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Title: Mobile%20Learning,%20Social%20Learning


1
Mobile Learning, Social Learning
  • Joanne Jacobs
  • Australasian Cooperative Research Centrefor
    Interaction Design (ACID)

2
Agenda
  • 9.15am Key principles and precepts of
    Interaction Design, illustrated through examples
    from ACID projects (Scoot, Indigenous community
    learning projects re. cultural heritage, and
    public issues education, i.e. drawing on the
    studies below to highlight how interaction design
    works in a learning context
  • (1) Mobile learning for traditional educative
    purposes SCOOT
  • (2) Geographically Dispersed Learning
    Australian Indigenous Community learning projects
    which aim to protect the cultural heritage of
    various communities in Australia.
  • (3) Public issues education examples of Joanne's
    work with the Queensland Water Commission
    (educating the community about the issues
    associated with adopting recycled water),
    Daylight Saving in South East Queensland to
    show how a well-designed electronic resource can
    be used as a context for social learning and
    mobilising the community on public interest
    issues Lifelong learning through public interest
    campaigns.
  • 10.45 - Break
  • 11.00 - Presentation on the potential application
    of Web 2.0 oriented technologies to engage in
    learning (within our organisations, spaces,
    places and between each other) - this would be a
    general introduction to how these technologies
    and software can be used and what it all means.
  • 12.00 General discussion on interaction design
    principles, Web 2.0 technologies and adaptation
    of these to the Scottish context
  • 12.30 Lunch

3
Scope of the Seminar
  • ACID and Interaction Design Principles
  • Definitions and Trends
  • Learning Case Studies
  • Mobile Learning with SCOOT
  • Geographically dispersed learning with Indigenous
    Communities
  • Public issues education with Recycled Water,
    Daylight Savings and Industry successes
  • BREAK
  • Potential of Web 2.0 in industrial contexts
  • Adaptation and deployment in Scottish contexts

4
ACID
  • ACID is a Commonwealth funded coalition of
    Universities and companies interested in
    conducting applied research for the purpose of
    developing prototype methodologies and
    technologies for commercialisation
  • So far, major successes have included development
    of an award-winning Diversionary Therapy device
    for children undergoing treatment for burns, as
    well as mobile phone applications for Nokia and
    archives of Australian Indigenous Heritage.

5
ACIDs Interaction Design Principles
  • Strong focus on Human Design Matrix (HDM)
  • a combination of user-centred design principles
    as well as understanding contexts for deployment
    of technology-mediated experiences
  • Growing advocacy in ACID for Experience Design
  • derived in part from the open source community,
    where collective production and publishing is
    generating more positive outcomes for participants

6
Experience Design
  • Representation and simulation(of learning
    content)
  • Communication enablers(for the reception of
    content)
  • Logic design(support for content)
  • Feedback qualities(Interaction with content)
  • Identity and relationships(representations of
    the user/s)

7
ACID HDM Matrix
Relationships Dimensions Questions
Social Context and participants Who are the participants? What cultures, practices and dispositions do they share? What relationships develop with static and itinerant representatives of a physical site? How do these relationships develop?
Spatial Site How do they currently relate to a site as a physical social and cultural space?
Technical Technologies accessed and accessible What relationships do they currently and potentially have to the technology and the interaction it can provide?
Temporal Mobility, Duration, Rhythm of participation How to physical spaces fit in the context of the journey? How long do participants remain in a geographical space and how long do they engage in a technology-mediated activity and why? How do they spend their days (a day in the life)?
8
Designing for learning
  • History of interaction and education design
  • KLA oriented
  • User-centred (but still top-down approach)
  • Natural born cyborgs (Clarke 2003)
  • Experience oriented, user-led design (evolving)
  • Facilitating access and conversations with
    alternative sources is now key
  • Learning on the move needs to consider the
    natural use of mobile and social technologies

