methods
51
Environmental Decontamination
  • Cleaning MUST precede decontamination
  • Disinfectant ineffective if organic matter is
    present
  • Use mechanical force
  • Scrubbing
  • Brushing
  • Flush with water

52
Environmental Decontamination Disinfecting
  • Household bleach (diluted)
  • Quaternary ammonia compounds
  • Chlorine compounds (Chloramin B, Presept)
  • Alcohol
  • Isopropyl 70 or ethyl alcohol 60
  • Peroxygen compounds
  • Phenolic disinfectants
  • Germicides with a tuberculocidal claim on label
  • Others

53
Using Bleach Solutions
  • First clean organic material from surfaces or
    items
  • Wipe nonporous surfaces with sponge or wet cloth
  • Allow to dry
  • Use fresh diluted bleach daily!

54
Waste Disposal
  • Use Standard Precautions
  • Gloves and hand washing
  • Gown Eye protection
  • Avoid aerosolization
  • Prevent spills and leaks
  • Double bag if outside of bag is contaminated
  • Incineration is usually the preferred method

55
Managing Linens and Laundry
  • Use Standard Precautions
  • Gloves and hand hygiene
  • Gown
  • Mask
  • Avoid aerosolization do not shake
  • Fold or roll heavily soiled laundry
  • Remove large amounts of solid waste first
  • Place soiled laundry into bag in patient room
  • Wash with normal detergent

56
Avian Influenza Infection Control in the Community
57
Preventing Transmission in the Community
  • Respiratory etiquette
  • Cover nose / mouth when coughing or sneezing
  • Hand washing!

58
Avian Influenza and Food
  • Heat poultry meat to gt 70C to kill the avian
    influenza virus
  • Consumption of any raw / undercooked poultry
    ingredients is risky
  • Runny eggs
  • Meat with red juice
  • Uncooked duck blood
  • Separate raw meat from cooked or ready-to-eat
    foods to avoid cross-contamination
  • Wash hands before and after preparing food

59
Patients Cared for at Home
  • Potential for transmission
  • Must educate family caregivers
  • Fever / symptom monitoring
  • Infection control measures
  • Hand washing
  • Use of available material as PPE

60
Patients Cared for at Home
  • Handle laundry with gloves do not shake to
    prevent aerosolization
  • Use disposable or dedicated dishes, utensils
  • Decontaminate the home environment
  • Frequent cleaning before disinfection

61
Autopsy Precautions for Influenza A (H5N1)
  • Follow normal PPE procedures for autopsies
  • Anyone handling a corpse should follow standard
    precautions for blood and body fluids

62
Application of Infection Control Activities
during an Investigation
63
Location Influences Actions
  • Medical facilities
  • Homes
  • Farms
  • Markets
  • Rural versus Urban areas

64
Anticipate Exposures
  • Contact with. . .
  • Infected individuals
  • Individuals suspected to be infected
  • Potentially contaminated substances
  • Potentially contaminated surfaces / items
  • High-risk procedures
  • Animals

65
Assess Existing Infection Control Infrastructure
  • Policies and procedures
  • Authority
  • Human resources
  • Financial resources
  • Engineering resources

66
Assess Existing Infection Control Infrastructure
  • Do policies describe PPE for health care workers?
  • Are procedures in place for patient room
    cleaning?
  • Are there negative air pressure rooms?
  • Will you need to promote respiratory and hand
    hygiene in the community?

67
Assessing Infection Control Needs During an
Investigation
68
Overview
  • Components of infection control infrastructure
  • Infection control in healthcare facilities
  • Infection control in the community

69
Components of Infection Control Infrastructure
  • Policies
  • Procedures
  • Authority
  • Human resources
  • Financial resources
  • Engineering resources

70
Assessing Infection Control Infrastructure
  • Example cleaning patient rooms
  • Policies
  • When to clean, what to clean
  • Procedures
  • Cleaning products, order of surfaces to clean
  • Authority
  • Enforcing policies and procedures

71
Assessing Infection Control Infrastructure
  • Example Cleaning patient rooms (continued)
  • Human resources
  • Staff to clean rooms
  • Financial resources
  • Money to buy cleaning products
  • Engineering resources
  • Cleaning equipment
  • Hand hygiene facility (sink)

72
Sustainability
  • Evaluate infection control knowledge
  • Evaluate infection control procedures
  • Develop a sustainable program
  • Encourage routine practice
  • Build local capacity

73
Sustainability Example
  • Hospital outside a large city
  • Has basic infection control program
  • You notice healthcare personnel
  • Recapping needles
  • Not wearing eye protection when doing invasive
    procedures
  • Help staff develop appropriate policies and
    procedures

74
Authority
  • Communication with various administrative levels
  • Policies may already exist
  • National
  • Regional
  • Local
  • Adapt to the facility you are working in

75
How to Put on and Remove Personal Protective
Equipment
76
Sequence for Donning PPE
  • Hand hygiene
  • Gown
  • N95 Particulate respirator
  • Perform seal check
  • Hair cover
  • Goggles or face shield
  • Gloves

