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Basic Laser Safety Training


Basic Laser Safety Training. United States Naval Academy. Cathy E. Quigley ... ALSO - CATHY QUIGLEY (X3-5666 or. X3-5660) Safety - STEVE AGRIESTI, (Mgr) (X3-5660) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Laser Safety Training

Basic Laser Safety Training
  • United States Naval Academy

Cathy E. Quigley Administrative Laser Safety
Officer (ALSO) USNA Safety Department 410-293-5666
or 5660
  • Before you begin. . .
  • Left click the link below and select print.
    Complete the assessment as you are viewing the
    Power Point presentation.
  • http//
  • To return to the slides click the back button
    and select open or read only.
  • After completing the training and assessment
    please forward document the Safety Department
  • Yard Mail Stop 18B or fax to X3-4849

  • Basic knowledge, safety procedures and hazards
    associated while working with lasers. This
  • presentation is aimed at class III and class
    IV lasers and the laser operators of these
  • Applicable Instructions
  • gt ANSI Z136.1-2000 (Industry Standard)
  • gt OPNAVINST 5100.27 (Navy Laser Program)
  • gt OPNAVINST 5100.23F (NAVOSH Policy)
  • gt BUMEDINST 6470.23 (Medical Mgmt)
  • gt USNAINST 5100.13C (Local Laser Inst)
  • gt USNAINST 5100.11C (Local NAVOSH Inst)

Laser Outline
  • Elements of the laser program
  • Laser Function
  • Types of Lasers Classifications
  • Biological Effects of Lasers
  • Warning Signs and Workplace Controls

Elements of the laser program (contd)
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • (Beam Hazards)
  • NonBeam Hazards
  • Authorized Personnel
  • Medical Surveillance

Elements of the laser program (contd)
  • Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
  • Mishap Reporting
  • Annual Audit and Inventory
  • Quick Quiz
  • Points of Contact

Laser Function
  • The beginning of the laser was a remarkably
    simple concept that began using rubies and an
    over-sized flash bulb.
  • Basic components of a laser
  • - Lasing material or medium could be gas
    (HeNe), liquid, solid (ruby) or semi-conductor
  • Excitation mechanism or energy source can be a
    flash bulb, arc, another laser or electricity.
  • Optical cavity nearly sealed cylinder that uses
    mirrors to collect, concentrate and produce a
    coherent beam.

Types of Lasers
  • ANSI Laser Classifications
  • The laser category is based on the power and
    physical nature of the laser beam.
  • Class I Visible laser that under normal
    operating conditions does not pose a hazard.
  • Class II Low power visible laser, which because
    of the normal human averse response to light
    normally does not pose a hazard. May cause
    damage if viewed directly and for prolonged
    periods lt1.0 mW.

Types of Lasers (contd)
  • Class IIIa Visible medium power laser with a
    power density between 1.0 and 5.0 mW. Hazard
    potential when using binoculars or other
    collecting objects.
  • Class IIIb Slightly higher powered
    invisible laser yet in the
  • (180 nm 400 nm) and near infrared
  • (700 nm 1400 nm) regions of the
  • spectrum 5.0 mW to 500 mW.
  • Class IV High power laser in excess of 500 mW.
    Laser is capable of causing injury from direct,
    reflected or even diffuse reflections.

Biological Effects (a.k.a. Potential Hazards)
  • Major laser hazard impact on the eyes however,
    the more powerful lasers (class IIIb and class
    IV) can affect other biological systems.
  • Even incidental exposure to a class IV laser can
    cause serious skin burns and retinal damage
    (causing possible cataracts depending on the type
    of laser and length of exposure).

Biological Effects (contd)
  • Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE)
  • - The level of laser radiation to which a person
    can be exposed without hazardous effects or
    adverse biological changes in the eyes or skin.
  • Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD)
  • - The distance from the laser where the beam is
    not expected to exceed the MPE.