9
Definitions and trends
  • just to ensure were all on the same page here

10
Definitions 1 Web 2.0
  • Web 2.0
  • Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all
    connected devices Web 2.0 applications are those
    that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of
    that platform delivering software as a
    continually-updated service that gets better the
    more people use it, consuming and remixing data
    from multiple sources, including individual
    users, while providing their own data and
    services in a form that allows remixing by
    others, creating network effects through an
    architecture of participation, and going beyond
    the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user
    experiences.
  • SOURCE OReilly Radar, http//radar.oreilly.com/a
    rchives/2005/10/web_20_compact_definition.html
    For further details, see http//www.oreillynet.c
    om/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-2
    0.html

11
Definitions 2 Perpetual Beta
  • Beta, beta release, perpetual beta
  • A concept drawn from programming, where an
    application or content document is in an
    unfinished state. In the case of an
    application, it usually represents the first
    version with all features functional, but
    possibly in an unstable or evolving state. An
    entity is said to be in a state of perpetual beta
    when a document or service is constantly evolving
    as a result of user engagement.

12
Trends
  • Growth in use of mobile devices
  • Growth in number of blogs tracked
  • Growth in peer oriented sources in educational
    research and activity

13
Growth of portable mobile devices
Estimated growth of portable media devices,
Source Parks Associates 2005,
http//www.clickz.com/stats/sectors/entertainment/
article.php/3516986
14
Growth of blogs tracked
Source Technorati State of the Blogosphere,
October 2006http//www.sifry.com/alerts/archives/
000443.html
15
Growth of peer-oriented sources in educational
research
Source Alexa Wikipedia traffic
ranking http//alexa.com/data/details/traffic_deta
ils?urlwikipedia.org
16
Wikipedia often the only research source cited
  • Susan Nash, Why Not Wikipedia? http//community.el
    earners.com/blogs/inside_elearning/archive/2006/09
    /18/Why-Not-Wikipedia_3F00_.aspx

17
Case Studies in Learning
18
Case Study 1 Mobile Learning
  • Learning is active
  • Learning is in context
  • Learning is embedded in the everyday experience
    with the everyday tools.
  • Learning content is dynamically received, created
    and shared.
  • Eliminates the gap that currently separates the
    technologies of instruction and entertainment.
  • Mobile learning connects people, places and
    things

19
A family recently participating in the SCOOT
mobile treasure hunt. This event held in
September 2006 took family groups on a discovery
of facts and fictions through the Melbourne
Museum, The State Library of Victoria and
Federation Square
20
Mother and Daughter participating in SCOOT 2006
at the State Library of Victoria.
21
QUT Communication Design Students working on
SCOOT while waiting at the airport.http//www.f
lickr.com/photos/scootgame
22
Mobile learning
Relationships Dimensions Questions
Social student/student student/faculty student/lecturer student/tutors Who are the students of the sites? What cultures, practices and dispositions do they share? What relationships develop with each other and the supporting faculty? How do these relationships develop?
Pedagogical Students/learning materials Students/learning activities How do students interface with learning materials?
Cultural Student/student Students/student work Student/visiting artists work What kinds of expectations do the students have relating to the cultural artefacts in the site (access, understanding, interaction)? How might they want to contribute culturally?
Spatial student/site How do they currently relate to the site (Creative Industries Precinct)?
Technical student/ICT What relationships do they currently and potentially have to the technology and the interaction it can provide?
Temporal Mobility, Duration, Rhythm of Stay How long do students stay and why? Do they return and why? How do they fit the various locations into their daily lives?
23
Case Study 2 Heritage Learning
  • Strong need to capture stories and history of
    Indigenous Communities in Australia
  • Entire languages and dialects dying out
  • Culturally sensitive process some Indigenous
    communities regard various forms of capture as
    stealing the soul
  • Verbal or written histories not sufficient to
    articulate the process of experiencing the land
    (hence, experience design).

