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Six Sigma vs. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)

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A study asking Managers from 86 firms in the U.S. to define quality produced ... Quality is many things to many people in many parts of the organization ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Six Sigma vs. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)


1
Six Sigma vs. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)
  • Dr. Suresh C. Rama
  • Senior Manager, Quality Systems
  • Global Engine Manufacturing Alliance (GEMA)
  • Dundee, MI

2
Presentation Overview
  • Introduction to Quality
  • Defining Quality
  • Measuring Quality
  • Six Sigma
  • Method
  • Tools
  • Design for Six Sigma
  • Method
  • Tools
  • Implementation Enablers
  • Challenges

3
What are these companies have in common?
CUSTOMER LOYALTY
PROFITABILITY
INNOVATION
QUALITY
4
Defining Quality
  • A study asking Managers from 86 firms in the U.S.
    to define quality produced several responses
    including
  • Perfection
  • Consistency
  • Eliminating Waste
  • Speed of Delivery
  • Compliance to procedures, specifications, etc.
  • Providing good and usable product
  • Doing it right the first time
  • Delighting or pleasing customers
  • Total customer service and satisfaction

Extracted from The Management and Control of
Quality, by Evans and Lindsay
5
Defining Quality
  • Quality is many things to many people in many
    parts of the organization
  • Quality can be defined based following criteria
  • Judgmental Criteria
  • Goodness/Excellence of a Product/Image
  • Product-Based Criteria
  • The More the Better
  • User-Based Criteria
  • Fitness for intended use
  • Value-Based Criteria
  • Relationship to usefulness/satisfaction to price
  • Manufacturing-Based Criteria
  • Conformance to specifications

Extracted from The Management and Control of
Quality, by Evans and Lindsay
6
Integrating Perspectives on Quality
  • David Garvins 8 principle quality dimensions
  • Performance
  • Features
  • Reliability
  • Conformance
  • Durability
  • Serviceability
  • Aesthetics
  • Perceived Quality

Extracted from The Management and Control of
Quality, by Evans and Lindsay
7
Quality as a Strategy
  • Competitive Advantage Firms ability to achieve
    market superiority.
  • Wheelwrights 6 characteristics for sustained
    competitive advantage
  • Driven by Voice of the Customer
  • Contributes to successful business
  • Uses resources effectively
  • Difficult for competitors to copy
  • Basis for continuous improvement
  • Motivates the entire organization
  • Does Quality play a role in any of these
    characteristics?

Extracted from The Management and Control of
Quality, by Evans and Lindsay
8
Quality as a Strategy
9
Measuring Quality - Quality and Sigma
  • Quality is the degree of excellence of a
    product, process or service from the customers
    viewpoint
  • Virtually every activity has variation - if the
    outcome is too far from the target value (beyond
    a specification limit), a defect occurs
  • Standard deviation, s, is a measure of variation
    from the target
  • Sigma Level, Z, of a process is
  • (Spec Limit - Target)
  • Z
  • Std Dev s
  • Sigma Level measures the probability of
    achieving a defect-free outcome

Sigma Level 3
10
What is 6 Sigma?
  • Common definition 3.4 defects / million
    opportunities
  • Applicability All business processes
    (Manufacturing , IT, Finance, Marketing)

Waste due to additional inspection, tests,
rework, scrap, customer dissatisfaction, etc.
(Source Six Sigma by Mikel Harry)
11
Benefits of 6 Sigma

Generic
Sigma Level
Defects Per Million
Cost of Sales

3
66,807
25 - 40
4
6,210
15 - 25
5
233
5 - 15
6
3.4
lt 1
Savings (3 to 4.7 Sigma) 250K per project
Benefits (4.7 to 6 Sigma) Greater market share

Savings Realized



GE
750M (98), 1.5B (99)

Motorola
800-900M / year (15B over 11 years)

ABB
900M / year

Allied Signal
500M (98), 600M (99)
Waste due to additional inspection, tests,
rework, scrap, customer dissatisfaction, etc.

Quoted savings from the book Six Sigma by
Mikel
Harry Richard Schroeder Allied Signal quote
from
Industry Week
12
The 6 Sigma Method of Quality Improvement
  • Structured, data-driven problem-solving method
  • DMAIC Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve,
    Control
  • Based on statistics, process analysis and process
    control
  • Developed by Motorola used successfully by TI,
    AlliedSignal, GE, ...
  • Goal improve the quality of existing processes
  • Manufacturing, business transactions, etc
  • Payoffs
  • Internal productivity improvement (lean
    processes)
  • Capacity gain (lean resource management)

Six Sigma driver for cost savings
13
How does 6 sigma work?
  • Visualize and Develop a Goal
  • Obtain a Coach/Mentor
  • Set the right Metrics
  • Understand the relationships between influencing
    factors (x)s and the effects/output (y)s. y
    f(x)
  • Create a standradized process that develops a
    roadmap to the Goal
  • Now identify and implement the right Tools
  • Implementing Tools without the right Process,
    Strategy and Goal

