DDGS Quality is Variable - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – DDGS Quality is Variable PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 53914-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

DDGS Quality is Variable

Description:

High oil content limits maximum inclusion rates in grow-finish diets due to pork fat quality ... Feed Conversion of Chicks Fed Nine Sources of DDGS. DDGS Source ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:71
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 53
Provided by: thomas419
Category:
Tags: ddgs | chicks | fat | quality | variable

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: DDGS Quality is Variable


1
DDGS Quality is Variable
  • Nutritionists want PREDICTABILITY AND CONSISTENCY
    in feed ingredients.
  • The keys for getting maximum value from DDGS are
  • Know what you have (or want)
  • and
  • Know how to use it

2
DDGS Quality is Variable
  • Color ranges from very light to very dark
  • Odor ranges from sweet to smoky or burnt
  • Range in concentration in selected nutrients
  • Dry matter 87 to 93
  • Crude protein 23 to 29
  • Crude fat 3 to 12
  • Ash 3 to 6
  • Lysine 0.59 to 0.89

Source Cromwell et al. (1993)
3
Energy Value of DDGS for Ruminants
  • Good Quality DDGS contains
  • 7-11 more energy than book values
  • 10-20 more energy than grain
  • NEL 1.00 Mcal/lb
  • NEM 1.06 Mcal/lb
  • NEG 0.73 Mcal/lb
  • TDN 94
  • DE 1.84 Mcal/lb
  • ME 1.64 Mcal/lb

4
Low Quality, Less Digestible DDGS
High Quality, Highly Digestible DDGS
5
The Use of DDGS in Dairy Rations
6
Wet vs. Dried Distillers Grains for Dairy Cows
  • Nutrient content of DM is the same for both
  • Considerations for Wet Distillers Grains
  • - Can usually store only 5-7 days
  • - May need preservatives (e.g. propionic acid
    or other organic acids, etc.)
  • - Limited economical hauling distances
  • - Rations may be too wet
  • - limit total DM intake, especially if ensiled
    forages are also fed

7
Production Response of Dairy Cows When Fed
Distillers Grains
  • The same as, or greater than when fed SBM
  • Increased or no change when supplemented with
    protected lysine methionine
  • Similar to when fed a blend of protein
    supplements (SBM, FM, DG)

8
How Much Distillers Grains Can be Fed to Dairy
Cows?
  • Recommend max. of 20 of ration DM
  • - 10-13 lb/d of dried
  • - 30-40 lb/d of wet
  • Usually no palatability problems
  • At 30 of DM
  • - May decrease DMI, especially if Wet CDG
  • - May feed excess protein

9
Example Ration Considerations for Dairy Cattle
  • Diets containing 5050 forageconcentrate
  • - If equal proportions of alfalfa grain silage
  • DG can replace most or all protein
    supplement
  • - If mostly grain silage
  • More DG can be fed but may need some other
    protein supplement (check Lysine and P levels)
  • - If mostly alfalfa
  • Less DG likely needed to supply diet CP

10
DDGS other factors.
  • In dairy cattle
  • Excellent protein source
  • High by-pass protein.
  • Replaces grain soybean meal, not forage.
  • Need to balance lysine.
  • Reduces incidence of acidosis and related
    problems.

11
The Use of DDGS in Beef Rations
12
Nutritional Value of DDGS for Beef Cattle
  • Excellent protein source (28 crude protein)
  • High by-pass protein
  • Excellent source of essential minerals (P and K)
  • Improves rumen health
  • Very palatable
  • 1.8 times more value compared to soybean meal

13
Distillers Grains for Beef Cattle
  • As protein source
  • 6-15 of ration DM
  • As an energy source
  • when fed at gt15 of DM
  • may reduce acidosis because highly digestible
    fiber in place of starch
  • ADG and F/G usually better than with grain
  • Klopfenstein et al., University of Nebraska

14
Value of Nutrients in DDGS for Finishing Cattle
  • Energy
  • Wet distillers grains 110 to 125 energy of
    grain (DM basis)
  • DDGS 100 of grain (DM basis)
  • Protein
  • By-pass gt soybean meal
  • Wet Dry is properly dried
  • Fiber
  • High fiber and low starch reduces fermentation
    rate
  • Safe ingredient to start cattle on finishing
    diets
  • Reduces subacute acidosis
  • Fat
  • Oil content limits the quantity fed (lt40)
  • Phosphorus
  • No value in grain-based finishing diets
  • Value as a supplement to low P forages