24
Demonstration Songlines
  • Digital Songlines is a living archive of
    indigenous communities in Australia, built on a
    gaming engine and recording details of
    communities
  • As Songlines is being developed, several products
    are emerging as collections from the work
  • DEMO Vincents World, Irenes World

25
Heritage Learning
Relationships Dimensions Questions
Social participants / participants participants / facilitators participants / independent readers Who are the participants of the sites? What cultures, practices and ideas do they share? What relationships develop with each other and the supporting faculty? How do these relationships develop?
Pedagogical participants / ideas participants / activities How do participants interact with content and ideas from their own experiences of indigenous communities?
Cultural participants / participants participants / facilitators What kinds of expectations do the participants have relating to the engagements with Songlines? How might they want to use Songlines as a means of supporting an ideas-oriented cultural cohort?
Spatial participants /virtual site participants /actual site How do they currently relate to the virtual space as a separated space from their understanding of physical spaces?
Technical participants /ICT What relationships do they currently and potentially have to the technology and the interaction it can provide?
Temporal Mobility, Duration, Rhythm of Stay How much time do participants spend with the interactive space and why? Do they return and why? How do they allocate sufficient time to accommodate participants into their daily lives?
26
Songlines in Commercial Context
  • Whilst the Songlines project is a Cultural Ark
    for indigenous heritage there ARE commercial
    opportunities
  • Mining, infrastructure development and property
    development require cultural heritage research
    (commercial research)
  • Reconciliation between culturally diverse
    communities requires mediation in a shared
    protocol (legal mediation and dispute resolution)
  • Marketing of Australia for tourism purposes (more
    visitors want an indigenous experience of
    Australia than is achieved)

27
Case Study 2 Public Issues Learning
  • Public education long been regarded as within the
    purview of government and non-profit marketers
  • These bodies aware that users increasingly seek
    answers online or wish to learn at their own pace
  • Public expectation of RAPID response to issues
  • Public expectation of engagement and consultation
    on issues
  • Three examples considered
  • Queensland Water Commission
  • Daylight Saving in South Eastern Queensland
  • Addressing morale problems in a public hospital
    in Brisbane

28
Queensland Water Commission
  • Water facts
  • All water is freshly sourced in Queensland, from
    catchment dams
  • Current water storage in South East Queensland is
    at 22.9
  • In December 2008 Queensland will run out of water
  • Referendum on recycled water in regional area,
    Toowoomba, was rejected
  • QWC set up to investigate ways to save water,
    educate community and consult with community on
    recycled water options

29
QWC Strategy
  • Introduce a blog with Pro-blogger and
    Anti-blogger stances on recycled water, plus
    QWC-blogger (aka fence sitter)
  • Write stories for press, develop podcasts and
    v-casts for raising profile
  • Encourage network stars to be participants in
    blog
  • Enforce minimum number of posts per day for
    bloggers (workflow management)
  • Engage full-time moderator for governance

30
Daylight Savings in SEQ
  • DLS facts
  • Queensland only state in Australia without DLS
  • State is vast, with more than an hours
    difference in light movements across the state
  • History of resistance to DLS due to heat issues
    and absurd suggestions from former Premier
  • Current Premier said to be considering
    splitting the state in to two time zones
  • Several online campaigns for state-wide adoption
    ignored or failed. SEQ DLS campaign begun to
    address concerns of all interested parties

31
SEQ DLS Experience
  • Introduced an online petition, supported by
    existing local government Councillor.
  • Emailed petition to friends network. This
    generated a viral marketing campaign.
  • When southern states adopted DLS and problems
    arise with differing time zones, media pick up
    the campaign.
  • After media blitz, signatures rise from a few
    hundred to over 10,000 in the space of 3 weeks.
  • Now, voluntary force on DLS established.
    Referendum (or plebiscite) on political agenda
    for 2007.

