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The Foundations of Medieval Christianity


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Title: The Foundations of Medieval Christianity

The Foundations of Medieval Christianity
  • Ecumenical Councils

Imperial Structure Tetrarchy
  • Augustus of the East Diocletian (285-305)
  • Ceasar of the East Galerius (293-311)
  • Augustus of the West
  • Maximian (292-305)
  • Ceasar of the West Constantinus (293-306)
  • Diocletian
  • Galerius

 Divisions of the Roman Empire under
  • Diocletian divided the empire into 4
    prefectures and 17 dioceses.

Diocletian Persecution
  • Persecutes Christians for the sake of state
  • The persecution continued in the East until 311.
  • Four Stages
  • All military personnel must sacrifice to the gods
  • All churches to be destroyed and Scriptures
    burned (303)
  • All clergy arrested (303)
  • All citizens to offer sacrifices (304)

Constantine (306-337)
  • Born in Dacia (274), mother was Christian but
    father pagan.
  • Served under Galerius in 303.
  • Father (Constantinus) died in Britain in 306 and
    the army elected Constantine as his replacement.
  • Galerius died in 311 and the struggle for
    imperial power in the ensued.

Conversion of Constantine
  • Constantine crossed the Alps and moved toward
    Rome in 312 for the Battle of Milvian Bridge near
    Rome against Maxentius.
  • Vision cross above the sun with the words by
    this sign you will conquer (in hoc signo vinces)
  • Dream Christ commanded him to draw the Chi-Ro
    on the shields of his soldiers.

Friend of Christianity
  • After victory, he was convinced Christ was a real
    power and decided to show the peace of Christ.
  • He declared Christianity a legal religion with
    the Edict of Milan (313) and by 323 had united
    the Empire under one Emperor.
  • Favored Christianity
  • Built Churches
  • Makes Sunday a day of worship
  • Initiates Christmas as festival
  • Ordered new copies of the Bible
  • Gave bishops a rank equal to Senators
  • Excluded churches and clergy from
  • taxation

New Capital
  • During the Tetrarchy of 305, the four capitals
    were Trier, Milan, Thessaloniki, and Nicomedia.
  • In 330, Constantine established his new capital
    in the NW corner of Asia Minor and called it
    Constantinople (at Byzantium). Indeed, he left
    Rome in 324 never to return.
  • It was built on seven hills (like Rome) with a
    forum, hippodrome, Senate and its people received
    subsidized grain and paid no taxes. Unlike Rome,
    it was a Christian capital with few traces of
  • He also began the construction of a church in the
    city which would become known as the Hagia
    Sophia. 2/3 of the worlds wealth was said to be
    in Constantinople (originally name New Rome).

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Rome and Christianity
  • Edict of Milan (312) Christianity is tolerated.
  • Constantine presided over the first Christian
    Ecumenical Council at Nicea (325).
  • Successive emperors were sometimes Arian (such as
    Constantines son Constantius), sometimes
    Trinitarians. They often used violence to coerce
  • The Emperors are now all Christian, except one
    (Julian the Apostate, 361-63).
  • Theodosius I (Trinitarian) made Christianity the
    compulsory religion of state employees in 389,
    outlawed paganism in 391, and declared
    Christianity the only legal religion in 395.

Rome and the Church
  • The church (especially the clergy, specifically
    the bishops) grew in wealth and power due to the
    privileges of the state.
  • The influx of pagans into the church created
    new problemsmoving from 10 of the population in
    300 to probably 60 of the population in 400.
  • Even the Emperor Theodosius was forced to do
    public penance for his massacre 1000s in
    Thessalonica in 389.

Romes New Problem (360-390s)
  • The Barbarian tribes (the Germanic tribes),
    particularly the Goths, admired the Romans.
  • They sought alliances (protection from the Huns),
    trade and participation in Roman civilization.
  • The Romans needed alliances to defeat the Huns
    who were invading across Hungary, Northern Italy
    and into Gaul.