15
How Much Distillers By-Products Can Be Fed to
Beef Cattle?
  • DDGS (90 DM)
  • Feed to supply protein to meet requirement
  • lt 20 ration dry matter
  • Wet DGS (30 DM)
  • Feed to supply protein and energy
  • Commonly fed at lt 25 of ration dry matter
  • Greatest value at 15 to 20 of ration dry matter
  • Can feed up to 40 of ration dry matter
  • Overfeed protein and phosphorus
  • Wet Condensed Distillers Solubles (30 DM)
  • Feed to supply protein and energy
  • Limit to lt 10 of ration dry matter

16
DDGS other factors.
  • In beef cattle
  • Up to 15 DDGS in diet competes with other
    protein sources in value.
  • Over 15 DDGS in diet competes with other energy
    sources in value.
  • Reduces incidence of acidosis and associated
    problems.

17
The Use of DDGS in Swine Diets
18
History of U of M Swine DDGS Research
  • Started with a meeting in 1997…
  • Steve Markham (Commodity Specialists Company)
  • John Goihl (Agri-Nutrition Services)
  • Dr. Jerry Shurson (U of M)
  • Several MN ethanol plant managers
  • The meeting focused on 2 questions…
  • What are we going to do with all of the DDGS?
  • Can it be fed to pigs?
  • A voluntary, internal checkoff program was
    implemented among interested MN and SD ethanol
    plants to collect funds to initiate swine research

19
What Nutritionists Want to Know
  • Nutrient content and digestibility of feed
    ingredients.
  • Predictability and consistency of nutrients and
    supply.
  • Cost relative to competing ingredients.
  • Maximum recommended feeding levels.
  • Knowledge of limitations of use.
  • Knowledge of potential safety or risk factors.
  • Handling, transport, manufacturing, and storage
    characteristics.

20
Questions That Were Answered by Conducting U of
M Swine DDGS Research Studies
  • Q What is the nutrient content of DDGS produced
    by new generation fuel ethanol plants?
  • A Higher than values published in NRC (1998)
  • Q How does the nutrient content of new
    generation DDGS compare to old generation
    DDGS?
  • A It is higher in energy, amino acids, and P
  • Q How variable is the nutrient content of DDGS
    among plants?
  • A Nutrient variability is greater among plants
    vs. within plant but comparable to other
    by-product ingredients

21
Questions That Were Answered by Conducting U of M
Swine DDGS Research Studies
  • Q What is the energy value of DDGS for swine?
  • A Equal to the energy value of grain
  • Q How digestible are amino acids in DDGS for
    swine?
  • A More digestible than old generation DDGS
    and values published in NRC (1998)
  • Q How digestible is the phosphorus in DDGS for
    swine?
  • A Highly digestible, allowing nutritionists to
    reduce dietary P supplementation, diet cost, and
    manure P levels

22
Questions That Were Answered by Conducting U of M
Swine DDGS Research Studies
  • Q How much DDGS can be added to various swine
    diets to provide good performance?
  • A Nursery pigs gt 15 lbs 25
  • Grow-finish pigs 20
  • Pregnant sows 50
  • Lactating sows 20

23
Questions That Were Answered by Conducting U of M
Swine DDGS Research Studies
  • Q Are there any limitations of feeding DDGS to
    swine?
  • A Yes.
  • - A short adaptation period is needed when
    feeding high DDGS diets to sows
  • - The high oil content of DDGS will reduce pork
    fat quality if fed at levels gt 20 of the
    diet
  • - Digestible amino acid levels must be used if
    formulating diets containing gt 10 DDGS
  • - The high N and digestible P content will
    limit the amount that be used in some swine
    diets

24
Questions That Were Answered by Conducting U of M
Swine DDGS Research Studies
  • Q What is environmental impact from feeding
    DDGS to swine?
  • A There are no negative impacts.
  • - Although some pork producers claim reduced
    odor from feeding DDGS diets
  • - We could not show any improvement in our
    research studies
  • - Feeding high levels of DDGS (gt20) could
    potentially increase ammonia levels in pig
    barns
  • - Feeding DDGS will increase N content of
    manure
  • - The high digestible P content will reduce the
    of P in manure