Warning Signs and Workplace Controls
  • Laser labels All lasers must be labeled it
    must provide the class, power and wavelength of
    the laser.
  • Area warning signs
  • Areas where lasers are used must be posted.
  • CAUTION signs and labels for class I through
  • DANGER signs and labels for class IIIb and IV

Warning Signs and Workplace Controls (contd)
  • Interlock system
  • - The room containing the laser must be
    interlocked with the laser system thus the laser
    cannot operate with the door open.
  • - A light system will also illuminate when the
    interlock system is operational green (safe),
    yellow (caution), red (laser in use)

Warning Signs and Workplace Controls (contd)
  • Eliminating beam reflections
  • - Whenever possible remove all reflective
    materials from within the NOHD and preferably
    from the room.
  • - Remove mirrors and other brightly polished
  • objects from the room also avoid glossy paints
    and finishes.
  • - Remove all jewelry including watches.
  • - Use non-reflective materials and supplies.

Warning Signs and Workplace Controls (contd)
  • Beam stops
  • - specially designed laser barriers or
    curtains which can withstand either
    direct and/or
    diffusely scattered beams
  • - flammability is an important consideration
    the material cannot support
    combustion or be consumed by flames during
    and at the termination of the laser
  • - also ensure decomposition of the products
  • does not create a new hazard

Warning Signs and Workplace Controls (contd)
  • a class IIIb should be provided with a
    permanently attached beam stop or attenuator
  • a class IV laser shall be provided with a
    permanently attached beam stop or attenuator

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • Laser eyewear (protect from beam hazard)
  • - Essential equipment for personal protection
    reduces the energy that reaches the eye to below
    the MPE (maximum permissible exposure level).
  • - Optical density (OD) Is a measure of how
    much light or more specifically energy (visible
    and invisible) is filtered out by the lens. A
    higher number means that more energy is filtered
    out providing a greater level of protection.

Personal Protective Equipment (contd)
  • Laser glasses or goggles
  • - Mandatory use with all procedures.
  • - Laser specific (i.e. power wavelength
    specific). They may not work with other types of
  • - Check laser goggles/glasses periodically for
    cracks, scratches, pitting dispose of eyewear
    if found to be defective
  • - Handle laser eyewear carefully replacements
    are expensive

Personal Protective Equipment (contd)
  • Skin Protection
  • - appropriate gloves and/or clothing is
    sufficient for
  • lasers requiring skin protection
  • - sunscreen (wipes off or comes off with sweat)
    is not
  • recommended for UV systems
  • for extremely high-powered lasers, there is no
  • protection available for direct exposure
  • inaccessibility is the only answer

Non-beam Hazards
  • Chemical
  • - laser generated air
  • contaminants LGAC
  • - compressed gases
  • - dyes and solvents
  • Biological
  • - LGAC
  • small pieces of viral products,
  • blood, tissue and bacteria that
  • are vaporized by the procedure

Non-beam Hazards (contd)
  • Physical (non-beam)
  • - Flammable chemicals/solvents
  • - Collateral radiation (electronic
  • product radiation from operation)
  • - Electrical hazards and controls
  • (shock, electrocution)
  • - Fire hazards and controls
  • - Explosion and controls
  • - Plasma radiation (aka plume
  • radiation)

  • Lasers can be high voltage devices!
  • Electrical
  • - Disconnect the power source to the
  • laser before performing any work or
  • opening the housing.
  • - Use Lockout/Tagout
  • procedures when
  • performing maintenance.
  • - Before providing power to the laser
  • make sure the
  • area is DRY and the
  • electrical cord is in good
  • condition.

Authorized Personnel
  • Laser Operator (s)
  • Midshipmen (class instruction, projects)
  • Midshipmen working as laser operators on
    special projects (Trident, etc.) will need
    documented training by designated Professor -
    laser operator
  • Maintenance personnel (maintenance performed by
    the designated laser operator in many cases)
  • Spectators (prior approval by ALSO required)

Medical Surveillance
  • To establish a baseline of visual acuity and
    ocular health.
  • For whom
  • - All class IIIb and class IV laser operators,
    anyone assisting
  • maintenance personnel and any individual (as
    part of their job) who may be exposed to laser
  • Whats involved
  • - Visual acuity and fundoscopic
  • examination of your eyes along with a very brief
    medical history.

Medical Surveillance (contd)
  • Where to go
  • - A two step process involving both the
    Occupational Health (X3-2009) and Optometry
    Clinics (X3-3617). The process begins with an
    interview and medical history in Occupational
    Health and ends with an eye exam in Optometry
  • How often
  • - Currently the Navy requires a baseline and
    termination exam. Also, an exam immediately
    following any laser mishap

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) (must be
posted on the outside of the door where the
laser(s) are operationally ready)
  • Laser Specific
  • Guidelines for Preparing a Standard Operating
    Procedure (SOP)/Operators Checklist for Laser
  • These guidelines are intended to assist Laser
    Personnel in preparing SOP/Operators Checklist
    for Laser Operations. This information applies
    to Class IIIb or IV lasers only. No SOP is
    required for other class lasers. All laser
    operators must review laser SOPs annually and
    forward a copy to the Administrative Laser Safety
    Officer (ALSO).