77
Gown
  • Select appropriate type and size
  • Opening may be in back or front
  • Secure at neck and waist
  • If too small, use two gowns
  • Gown 1 ties in front
  • Gown 2 ties in back

78
Surgical Mask
  • Place over nose, mouth and chin
  • Fit flexible nose piece over nose bridge
  • Secure on head with ties or elastic
  • Adjust to fit

79
N95 Particulate Respirator
  • Pay attention to size (S, M, L)
  • Place over nose, mouth and chin
  • Fit flexible nose piece over nose bridge
  • Secure on head with elastic
  • Adjust to fit and check for fit
  • Inhale respirator should collapse
  • Exhale check for leakage around face

80
Eye and Face Protection
  • Limited human to human transmission of H5N1 has
    occurred to date
  • Position goggles over eyes and secure to the head
    using the ear pieces or headband
  • Position face shield over face and secure on brow
    with headband
  • Adjust to fit comfortably

81
Gloves
  • Don gloves last
  • Select correct type and size
  • Insert hands into gloves
  • Extend gloves over gown cuffs

82
Key Infection Control Points
  • Minimize exposures
  • Plan before entering room
  • Avoid adjusting PPE after patient contact
  • Do not touch eyes, nose or mouth!
  • Avoid spreading infection
  • Limit surfaces and items touched
  • Change torn gloves
  • Wash hands before donning new gloves

83
Duration of PPE Use
  • Surgical Masks (if N95 not available)
  • Wear once and discard
  • Discard if moist
  • N95 Particulate Respirators
  • May use just one with cohorted patients
  • Eye Protection
  • May wash, disinfect, reuse

84
Sequence for Removing PPE
  • Remove in anteroom when possible
  • Gloves
  • Hand hygiene
  • Gown (and apron, if worn)
  • Goggles
  • Mask
  • Cap (if worn)
  • Hand hygiene

85
Removing Gloves (1)
  • Grasp outside edge near wrist
  • Peel away from hand, turning glove inside-out
  • Hold in opposite gloved hand

86
Removing Gloves (2)
  • Slide ungloved finger under the wrist of the
    remaining glove
  • Peel off from inside, creating a bag for both
    gloves
  • Discard

87
Removing A Gown
  • Unfasten ties
  • Peel gown away from neck and shoulder
  • Turn contaminated outside toward the inside
  • Fold or roll into a bundle
  • Discard

88
Removing Goggles or A Face Shield
  • Grasp ear or head pieces with ungloved hands
  • Lift away from face
  • Place in designated receptacle for disinfecting
    or disposal

89
Removing a Mask
  • Lift the bottom elastic over your head first
  • Then lift off the top elastic
  • Discard
  • Dont touch front of mask

90
If You MUST Reuse PPE..
  • Use during one shift and for one patient
  • Discard at the end of each shift
  • GOWN
  • Hang gown with outside facing in
  • MASK OR RESPIRATORS
  • Put the mask into the sealable bag
  • May touch the front of the mask, but wash hands
    immediately after removing

91
Hand Washing
  • Between PPE item removal, if hands become visibly
    contaminated
  • Immediately after removing all PPE
  • Use soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub

92
Summary
  • Influenza transmission occurs mainly through
    respiratory droplets
  • Contact can be prevented using PPE
  • Virus can be inactivated with infection control
    procedures
  • Hand washing is key
  • PPE must be donned and removed appropriately to
    prevent contamination of wearers and environments
  • Guidelines for using PPE and infection control
    measures for avian influenza in humans should be
    practiced until they are routine

93
Glossary
  • Decontamination - The removal of harmful
    substances such as chemicals, harmful bacteria,
    or other organisms, from exposed individuals,
    rooms, and furnishings in buildings or in the
    outside environment.
  • Disease transmission - The process of the spread
    of a disease agent through a population
  • Infection control - Measures practiced by health
    care personnel in health care facilities to
    prevent the spread of infectious agents
  • Personal protective equipment - Specialized
    clothing or equipment worn by a worker for
    protect from a hazard

94
References and Resources
  • Avian influenza, including influenza A (H5N1), in
    humans WHO interim infection control guideline
    for health care facilitiesRevised 24 April 2006.
    http//www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/gui
    delines/infectioncontrol1/en/index.html
  • Practical Guidelines for Infection Control in
    Health Care Facilities. SEARO Regional
    Publication No. 41 WPRO Regional Publication.
    2004. http//w3.whosea.org/LinkFiles/Update_on_SEA
    _Earthquake_and_Tsunami_infection-control.pdf
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    Cover Your Cough http//www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/
    covercough.htm
  • Elizabeth A. Bolyard, et al. Centers for Disease
    Control and Prevention. Guideline for infection
    control in health care personnel, 1998.
    http//www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/pdf/guidelines/Infe
    ctControl98.pdf
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