Rome and the Goths
  • Running from the Huns, the Goths sought a Roman
    alliance in 360s.
  • Rome regarded them as a buffer between themselves
    and the Huns, but the Romans exploited and
    enslaved them.
  • At the battle of Adrianpole (379), the Emperor
    Valens was killed and the Goths overran the

Battle of Adrianople
Theodosius, Last Unified Emperor (379-391)
  • After the death of Valens (378), Theodosius made
    peace with the Goths.
  • After Theodosius death in 395, the empire was
    divided between east and west.
  • Honorius in the West (395-423) and Arcadius
    (395-408) in the East.
  • Honorius moved the Western capital to Ravenna in

The Emperor Honorius at his court in Ravenna
Germanic Invasions
The Sack of Rome (410)
  • Honorius drove the Goths out of Greece twice.
  • However, he could not prevent Alaric of the Goths
    from moving through Italy and sacking Rome in 410
    (the first time in 800 years).

Leo the Great of Rome
  • Leo was the Bishop of Rome during the time of
    many Germanic incursions (440-461).
  • He appropriated the title of Pontifex Maximus
    and claimed to be the ecumenical bishop of the
    church. Claimed to be the successor of Peterthe
    ruler of the catholic church.
  • He met with Attila the Hun and persuaded him to
    forego sacking Rome (through a bribe).
  • With the loss of imperial power in Italy,
    especially Rome, Leo and subsequent Bishops of
    Rome became the most powerful leaders in the West.

Galla Placidia (Honorius sister) guided the West
to 450 Aided by capable Roman general Aetius He
won important victories over Visigoths He and
Theodoric of Constantinople turned back Attila
the Hun at Chalons in 451
Attila the Hun The Scourge of Europe
Coin of Aetius
Galla Placidia
The Tomb of Galla Placidia at Ravenna
The Fall of the Roman West
  • The Western empire went through a succession of
    generals as emperors. They all failed to stop
    the incursions.
  • Odovacar, a Goth, took over the remains of the
    Western empire in Italy in 476 from the 12-year
    old emperor, Romulus Augustulus.

Europe Under the Germanic Tribes
Justinian (527-565)
  • Sought to re-establish the Roman Empirefor both
    imperial and theological reasons.
  • Reconquered parts of Spain (Visigoths), Africa
    (Vandals) and Italy (Ostrogoths) from the
    Barbaric kingdoms.
  • Through diplomacy and defense (600 forts in the
    Balkans), the eastern empire reached the zenith
    of its greatness.

Empire Renewed
  • Justinian restored the Empire to the practical
    dimensions of Theodosius I in 395 except for much
    of Spain and France. As such, he was the last
    Roman Emperor of the united Empire.

Justinian, State and Church
  • Justinian asserted the right of Emperor to
    determine church theology and force acceptance.
    He was as close an example of Caesaropapism as we
    have in history. Ultimately, it was competitive
    but usually more like joint spheres of influence
    in which both have influence in the others
    concern. The Emperor (autocrator), however,
    represented Christ (pantocrator).
  • Justinian codified and reformed the tax and legal
    codes of the Empire, called Justinian Code.
    These formed the basis of future law reform in
    the West (12th century). They were based on
    previous Roman jurisprudence, imperial edicts,
    and Institutes (a handbook for the use of law
  • He closed the schools of Plato and Aristotle in
    Athens in 529 which signaled the end of Paganism
    and end of the ancient world.

Mosaic in St. Vitale in Ravenna, which Justinian
Map of Post-Justinian Empire, ca. 700
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The Arian Controversy (321-325)
  • Arius affirmed there was a time when the Logos
    did not exist
  • Alexander the bishop of Alexandria who deposed
    Arius for his views.
  • Athanasius the supporter and major theological
    defender of Alexander.
  • Eusebius of Nicomedia the bishop who supported
    Arius and was a councilor of Emperor Constantine.

Divided Christianity
  • Arians
  • Leader Arius
  • Taught that there was a time when the Son did not
  • Sought to preserve the monarchy of the Father who
    alone is true God.
  • Holy Spirit is a power, energy rather than a
  • Trinitarians
  • Leader Athanasius
  • Taught that the Son was co-eternal with the
  • Sought to preserve the confession that Jesus is
  • The Holy Spirit is co-eternal with the Father and
    Son as a person.

The Council of Nicea (325)
  • Called and overseen by Constantine in order to
    preserve unity within the church (and thus his
  • About 250 of the 1800 bishops in the Empire
  • All but two signed the resultant creed though
    some were hesitant.
  • Constantine himself insisted on the language of
    homoousia (same substance) rather than
    homoiousia (like substance).

