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The Path of Empire 18901899

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Problems of labor/agrarian unrest could be eased ... inspired by Strong's Our Country... encouraged export of American religion ... Curtains for Spain (2) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Path of Empire 18901899


1
The Path of Empire 1890-1899
  • The American Pageant
  • Chapter 29

2
Imperialist Stirrings
  • Large product/food exports forced isolationist
    U.S. to develop outward focus.
  • Problems of labor/agrarian unrest could be eased
    through access to foreign markets.
  • Pulitzer/Hearst papers wrote of excitement abroad.

3
Imperialist Stirrings (2)
  • Missionaries inspired by Strongs Our Country…
    encouraged export of American religion/values to
    backward peoples.
  • T. Roosevelt Lodge believed in geopolitical
    Darwinism world goes to strong fit.

4
Imperialist Stirrings (3)
  • Sense of urgency other nations grabbing
    territories in Africa, gaining concessions from
    China.
  • Mahans The Influence of Sea Power (1890)
    stimulated steel naval race, renewed calls for
    U.S.-built isthmian canal.

5
Imperialist Stirrings (4)
  • New outward focus shown in Blaines Big Sister
    policy to open Latin American markets.
  • Led to 1st Pan-American Conference (1889).
  • With outward focus came diplomatic crises

6
Imperialist Stirrings (5)
  • 1889 Dispute w/ Germany over Samoan Islands.
  • 1891 Lynching of 11 Italians in LA almost
    brought war.
  • Chile/US barely avoided war over deaths of 2 U.S.
    sailors.
  • Disputes showed aggressive new national mood.

7
Venezuelan Squall
  • 1895-96 50-year dispute over Venezuela/British
    Guiana boundary intensified w/ gold discovery in
    disputed area.
  • Anti-British sentiment in U.S. led Cleveland
    Sec. of State Olney to accuse Britain of flouting
    Monroe Doctrine.

8
Venezuelan Squall (2)
  • Olney Britain must submit to arbitration, U.S.
    was now cal-ling shots in W. Hemisphere.
  • Brits dispute is not U.S. busi-ness, Monroe D.
    irrelevant.
  • Cleveland call for commission of experts as
    prelude to war.

9
Venezuelan Squall (3)
  • Britain, through more power-ful, did not want war
    had own problems with Germany.
  • Britain consented to arbitra-tion were awarded
    most of disputed area anyway.
  • Cleveland made Monroe Doct. claim stick, Europe
    upset.

10
Venezuelan Squall (4)
  • Latin American republics pleased with
    U.S./Clevelands protection of them.
  • Britain determined to pursue friendship with U.S.
    as balance against Europeans (Great
    Rapprochement).

11
Spurning Hawaiian Pear
  • Missionaries (1st in 1820) their children
    brought Amer-ican influence to Hawaii.
  • 1840s State Dept. warned nations to leave HI
    alone.
  • 1875 Trade agreement.
  • 1887 Agreement to give U.S. use of Pearl Harbor.

12
Spurning Hawaiian Pear (2)
  • 1890 McKinley Tariff hurt HI sugar exports, so
    American planters in HI wanted annex-ation by
    U.S. to avoid tariffs.
  • 1893 Minority whites success-fully revolted
    against Queen Liliuokalani, U.S. minister urged
    annexation.

13
Spurning Hawaiian Pear (3)
  • New pres. Cleveland suspected wrongdoing
    withdrew treaty, sent investigator to HI.
  • Probe majority in HI opposed to annexation,
    effort halted.
  • Events instigated expansionist debate Cleveland
    criticized for opposing Manifest Destiny.

14
Cubans Rise in Revolt
  • Cubans dissatisfaction with Spanish rule stoked
    in 1894 U.S. sugar tariff crippled Cuban sugar
    industry.
  • Cuban rebels burned cane fields, sugar mills,
    trains in hopes of driving Spanish out or
    inviting U.S. intervention.

15
Cubans Rise in Revolt (2)
  • U.S. favored rebels due to (1) desire for
    freedom (2) invest-ment/trade and (3) Spanish
    were threat to shipping.
  • Concentration camps further increased U.S.
    sympathies.
  • Cleveland rebuffed efforts to recognize revolt or
    start war.

16
Mystery of the Maine
  • Yellow journalists Hearst/ Pulitzer competed to
    scoop each other in Cuba, increased U.S.
    agitation for war.
  • Cuban conditions worsen Cuban Spaniards riot
    against proposed Cuban self-rule (1897).

17
Mystery of the Maine (2)
  • Battleship Maine dispatched to Cuba to
    protect/evacuate Americans if necessary.
  • 2/9/1898 Hearst published Dupuy de Lôme letter
    impugn-ing McKinley tensions high.
  • 2/15/98 Maine exploded in Havana harbor, 260
    killed.

18
Mystery of the Maine (3)
  • Cause?
  • U.S. explosive submarine mine.
  • Spain internal accidental.
  • Modern investigation Spanish were correct
    (1976).
  • But U.S. believed in Spanish treachery, war now
    inevitable.

19
McKinley-Dogs of War
  • McKinley attempted to avoid war, especially after
    Spain agreed to U.S. demands of armistice, no
    conc. camps.
  • Hanna, Wall St. did not want war, but public
    demanded it.
  • McKinley feared that Dems would win in 1900 if no
    war.

20
McKinley-Dogs of War (2)
  • 4/11/1898 McKinley, believing the people should
    rule, sent war message to Congress.
  • Congress declared war, but with Teller Amendment
    once Spain ousted, U.S. promised freedom to
    Cubans.