32
Mater Hospital Blog
  • Hospital facts
  • Divisions spread geographically over a number of
    physical sites
  • Departments often devoting resources to solving
    the same problem quite independently
  • Low morale due to success stories not being
    communicated throughout the workforce
  • Poor communications across specialist areas
  • Mater Hospital blog and public displays set up to
    address communications problems

33
Mater Blog Strategy
  • Introduce a blog with representatives from
    various divisions (doctors, nurses, maintenance
    staff, marketing, research and patients
    advocacy).
  • Install large screen public displays in staff
    recreation areas to display blog posts on
    morphing cycle.
  • Encourage hospital workers from all divisions to
    participate in blog comments through poster
    education campaign sited near public displays.
  • Enforce minimum number of posts per week for
    bloggers, but maximum 100 words per post for fast
    communication.

34
Public Issues Learning
Relationships Dimensions Questions
Social participants / participants participants / facilitators participants / independent readers Who are the participants of the sites? What cultures, practices and ideas do they share? What relationships develop with each other and the supporting representatives? How do these relationships develop?
Pedagogical participants / ideas participants / activities How do participants interact with content and ideas from their own experiences of contexts?
Cultural participants / participants participants / facilitators What kinds of expectations do the participants have relating to the engagements with ideas? How might they want to use technologies as a means of supporting an ideas-oriented cultural cohort?
Spatial participants /virtual site participants /actual site How do they currently relate to the virtual space as a means of changing behaviours in their physical spaces?
Technical participants /ICT What relationships do they currently and potentially have to the technology and the interaction it can provide?
Temporal Mobility, Duration, Rhythm of Participation How much time do participants spend with the interactive space and why? Do they return and why? How do they allocate sufficient time to accommodate participants into their daily lives?
35
Case Study Implications
  • Mobile and social software widely identified as
    desirable media for facilitation of learning, but
    limited success in deployment so far.
  • Case studies in learning indicating experience
    design is preferable to traditional education and
    interaction design methods.
  • Design of learning needs to acknowledge existing
    uses of emerging technologies, and permit user
    agency over experiences in order to reflect
    meaningfully on learning.

Temporal costs affect acceptance, but perceived
value of ongoing social engagement is sustained
across case studies.
36
BREAK
  • Morning Tea
  • (No Vegemite, I promise)

37
Web 2.0 Deployment in commercial contexts
  • Or, how to use social software to manage
    organisational knowledge and promote learning

38
Items to be addressed
  • Why consider adding Web 2.0 functionality to
    company offerings?
  • What are the applications of Web 2.0?
  • Possible applications of Web 2.0 in example
    business areas.

39
Rise of Web 2.0
  • Web 2.0 software and technologies arose as a
    means of solving a publishing and accessibility
    problem, whilst accommodating social
    communications
  • Web 2.0 not technically different from Web 1.0,
    just delivering on the promise of the markets
    are conversations ideals of technology advocates
    (see The Cluetrain Manifesto)

40
Whats new about Web 2.0?
  • Engaging stakeholders in decision making
  • Allocating tasks based on skill sets and
    expertise rather than as a role in an employment
    environment
  • Generative tools to denote hot topics
  • A culture of critical debate and engagement
  • Produces a sense of trust in the publisher
  • Evolving correctness of data

41
Why Web 2.0 at Your Company?
  • Growing expectations among consumers for value
    additions to standard content channels
  • More audiences trusting user-generated content
    and regard this as evaluative of professionally
    produced content
  • There is a need to ensure companies have a
    document trail of all communications for
    corporate reporting

42
Web 2.0 Applications
  • Blogs, wiki and other personally developed
    content, delivered as web content and through RSS
  • Content aggregators based on user-generated
    content and social linkages (eg social
    bookmarking, flickr, YouTube, MySpace)
  • Mashups of multiple existing applications,
    providing new meaning for consumers

43
User generated content
  • Value reduces cost of production of knowledge
    for specific groups
  • Value cross-linking of expertise based on
    context provides an opportunity to grow links
    between users from different disciplines
  • Value problem solving occurs through the wisdom
    of crowds concept of engaging stakeholders more
    effectively