Council of Nicea, 325 AD
  • We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker
    of all things visible and invisible and in one
    Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the
    only-begotten of his Father, of the substance of
    the Father, God of God, Light of Light, very God
    of very God, begotten , not made, being of one
    substance (homoousia) with the Father. By whom
    all things were made, both which be in heaven and
    in earth. Who for us men and for our salvation
    came down from heaven and was incarnate and was
    made man. He suffered and the third day he rose
    again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall
    come again to judge both the quick and the dead.
    And in the Holy Ghost. And whosoever shall say
    that there was a time when the Son of God was
    not, or that before he was begotten he was not,
    or that he was made of things that were not, or
    that he is of a different substance or essence
    from the Father or that he is a creature, or
    subject to change or conversion--all that so say,
    the Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes

Nicea and the Roman Bishop
  • The Council organized the structure of the church
    in parallel with the Empire using the same
    designations and territorial outlines.
  • The Council recognized four chief bishops
    Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria and Rome.
  • The Bishop of Rome was recognized as first among

The Ascendancy of Arianism
  • After Constantine was persuaded to accept an
    ambiguous statement from Arius, Athanasius was
    exiled or went into hiding five times over the
    next forty years.
  • Constantius became the sole ruler of the Empire
    in 353 and supported Arianism. Niceans were
  • Even some Western bishops bowed to the will of
    Constantinus who declared my will is the canon
    for you. Pope Liberius and others were exiled,
    and Athanasius stood alone against the Arian
    world (having gone into hiding in the deserts of
  • In response, some bishops met in council at
    Constantinople in 360 and declared that the Son
    is like the Father (homoousia).
  • During the reign of Julian the Apostate
    (361-363), without imperial pressure the church
    began to gravitate more toward the Nicean
    position once again.

Triumph of Nicea
  • Valentian became emperor in 363 over the West and
    appointed his brother Valens (363-378) emperor
    over the East.
  • This was the time of the Cappodocian Fathers
    Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and
    Gregory of Nyssa.
  • Though Valens supported the Arian party, the
    Cappodocians persuaded the church to reaffirm the
    Nicean Creed.
  • When Theodosius became Emperor in 379, he
    reaffirmed the Nicean creed and called the
    Council of Constantinople of 381. This
    reaffirmed Nicea.

Rome, Arianism and the East
  • Pope Julius of Rome in 340 supported the Nicene
    creed and sided with Athanasius. He called for a
    council in Rome to decide the question. Eastern
    bishops rejected the call.
  • Julius responded Do you not know that the
    custom is that we should be written to first, and
    that judgment is rendered here? What I write you
    and what I say we received from the blessed
    Apostle Peter.

Council of Constantinople, 381
  • And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and
    Giver-of-Life, who proceeds from the Father, who
    with the Father and the Son together is
    worshipped and glorified, who spoke by the
    prophets. And in one, holy, Catholic and
    Apostolic Church. We acknowledge one Baptism for
    the remission of sins, and we look for the
    resurrection of the dead and the life of the
    world to come. Amen.

Ecclesial Jurisdiction
  • Canon 3 The Bishop of Constantinople,
    however, shall have the prerogative of honor
    after the Bishop of Rome because Constantinople
    is New Rome.
  • Leo I and papal legates at the later council of
    Chalcedon (451) rejected the reordering of the
    Nicean canon. Pope Damascus I was not invited to
    Constantinople for the council in 381.
  • The Eastern Church has always recognized the
    Bishop of Rome as first among equals but does
    not recognize the jurisdiction of the Bishop of
    Rome in its own jurisdiction.

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Nestorian Controversy (428-431)
  • Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, refused to
    call Mary by the title of theotokos (Mother of
  • Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria, argued that since
    Christ is one person united to God and humanity
    Mary is the bearer of God.
  • Rome sided with Cyril.
  • Nestorius persuaded Theodosius II to call an
    ecumenical council in Ephesus. The Council
    divided into two parties Cyril vs. Nestorius.