21
Deweys Victory
  • Americans excited about war, but observers
    thought U.S. unprepared.
  • Army only 2,100 officers 28,000 men, compared
    with 200,000 Spanish in Cuba.
  • Navy Spanish appeared more powerful on paper.

22
Deweys Victory (2)
  • However, the Spanish navy was dilapidated
    compared to new U.S. steel navy.
  • So ordered by asst. sec. of navy T. Roosevelt,
    Commodore Dewey attacked easily defeated
    Spanish in Manila harbor (5/1/98).

23
Imperialistic Plums
  • Dewey, national hero, did not have army to
    capture forts waited for reinforcements.
  • Meanwhile foreign warship came to protect their
    nationals Dewey nearly clashed with more
    powerful German fleet, British were friendly.

24
Imperialistic Plums (2)
  • 8/13/98 American troops captured Manila,
    collaborated with rebel leader Aguinaldo.
  • 7/7/98 U.S. annexed HI as a necessary way
    station to supply/reinforce Dewey.
  • HI residents given U.S. citizen-ship, made a
    territory in 1900.

25
Confused Invasion
  • Spanish sent Adm. Cervera to Cuba with run-down
    ships.
  • U.S. east coast panicked.
  • Cervera blockaded by U.S. navy at Santiago
    harbor.
  • Strategy have army come up behind Cervera.

26
Confused Invasion (2)
  • Woolen-uniformed U.S. army led to Cuba by Gen.
    Shafter.
  • Force included Rough Riders undisciplined but
    fearless cowboys.
  • Riders commanded by Wood Roosevelt quit navy to
    be offi-cer, though no military exp.

27
Confused Invasion (3)
  • June, 98 17,000 leave for Cuba, Riders had to
    rush transport, arrived w/o horses.
  • Disorganized Spanish offered little resistance,
    but did inflict heavy casualties on Rough Riders
    at San Juan Hill.

28
Curtains for Spain
  • Cervera knew he was doomed, but ordered by Spain
    to fight for honor entire fleet destroy-ed on
    July 3, only 1 U.S. death.
  • Gen. Miles quickly liberated Puerto Rico from
    Spanish.
  • 8/12/98 Spain signed armistice, war ended.

29
Curtains for Spain (2)
  • Malaria, typhoid, dysentery yellow fever had
    devastated U.S. troops in Cuba Roosevelt
    demanded army be moved.
  • Only 400 killed in battle, over 5,000 killed from
    disease (esp. typhoid fever).

30
McKinley Heeds Duty
  • Late 1898 In negotiations with Spanish, U.S.
    secured Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico.
  • But what to do with large, populated Philippines?
  • McKinley felt honor would not allow a return to
    Spanish rule or simple abandonment.

31
McKinley Heeds Duty (2)
  • Leave alone to anarchy or rule by aggressive
    Germans?
  • Acquire Philippines and maybe give freedom later?
  • Protestant missionaries wanted to acquire
    Philippines to convert from Catholicism.
  • Wall St. wanted profits there.

32
McKinley Heeds Duty (3)
  • McKinley sought divine guid-ance felt led to
    take Philip-pines to Christianize, civilize.
  • Satisfied people, business.
  • Problem Manila fell day after armistice, not
    spoils of war
  • Resolution U.S. agreed to pay 20M for
    Philippines.

33
Course (Curse?) of Empire
  • Philippines inhabited by alien race, culture not
    a typical candidate for statehood.
  • Prominent Americans (Twain, Gompers, Carnegie,
    James) form Anti-Imperialist League to protest
    expansion.

34
Course (Curse?) of Empire (2)
  • Anti-imperialist arguments (1) Doesnt
    annexation violate consent of the governed
    principle? (2) U.S. must avoid entanglement in
    Far East.
  • Expansionists arguments patriotism, glory,
    natural resources, profits.

35
Course (Curse?) of Empire (3)
  • Reps. had trouble getting Spanish treaty through
    Senate.
  • Dem. Bryan unexpectedly rose to its support
    argued that we already had islands, lets accept
    treaty so we can give Filipinos independence
    sooner.
  • 2/6/99 Passed by 1 vote.

36
Perplexities in PR/Cuba
  • What to do with 1 million poor Puerto Ricans?
  • 1900 Foraker Act gave PR some popular govt.
  • 1917 Given U.S. citizenship.
  • U.S. helped improve educa-tion, sanitation,
    transporta-tion, but many left for NYC.

37
Perplexities in PR/Cuba (2)
  • Question did U.S. Constitu-tion laws follow
    flag?
  • Insular Cases (1901) divided Sup. Ct. said
    Congress could decide what rights/laws to extend
    to acquired territories.
  • Rough Rider Gen. Wood led military govt in Cuba.

38
Perplexities in PR/Cuba (3)
  • Wood greatly improved govt, finance, education,
    agriculture public health.
  • Dr. Reed found yellow fever spread by mosquitoes
    wiped out yellow fever in Havana.
  • Per Teller Amendment, U.S. left Cuba in 1902.

39
Perplexities in PR/Cuba (4)
  • But Cuba vulnerable to others.
  • Cubans forced to into Platt Amendment could not
    impair independence by treaty or debt, U.S. could
    intervene to restore order, Cuba agreed to
    sell/lease coaling/naval stations, e.g.
    Guantanamo.

40
New Horizons
  • War showed U.S. was world power, gained intl
    respect.
  • But success led to indifference to military
    preparedness.
  • New imperialist spirit territorial gains
    worried Latin America, pleased British, made
    Germany envious.

41
New Horizons (2)
  • W/ Philippines, U.S. became Far Eastern power,
    but Phil. proved to be Achilles heel.
  • War did result in support for bigger navy, War
    College.
  • War patriotism helped heal North/South division.

42
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