44
Example MySpace
  • Business Entrepreneurs forum for sharing
    documentation and discussion on running new
    businesses with innovative solutions

45
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46
Industrial adoption
  • Training programs in communication and news
    reporting on new strategies
  • Possible company network of cooperative firms
  • Business continuity forum on solutions for
    various problems
  • Development of advocacy network

47
MySpace versus Google (Visits)
Source Hitwise, MySpace Moves Into 1 Position
for all Internet Sites
48
YouTube, Flickr Reach
Source Alexa, cited in Google, You Tube Dark
Side Of Online Video, Om Malik
49
Why so successful?
  • Users want a context to exhibit
  • Users wish to have their evaluations heard
  • Users wish to feel part of elite, and
    technologically adept networks

50
Can your company adopt?
  • MySpace drives traffic through WOM marketing and
    through social linkages between participants
  • Process involves providing users with a simple
    interface for adding content and allowing them to
    have control over content immediacy is crucial
  • Few technological skills required to adopt need
    a decision on governance.

51
Example Blogs and wiki
  • Opinion leaders in the blogosphere and knowledge
    base entry creation

52
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53
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54
Technorati Blog Growth
Source Technorati, State of the Blogosphere.
55
Why so successful?
  • Same as for MySpace users still want a context
    to exhibit and negotiate content
  • Ownership of content given freely, but
    recognition of authorship is often sufficient as
    compensation (Creative Commons licensing)

56
Can your company adopt?
  • Blogs can be used as a form of PR, and encourages
    more realistic feedback than standard evaluative
    techniques.
  • Blogs based on open source technology can be
    implemented at very low cost
  • Wiki can be useful interface to standard
    knowledge management utilities and resources.

57
Example podcasts and v-casts
  • ABC Podcasts and TelecomTV Video Podcasts
    (v-casts)

58
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59
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60
Why so successful?
  • Podcasting is successful as a radio-killer
    application, particularly for information radio
    and interviews
  • Video podcasts are successful through YouTube and
    as independent entities as video on demand, and
    is more accessible than lengthy reports and
    documentation to explain complex ideas and
    processes.

61
Can your company adopt?
  • Podcasts (video or audio) can be used as PR
  • Like blogs, podcasts can be implemented at very
    low cost in terms of delivery. Hosting costs may
    be affected by traffic and storage increases as a
    result of this practice
  • Podcasts must be released regularly to attract a
    regular audience.

62
Improving communication
  • Blogs, podcasts and other Web 2.0 technologies
    can permit conversations to evolve between an
    organisation and its stakeholders
  • Conversations are more effective facilitators of
    business than common information overload
    strategies
  • Communication is not broadcasting its not
    enough to get the message out. You have to be
    open to responses

63
Web 2.0ism by business area
  • Business continuity and disaster recovery
  • Corporate and organisational communications
  • Creative (in-house) development
  • Professional development and training in the
    workplace
  • Educational resource augmentation in traditional
    learning environments
  • Corporate governance and knowledge management

64
Business continuity (1)
  • Disaster recovery and business continuity is
    dependent on
  • fast responses to interruptions to operational
    processes
  • clear and regular publishing of the status of the
    recovery process
  • alternative communication channels during the
    recovery process
  • Wiki represent a useful way of keeping the staff
    informed of the situation at hand and storing
    information gathered during an interrupted process

65
Business continuity (2)
  • Stakeholder engagement in scenario mapping for
    file and processes losses is important to ensure
    all information centres are covered in continuity
    planning
  • RSS feeds for blogs, wiki or other content
    systems recording notices, instructions and
    requirements for a scenario mapping exercise can
    be a useful means of automating contact with
    staff without having to have access to mailing
    lists.

66
Corporate Org Communications
  • To raise awareness and trust in an organisation,
    it is necessary to keep up a regular dialogue
    with your workers/customers
  • Blogs represent a fabulous means of releasing
    information quickly and efficiently, and allowing
    workers/customers to provide feedback on
    information supplied in blog posts
  • Surveys and categorisation of participants is
    possible through blogs.