Council of Ephesus (431)
  • 1 If anyone will not confess that the Emmanuel
    is very God, and that therefore the Holy Virgin
    is the Mother of God, inasmuch as in the flesh
    she bore the Word of God made flesh (as it is
    written, "The Word was made flesh") let him be
  • 2 If anyone shall not confess that the Word of
    God the Father is united hypostatically to flesh,
    and that with that flesh of his own, he is one
    only Christ both God and man at the same time
    let him be anathema.
  • 11 Whosoever shall not confess that the flesh of
    the Lord gives life and that it pertains to the
    Word of God the Father as his very own, but shall
    pretend that it belongs to another person who is
    united to him i.e., the Word only according to
    honor, and who has served as a dwelling for the
    divinity and shall not rather confess, as we
    say, that that flesh gives life because it is
    that of the Word who gives life to all let him
    be anathema.

Harmony Restored
  • Problem Cyril had affirmed one nature of God
    the Word Incarnate. To John of Antioch this
    seemed to confuse the divine and human natures.
  • In 432 representatives from Antioch met with
    Cyril in Alexandria. They emerged with a
    formula of union (433).

Formula of Union (433)
  • We confess, then, our lord Jesus Christ, the
    only begotten Son of God perfect God and perfect
    man of a rational soul and a body, begotten
    before all ages from the Father in his godhead,
    the same in the last days, for us and for our
    salvation, born of Mary the virgin, according to
    his humanity, one and the same consubstantial
    with the Father in godhead and consubstantial
    with us in humanity, for a union of two natures
    took place. Therefore we confess one Christ, one
    Son, one Lord. According to this understanding of
    the unconfused union, we confess the holy virgin
    to be the mother of God because God the Word took
    flesh and became man and from his very conception
    united to himself the temple he took from her. As
    to the evangelical and apostolic expressions
    about the Lord, we know that theologians treat
    some in common as of one person and distinguish
    others as of two natures, and interpret the
    god-befitting ones in connection with the godhead
    of Christ and the lowly ones with his humanity.

Monophysite Controversy (433-451)
  • Cyrils acceptance of the Formula of Union
    upset some in Alexandria who preferred the one
    nature (mia physis) formula.
  • Upon Cyrils death, this party emerged in
    rebellion against the Formula of Union led by
    Bishop Dioscurus.
  • Flavian, Bishop of Constantinople, condemned
    Eutyches (a monophysite) and was supported by
    Pope Leo I of Rome who wrote a letter (Tome)
    against monophysitism.
  • Theodosius called a council in Ephesus (robber
    synod) in 449 which involved violent action by
    monks against Flavian (who was beaten, deposed
    and exiled).
  • Emperor Marcian called another council in 451 at
    the request of Leo I in Chalcedon near
    Constantinople. The Council decided against

Council of Chalcedon (451)
  • Following the holy Fathers we teach with one
    voice that the Son and our Lord Jesus Christ is
    to be confessed as one and the same, that he is
    perfect in Godhead and perfect in manhood, very
    God and very man, of a reasonable soul and body
    consisting, consubstantial with the Father as
    touching his Godhead, and consubstantial with us
    as touching his manhood made in all things like
    unto us, sin only excepted begotten of his
    Father before the worlds according to his
    Godhead but in these last days for us men and
    for our salvation born of the Virgin Mary, the
    Mother of God according to his manhood. This one
    and the same Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son
    must be confessed to be in two natures,
    unconfusedly, immutably, indivisibly, inseparably
    united, and that without the distinction of
    natures being taken away by such union, but
    rather the peculiar property of each nature being
    preserved and being united in one Person and
    subsistence, not separated or divided into two
    persons, but one and the same Son and
    only-begotten, God the Word, our Lord Jesus
    Christ, as the Prophets of old time have spoken
    concerning him, and as the Lord Jesus Christ hath
    taught us, and as the Creed of the Fathers hath
    delivered to us.

Leos Authority
  • Leo I (the Great) had written a letter to the
    council of Ephesus (449) declaring his
    Christological views.
  • According to tradition, after Leos letter had
    been read to Chalcedon, the 630 bishops and 4
    papal legates present exclaimed unanimously,
    "What Leo believes we all believe, anathema to
    him who believes anything else. Peter has spoken
    through the mouth of Leo."
  • His Tome (letter) was included as part of the
    official documents of Chalcedon.

Constantinople and Chalcedon
  • The Council (451) recognized Constantinople as a
    patriarchate (along with Rome, Alexandria,
    Antioch and Jerusalem).
  • Its jurisdiction include Asia Minor, Pontus,
    Thrace and all northern unconverted regions
    (ultimately to include Russia).
  • It was also recognized as first among equals in
    the east and given appellate authority from the
    other sees.