14
The 6 Sigma Focus
  • Many quality approaches focus on inspecting and
    fixing outputs (e.g., products)
  • Six Sigma focuses on fixing and controlling key
    process variables which cause output defects

Output Y f (Process Variables x1, x2, , xn)
  • xs
  • Inputs
  • Root Causes
  • Problems
  • Fix Control
  • Y
  • Output
  • Effect
  • Symptom
  • Monitor

15
The 5 Sigma Wall
Break through the 5s wall by redesign for
manufacturability
16
Can 6 Sigma be applied to Engineering?
  • It is difficult to apply classic Six Sigma to
    Engineering for new products
  • Engineering focuses on innovation, not process
    improvement
  • Defect baselines not known for new, innovative
    designs
  • And, most major new product quality problems are
    in performance and reliability, not
    manufacturability
  • Engineering should focus on preventing problems
  • Need Six Sigma extension to new product creation
    Design for Six Sigma - DFSS!

17
6 Sigma vs. Design for Six Sigma
Traditional 6-Sigma - Reactive
Design for Six Sigma - Proactive
18
What is Design For Six Sigma (DFSS)?
  • Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is a strategy, a
    concept, a process and a set of tools
  • Strategy To develop new and better
    products/processes to address the voice of the
    customer
  • Concept To drive robust engineering (product
    process) and validation with focus on problem
    prevention.
  • Process To translate voice of the customer to
    engineering requirements and optimize the
    relationship between influencing factors and
    their effects on customers to achieve and sustain
    high quality levels.
  • Tools Enablers for execution of the process to
    align with the strategy.

19
DFSS Strategy Revolutionize Design
Engineering
Reactive Design Quality
Proactive Design Quality
DFSS
FIRE- FIGHTING
FIRE- PROOFING
20
DFSS Process
Happy
Customer
D. F. S. S.
21
Key DFSS Tools
  • Capture Voice of Customer Define Eng.
    Requirements
  • Wants needs tools
  • Customer use observations
  • Kano Analysis
  • Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
  • Develop Concepts and Select
  • Pugh Matrix
  • Axiomatic Design
  • TRIZ
  • Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA)
  • Develop Detailed Design
  • Systems Engineering
  • Function Models FMEAs
  • Transfer Functions
  • Statistical Design
  • Monte Carlo Analysis
  • Design for Robust Performance
  • Design of Experiments
  • Robust Design
  • Design for Reliability
  • Design for Manufacturability
  • Process Capability Databases
  • Statistical Tolerancing
  • Predict Quality
  • DFSS Scorecards

22
FMEA Pro-Active Quality Tool
  • Purpose of a FMEA
  • Risk Reduction to Customer(s)
  • End user
  • Manufacturing/Assembly
  • Service
  • Risk Reduction to comply with or exceed
    Government Regulations
  • Safety
  • Regulatory

Risk Reduction
Competitive Advantage
23
Key Successful Factors for DFSS Implementation
  1. Develop a strategy that fits the culture
  2. Obtain true leadership from the top
  3. Execute flawlessly (ownership accountability)
  4. Create a mentoring infrastructure (x-functional)
  5. Communicate results early and often
  6. Make it a way of doing business (integration)

24
Implementation Challenges
  • Technical
  • Paradigm change
  • Statistical versus deterministic
  • New methods and tools
  • Systems engineering
  • Design of experiments
  • Robust design
  • Design for reliability
  • Statistical tolerancing
  • Multi-variable optimization
  • ...
  • Cultural
  • Resistance to change
  • Why change our design process?
  • Were different
  • We already do that
  • Cost and disruption of training
  • Fear that design cycle times will be longer,
    costs higher
  • Integrating DFSS with existing development
    processes

Leadership must overcome them
25
Message from Leadership
  • DFSS must become a religion
  • Be an embodiment of 6 sigma (be competent)
  • Radiate (train and spread) DFSS into every
    business/organization
  • Be a lunatic on the subject (drive it hard)
  • Conduct DFSS reviews in the field
  • Set goals based on 6 sigma metrics
  • You have my full support to be outrageous on this
    issue

26
Remember?
What are these companies have in common?
All of them use Design for Six Sigma - effectively
27
Making Six Sigma/DFSS Successful
  • Leadership from the top is crucial
  • Clearly communicate the Quality vision
  • Demand Quality
  • Drive discipline
  • Drive Quality by measurable, stretch goals
  • Alignment of employee goals to organizations
    goals
  • Six Sigma DFSS are not a cure-all for Quality
    by themselves
  • Involve everyone
  • Dont leave Quality to quality specialists and
    professionals
  • Train everyone in basic Six Sigma/DFSS competence
  • Regard Quality as a cultural change, not just a
    toolset
  • Make Quality a part of the organizations DNA

28
THANK YOU!
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