25
Questions That Were Answered by Conducting Swine
DDGS Research Studies
  • Q Are there any other benefits from feeding
    DDGS to swine?
  • A Yes.
  • - Improved gut health in pigs infected with
    ileitis
  • - Increased litter size in sows fed high
    levels of DDGS

26
Nutritional Value of DDGS for Swine
  • Must use high quality DDGS
  • Light color high amino acid digestibility
  • Excellent energy and available phosphorus source
  • Nutritional value higher than previously thought
  • May improve gut health (i.e. ileitis, gut edema)
  • Decreased mortality and improved growth
    performance
  • Effective partial replacement for grain and
    soybean meal

27
Quality Considerations for Selecting DDGS Sources
for Swine and Poultry
  • Physical characteristics
  • Bulk density .44 to .48 kg/cubic meter
  • Particle size
  • maximum coarse particles - 10 on 2000 screen
  • maximum fine particles - 15 on 600 screen in
    pan
  • Smell fresh, fermented
  • Color goldenrod

28
Quality Considerations for Selecting DDGS Sources
for Swine and Poultry
  • Nutrient Specifications
  • Moisture maximum 12
  • Protein minimum 26.5
  • Fat minimum 10
  • Fiber maximum 7.5
  • DE value is 100 of grain DE
  • ME value is 93 of grain ME

29
Maximum Recommended Inclusion Rates of DDGS in
Swine Diets
  • Nursery pigs (gt15 lbs)
  • Up to 25
  • Grow-finish pigs
  • Up to 20 (higher levels reduce pork fat quality)
  • Gestating sows
  • Up to 40
  • Lactating sows
  • Up to 20

30
Limitations of Using DDGS in Swine Diets
  • Amino acid digestibility is reduced in dark
    colored DDGS
  • High fiber limits its use in pre-starter diets
    (lt6.8 kg BW)
  • Excess nitrogen can be minimized by using
    synthetic amino acids
  • High oil content limits maximum inclusion rates
    in grow-finish diets due to pork fat quality

31
Limitations of Using DDGS in Swine Diets
  • Dietary inclusion rates should be gradually
    increased in gestation (up to 40) and lactation
    (up to 20) diets to allow sows to adapt.
  • Because of the high fiber content, sows will take
    2x longer to eat their daily feed allotment than
    sows on a grain-soybean meal diet.

32
Maximizing the Value of DDGS in Swine Diets
  • Formulate diets using digestible amino acid
    values
  • High available P reduces the level of dietary P
    supplementation
  • Adding 10 DDGS to grow-finish diets may reduce
    mortality due to ileitis and gut edema

33
Example Swine Grower Diet with Containing 20 DDGS
Ingredient Nutrient
Composition Grain 60.05 Crude protein,
19.07 DDGS 20.00 App. Dig. Lysine,
0.74 Soybean meal, 46 17.70 App. Dig. M
C, 0.51 Dicalcium phosphate 0.60 App.
Dig. Thr., 0.48 Limestone 1.05 App.
Dig. Trp, 0.15 Salt 0.30 ME,
kcal/kg 3309 Vitamin-TM premix 0.15 Ca,
0.60 L-lysine HCl 0.15 P,
0.53 Total 100.00 Avail. P, 0.30
34
Calculating the Value of DDGS in Swine Diets
Using Soybean Meal 44
Additions/1000 kg diet 100 kg DDGS x
cost/kg 1.5 kg limestone x
cost/kg TOTAL ADDITIONS (A)
Subtractions/1000 kg diet - 88.5 kg grain
x cost/kg - 10 kg SBM
(44) x cost/kg - 3 kg
dicalcium phosphate x cost/kg
TOTAL SUBTRACTIONS (S) S - A
Opportunity cost for DDGS/100 kg
35
Calculating the Value of DDGS in Swine Diets
Using Soybean Meal 46
Additions/1000 kg diet 100 kg DDGS x
cost/kg 1.5 kg limestone x
cost/kg TOTAL ADDITIONS (A)
Subtractions/1000 kg diet - 89 kg grain x
cost/kg - 9.5 kg SBM (46) x
cost/kg - 3 kg dicalcium
phosphate x cost/kg TOTAL
SUBTRACTIONS (S) S - A Opportunity cost
for DDGS/100 kg
36
DDGS other factors.
  • In swine
  • 10 DDGS in diet in grow/finish and up to 40 of
    sow gestation diets.
  • See less use in nursery and lactation diets
  • Many producers report a gut health benefit