  • Chalcedon did not settle the problem.
    Monophysite and Chalcedonian bishops were elected
    in various sees (sometimes two in one see).
  • When the Chalcedonian bishop of Alexandria
    appealed to Pope Felix III in 484 to secure the
    support against Acacius, Bishop of
    Constantinople, Acacius refused to recognize
    Felix III. Pope Felix III then deposed and
    excommunicated Acacius.
  • This was the first formal split between West and
  • It ended in 518 when a Chalcedonian bishop was
    installed in Constantinople.
  • Ultimately Syrian and Egyptian (Coptic) churches
    rejected Chalcedon and affirmed monophysitism.

Council of Constantinople II (553)
  • 1 If anyone shall not confess that the nature or
    essence of the Father, of the Son, and of the
    Holy Ghost is one, as also the force and the
    power if anyone does not confess a
    consubstantial Trinity, one Godhead to be
    worshipped in three subsistences or Persons let
    him be anathema. For there is but one God even
    the Father of whom are all things, and one Lord
    Jesus Christ through whom are all things, and one
    Holy Spirit in whom are all things.
  • 2 If anyone shall not confess that the Word of
    God has two nativities, the one from all eternity
    of the Father, without time and without body the
    other in these last days, coming down from heaven
    and being made flesh of the holy and glorious
    Mary, Mother of God and always a virgin, and born
    of her let him be anathema.
  • 4 If anyone shall say that the union of the Word
    of God to man was only according to grace or
    energy, or dignity, or equality of honor, or
    authority, or relation, or effect, or power, or
    according to good pleasure in this sense that God
    the Word was pleased with a man, that is to say,
    that he loved him for his own sakelet him be

Council of Constantinople III (680)
  • one and the same Christ our Lord the
    only-begotten Son of two natures un-confusedly,
    unchangeably, inseparably indivisibly to be
    recognized, the peculiarities of neither nature
    being lost by the union but rather the
    proprieties of each nature being preserved,
    concurring in one Person and in one subsistence,
    not parted or divided into two persons but one
    and the same only-begotten Son of God, the Word,
    our Lord Jesus Christ, according as the Prophets
    of old have taught us and as our Lord Jesus
    Christ himself hath instructed us, and the Creed
    of the holy Fathers hath delivered to us
    defining all this we likewise declare that in him
    are two natural wills and two natural operations
    indivisibly, inconvertibly, inseparably,
    inconfusedly, according to the teaching of the
    holy Fathers. And these two natural wills are not
    contrary the one to the other (God forbid!) as
    the impious heretics assert, but his human will
    follows and that not as resisting and reluctant,
    but rather as subject to his divine and
    omnipotent will. For as his most holy and
    immaculate animated flesh was not destroyed
    because it was deified but continued in its own
    state and nature, so also his human will,
    although deified, was not suppressed, but was
    rather preserved according to the saying of
    Gregory Theologus "His will i.e., the
    Saviour's is not contrary to God but altogether

Pope Innocent I (401-417)
  • The western Emperor Honorius had moved his
    government to Ravenna.
  • Innocent I was Pope when Rome was sacked by the
    Visigoths in 410.
  • Innocent I took the opportunity to extend his
    authority in both political and theological
  • He confirmed the decisions of the North African
    churches against Pelagianism as he sided with
  • He took on political and judicial functions in
    the city of Rome, especially the absence of
    imperial authority.

Pope Leo I (the Great), 440-461
  • Leo centralized western ecclesial government and
    located juridical power in Rome.
  • Leo also led the city politically and was praised
    for dissuading Attila the Hun from sacking Rome
    in 452.
  • Stressed the priority of Rome in the universal
    government of the church, especially as he sought
    to maintain jurisdiction over Illyricum.
  • Leo is sometimes regarded as the first Roman
    Pope since he stressed his universal
    responsibility for the church based on Petrine
    supremacy and his rights as the successor of

Christian Meeting Places
  • In the New Testament, the meeting place was
    primarily domesticin homes.
  • The Jerusalem church met in the temple for
    teaching and prayer, and also met in their homes
    for breaking bread.
  • The shift from domestic meeting place to a
    dedicated meeting facility had significant impact
    on the nature of Christianity.