  • 1. Introduction
  • Location of laser (building and
  • room number)
  • Description of laser authorized laser
  • and the normal operations
  • - Purpose or application of beam
  • - ANSI Z136.1 classifications
  • Other applicable information as
  • required
  • Review annually and submit a copy of
  • the SOP(s) of the laser(s) under your
  • responsibility

  • 2. Hazards
  • - Identification of laser hazards (beam)
  • Identification of associated hazards
  • (non-beam)
  • - Authorized hazardous materials allowed and
    conditions permitting use, including personal
    protective equipment (PPE), firefighting
    equipment, ventilation requirements, storage
    containers, allowed amounts and emergency
    response procedures.

  • SOP GUIDELINES (contd)
  • 3. Controls
  • Access controls (entry restrictions, door
  • interlocks, signs, signals, etc.)
  • Beam controls (activation of key interlock,
  • enclosures, shutters, beam dumps, types
  • of beam stops, area clearance procedures
  • etc.)
  • - Electrical controls (power supply
  • indicator lights, high voltage signs, etc.)
  • - Eye protection required (type of eye
  • protection approved, wavelength
  • and optical density, etc.)
  • Spectator controls if authorized (PPE, etc.)
  • Conditions for unattended operation if
  • permitted by LSSO
  • Other controls as required (i.e., no smoking,
  • eating or drinking)

4. Operating Procedures - Initial preparation
of laboratory environment (key position,
warning lights on, door interlocks activated,
identification of personnel present, PPE
issued, etc.) - Personnel protection (isolation
barriers in place, eye protection donned) -
Alignment procedures - Target preparations - Shut
down procedures
  • 5. Maintenance Procedures
  • - Authorized personnel
  • - Phone numbers of authorized personnel
  • - Shutdown procedures in place
  • - Lockout/Tagout implementation
  • 6. Emergency Procedures
  • Potential emergencies and corresponding
  • procedures
  • Specific rescue and/or evacuation
  • procedures
  • Emergency phone numbers (laser operator,
  • Laser Safety Officer, fire, ambulance, etc.)

  • 7. Training
  • Indoctrination for authorized laser
  • personnel (prior to operating a laser
  • authorized midshipmen working on a
  • project must be trained by the Professor
  • and the documentation must be
  • submitted to the Laser Safety Officer)
  • Indoctrination for authorized incidental
  • laser personnel
  • - Briefing for authorized spectators

Mishap Reporting
  • Call X3-3333 for any personnel injured directly
    or indirectly by lasers. Individual will be
    followed up jointly by Occupational Health and
  • Report all mishaps and near misses (both beam and
    non-beam related) as soon as possible to both the
    Safety Manager (X3-5660) and the ALSO (X3-5666).
  • A mishap report will need to be generated by the
    injured individuals department and forwarded to
    the Safety Manager and ALSO.
  • This mishap report form can be obtained at the
    following website or
    by contacting the Safety Department on X3-5660.

Annual Audit Inventory Reporting
  • An annual review and inventory will be conducted
    to determine the effectiveness and compliance of
    the USNA Laser Program
  • The ALSO and Safety Office will conduct the
    review and inventory.
  • An inventory of all class IIIb and class IV
    lasers and will be forwarded upon request to
    BUMED by 31 August of every year.

Points of Contact (POC)
  • (X3-5666 or
  • X3-5660)
  • Safety - STEVE AGRIESTI, (Mgr)
  • (X3-5660)

Quick Quiz Feedback (click on black area of
screen for each answer to appear)
  • 1. b
  • 2. d
  • 3. d
  • 4. b
  • 5. c
  • 6. a
  • 7. b
  • 8. b
  • 9. a
  • 10. d
  • 11. b
  • 12. c
  • 13. a

The USNA Safety Department will assist laser
operators in procuring Personnel Protective
Equipment for use with their lasers
  • Please contact the ALSO or the Safety Manager
  • for assistance