37
The Use of DDGS in Poultry Diets
38
Growth of Chicks Fed Nine Sources of DDGS
Grams Per Day
DDGS Source
39
Feed Conversion of Chicks Fed Nine Sources of DDGS
DDGS Source
40
Historical Use of DDGS in Poultry Diets in the
U.S.
  • Fed at low inclusion rates in U.S. poultry
    industry for many years
  • High B vitamin content (solubles)
  • Source of unidentified growth/reproduction
    factors?
  • Positive effect on palatability (Alenier and
    Combs, 1981)
  • Protein source when fed at higher dietary
    inclusion levels

41
Unidentified Growth or Hatchability Factor
  • Growth response (Couch et al., 1957)
  • 5 DDGS in turkey diets
  • 17-32 improvement in gain
  • Feed preference (Alenier Combs, 1981)
  • 10 DDGS in chicken layer diets
  • Reproduction improvement (Manley, 1978)
  • 3 DDGS in turkey breeder hen diets
  • improvement in egg numbers and hatch (late lay)

42
DDGS As Protein Supplement
  • Limiting amino acids (Parsons et al., 1983)
  • Lysine
  • Tryptophan
  • Arginine (perhaps equally limiting with trp)
  • Dietary lysine and energy adjustments are needed
    with inclusion of DDGS
  • growth
  • feed conversion

43
Performance of Broiler Chickens (0-42 days) to
DDGS in Diets Adjusted and Not Adjusted for
Energy (Waldroup et al, 1981)
44
Lysine Digestibility of DDGS for Poultry
  • Lower than grain due to drying process
  • Lysine bioavailability 66
  • Parsons et al. (1983)
  • Lysine digestibility 65
  • NRC (1994)

45
Lysine Availability ()
46
Energy Utilization of DDGS by Poultry
  • Crude protein 27.4
  • Crude fat 9
  • ME, kcal/kg 2,480
  • ME/GE, 49.1
  • ME ( of grain) 74.1

47
Maximum Inclusion Rates of DDGS in Poultry Diets
  • Turkey, pullet, and broiler starter 5
  • Turkey and broiler finisher 15
  • Pullet developer 10
  • Layer (peak) 10
  • Layer (late lay) 10

Source ME Jackson, 2002 Midwest Poultry
Federation Convention, St. Paul, MN
48
Use of DDGS in Poultry Diets
  • High inclusion rates have also provided good
    results
  • Favorable results with 25 DDGS in broiler diets
  • Waldroup et al., 1981
  • 15 DDGS in layer diets reduces fatty liver
    incidence
  • Jensen et al., 1974 Jensen, 1987 Akiba et al.,
    1983
  • 12 DDGS turkey diets gave similar performance to
    grain-soybean meal diets
  • Noll, 2002

49
Nutritional Value of DDGS for Poultry
  • Must use high quality DDGS
  • Golden color high amino acid digestibility
  • Excellent energy and available phosphorus source
  • Nutritional value higher than previously thought
  • Unidentified growth factors?
  • 5 DDGS resulted in 17-32 improvement in gain
  • 3 DDGS in turkey breeder hen diets increased egg
    numbers and hatch
  • Effective partial replacement for grain and
    soybean meal

50
Maximizing the Value of DDGS in Poultry Diets
  • Formulate diets using digestible amino acid
    values
  • High available P reduces the level of dietary P
    supplementation
  • Adding 5 DDGS to may improve feed preference,
    egg number, and hatchability in breeder hens

51
Limitations of Using DDGS in Poultry Diets
  • Must be golden color and highly digestible
  • High fiber limits its maximum inclusion rate in
    poultry diets
  • Excess nitrogen can be minimized by using
    synthetic amino acids

52
DDGS other factors.
  • In poultry
  • 10 DDGS in diet maintains performance of layers,
    broilers, and turkeys.
  • Can be used to produce darker yellow yolks
  • Can be used to produce a yellowish fat and
    possibly breast meat (?)
About PowerShow.com