Dura Europos Church Plan
Dura Europos Church Plan
Dura Europas Baptistry
The Roman Basilica
  • Romans emphasized law and order.
  • Their law courts were not only places for legal
    proceedings but were centers of civic and public
    activities. They functioned sometimes as town
    meeting halls under the guidance of the
  • The basilica form was adopted by Christians as
    the best architecture suited for church buildings
    (rather than temples).

The Roman Basilica
Basilicas took their form from a ship. The
center portion was the nave (from Latin word for
ship), flanked by side aisles, and a curved end
known as an apse.
The largest and most impressive Roman basilica
was built by Maxentius and finished by
Constantine in the early 4th century. The apse
contained a colossal statue of Constantine. It
stood until largely destroyed by an earthquake in
the 17th century.
Two views showing how the Basilica of Maxentius
and Constantine would have appeared originally
Christian Basilica (Constantines Basilica at
Basilica as Church Building
  • A basilica was a Roman town hall derived from a
    Greek word which means belonging to the king.
  • The apse was the authority seat in the hall where
    the council or chairperson would sit.
  • The bishops chair was called a throne (cathedra)
    because the Greek word also referred to a
    teachers seat and not only to royalty.

Drawing of St. Peters Basilica
Interior of St. Peters Basilica
St. John Lateran
Built originally as the Church of the Redeemer,
it is the first of Constantines four basilica
churches, and was the main church for Rome until
the 16th century when replaced by the new St.
Peters at the Vatican.
Santa Maria Maggiore
Great basilica church of the fifth century
Interior of Santa Maria Maggiore
Altar of SM Maggiore. Some of the original 5th
century mosaics are visible above the arch behind
the altar
Buildings and the Arts
  • Just as Roman public buildings were decorated
    with art, so church buildings were decorated with
    frescos and mosaics.
  • The earliest known Christian mosaic was found
    beneath St. Peters Basilica in the 1940sJesus
    is pictured in a gold mosaic as the sun-god,
  • Frescos were more common as mosaics were
    expensive. Most of these are lost to us due to
    the Germanic settling of the West but frescos
    were revived in the Renaissance period.

Earliest Christian Mosaic, ca. 300
  • Earliest known Christian mosaic was found beneath
    St. Peters Basilica in the 1940sJesus is
    pictured in a gold mosaic as the sun-god, Helios.

Building Churches
  • Europe saw a church building craze in the High
    Medieval Period.
  • In 1050-1350 France alone, 80 cathedrals, 500
    large churches and 10,000 parish churches were
  • As Germanic Europe became Christian Europe, the
    church building was a cultural as well as a
    religious symbol. Churches functioned as civic
    centers in the cities and thus were also a
    source of civic pride.

Ralph Glaber, monk, ca. 1050
  • Shortly after the year 1000, all Christian
    peoples were seized with a great desire to outdo
    one another in magnificence. It was as if the
    very world had shaken itself, and, casting off
    her old garments, was clothing herself everywhere
    in a white robe of churches.

Romanesque Style
  • Where Western Europe
  • When 1000-1200
  • Major Building Form Churches, Castles

Romanesque Style
  • Plan cruciform (Latin Cross), compartmentalized
    on a basilica plan
  • Support sturdy piers, thick walls with small
  • Hallmark rounded arches, barrel vault
  • Décor stone sculpture

Romanesque Additions
  • The pier (an upright support generally square, or
    rectangular in plan) is a better solution for
    masonry walls, than the column. Columns are
    subsequently replaced by piers, or transformed to
    better support the masonry arches.
  • The portal as a church entrance was introduced
    with the Romanesque style.

Piers at Saint-SaturninAuvergne,France
Church of St. Trophime, Arles, France (12th
Romanesque Style
  • Effect Massive, segmented
  • Interior dimly lit by small windows and
    candles/lamps around the altar.
  • Inspiration Roman construction (basilica plan,
    rounded arches, vaulted ceilings, columns)
  • Goal To accommodate pilgrims to express awe as
    eyes are drawn to the space above the ambulatory
    with small windows of light illuminating the

Floor plan of Romanesque Church
Romanesque Church
St. Andrews Church, Krakow (1079)
St. Pantaleon, Cologne, Germany (1100)
Duomo and Bell Tower, Pisa, Italy
The Pisa Cathedral (1063-1350) with Bell Tower
(1174-1271) and Baptistry (1153-1265).
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