67
Creative development
  • Increasingly, there are a range of skill sets
    required for creative developers to
    collaboratively develop campaigns across a range
    of delivery platforms.
  • Stakeholder engagement in the production process
    for campaigns is a cost reduction mechanism.
  • Using wiki and file management galleries to share
    information, edit content and annotate rich media
    is a truly interactive process for creative
    content production.

68
Professional development
  • In training programs, keeping a sense of cohesion
    among participants and reselling new training
    programs is paramount for Rowland
  • The use of social software tools as a means of
    engaging participants in training programs and
    sustaining an alumnus after the event is a
    logical means of value adding existing programs
    and ensuring that you do not lose touch with the
    participants
  • Participants actually begin to contribute content
    and maximise their overall learning experience.

69
Limitations of current deployment
  • Many organisations are seeking to deploy Web 2.0
    facilities, but are having bad experiences or
    limited success with the technologies
  • This is primarily due to limitations in design of
    deployment
  • Often deployed as ONE WAY COMMUNICATION
  • Dominantly still driven by the business no
    public advocacy being promoted (thus reducing
    trust in the firm)
  • Delayed feedback systems discourage
    participation. No registration processes for
    instant authorship evident (thus reducing
    stickyness)

70
Next steps
  • Need to consider workshopping the implementation
    of Web 2.0 software and processes for business
    areas. This involves evaluating
  • Value to be generated from user-generated content
  • Integration with existing knowledge management
    architecture and processes
  • Governance considerations

71
Costs
  • Planning costs (time for staff and facilitators)
  • Software costs
  • Maintenance costs
  • Mining costs (data management)

72
Planning costs
  • What Web 2.0 applications would be useful?
  • What management processes will need to be applied
    to these applications?
  • What capacity do we have to manage?
  • What performance metrics will apply to these
    applications? (Including satisfaction with the
    scope and functionality of tools among clients)

73
Software costs (1)
  • Blogging/wiki software
  • WordPress, MediaWiki and several other software
    solutions are free, open source technologies.
  • Cost for implementation 1 day per software
    package to install and integration with
    organisational web servers 1-2 days training in
    use ongoing staff cost of governance and
    moderation ( time based on traffic and
    complexity of installation)

74
Software costs (2)
  • Rich media production (podcasts and v-casts)
    involve cost of hardware for recording and media
    editing software
  • Near broadcast quality audio production studio
    for under 1000 (editing software such as
    Audacity is free)
  • Flash video production involves digital video
    hardware, staff with skills in video production
    and software for editing or outsourced production

75
Maintenance and Mining
  • These are dependent on the governance regime
    agreed in the implementation phase of the
    applications, and the costs of integrating with
    existing knowledge management architecture and
    processes
  • Regular updates to software and processes will be
    necessary for these technologies due to the speed
    of change in the field.

76
Web 2.0 Implications
  • Revolution in production based on user-led
    approach, differing from user-centred design
    (Experience Design)
  • Most of the value to be derived from Web 2.0 can
    be adapted for a series of contexts, commercial
    and non-commercial
  • Scotland well-placed to take advantage of
    research and production at the Glasgow School of
    Art Digital Design Studio to create world-leading
    products and services that combine interactivity
    with life-long learning and active citizenship.

77
Solving the problems together
  • Break into groups with reps across areas of
    expertise
  • Come up with one innovation in either of
  • Traditional education
  • Public issues education
  • Heritage education
  • Consider what issues may arise, and devise a
    solution

78
Any questions?
  • Joanne Jacobs
  • Project Manager, ACID
  • Private Consultant, UserLed.com
  • Ph 61 7 3868 3134
  • Mob 61 419 131 077
  • Email joanne_at_joannejacobs.net
  • Blog http//joannejacobs.net
  • Book Uses of Blogs, Available for order from
    Amazon
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