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The Civil Rights Movement

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Title: The Civil Rights Movement


1
The Civil Rights Movement
  • 1950-1968

2
Review
  • Presidents
  • Truman Democrat 1945- 1953
  • Ike Republican 1953-1961
  • JFK Democrat 1961-1963
  • LBJ Democrat 1963 1969
  • Nixon Republican 1969 1974
  • Ford Republican 1974 - 1977

3
Causes of the Civil Rights Movement 211
  • Black urbanization (Moving to the cities)
  • Religious faith (Belief justice and fairness)
  • Demand for constitutional rights
  • The document says
  • ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL
  • Greater media coverage of protests (boob tube)
  • Success of African independence movements
  • Clips to watch Real Player needed
  • http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story
    /03_schools.html

4
Jim Crow Laws
  • Jim Crow laws were late 19th century statutes (
    after the civil war) passed by legislatures that
    created a racial caste system in the American
    south and beyond.
  • Many states and cities could impose legal
    punishment on people for consorting with members
    of another race.
  • The most common types of laws forbade
    intermarriage and ordered business owners and
    public institutions to keep their black and white
    clientele separated.

5
Jim Crow Laws
  • http//americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/1-segr
    egated/jim-crow.html
  • http//www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/creating2.ht
    m
  • http//www.ferris.edu/news/jimcrow/what.htm

6
Setting the Scene for the Movement
  • African American migration 1910-1940 increased
    the population in northern cities.
  • Some were educated and held professional jobs.
  • Some even developed alliances that created
    political influence.
  • 1930s- African Americans supported and worked
    for New Deal policies
  • African American fought in wars but were not seen
    as equals.

7
Fighting for Civil Rights
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8
Plessey vs Ferguson
  • Separate but (un) Equal
  • Is separate equal ever??

9
Brown vs The Board of Education Topeka Kansas
  • In 1951, Oliver Brown wanted his 8-year-old
    daughter, Linda, to attend a Topeka, Kansas
    school, which only white children were permitted
    to attend.
  • Brown sued the Topeka Board of Education, and
    his case reached the Supreme Court. Thurgood
    Marshall of the NAACP argued Browns case.

10
  • On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court issued its
    ruling in the Brown v. Board of Education of
    Topeka, Kansas case. In this ruling the court
    overturned the precedent of separate but equal
    established by Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). The
    court supported Browns case for desegregation,
    stating that, Separate educational facilities
    are inherently unequal.
  • A year later, the Court ruled that local school
    boards should move to desegregate with all
    deliberate speed.

11
Reaction to Brown Decision
  • Southern Manifesto- southern states felt it is a
    violation of states rights.
  • It will create chaos and violence therefore we
    will not comply !
  • In other wordsmake me abide by the new law.

12
Little Rock
  • Meanwhilein Arkansas at Central High school
    desegregation began.
  • Orville Faubus the governor did not want
    integration and openly said it will not happen
    here!
  • Ike was NOT an ally to civil rights but when
    Faubus decided he would challenge the
    Constitution and the decision of the Supreme
    Court, Ike felt it was his duty to send in the
    National Guard to protect the children and uphold
    the law. Period!

13
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • What did Rosa do?
  • Was she confrontational?
  • Jo Ann Robinson and the WPC organize.
  • What do they decide?
  • Who do they bring in to lead the protest
    movement?
  • MLK Jr

14
Organizations 212
  • NAACP
  • WE.B. Dubois founding member
  • It is an interracial organization
  • Goal fight discrimination in the legal arena. In
    other words, fight the laws that prevented blacks
    from being treated as equals.

15
CORE
  • In 1942, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
    was founded to help bring about change
    peacefully.
  • Like the NAACP, CORE was an interracial
    organization which argued against discrimination
    and segregation.
  • James Farmer and CORE came to have a major role
    in civil rights confrontations of the 1950s and
    1960s

16
National Urban League1911
  • Goal take on economic issues by helping black
    move from the south to the north
  • While helping them to find jobs.

17
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
  • In 1957, King and other African American
    clergymen founded the Southern Christian
    Leadership Conference (SCLC).
  • GOAL
  • Protest racial policies in a nonviolent way.
  • The formation of SCLC shifted the focus of the
    civil rights movement to the South and brought
    African American church leaders such as King to
    its forefront.

18
Civil Disobedience
  • Civil Disobedience is the act of disobeying a law
    on grounds of moral or political principle.
  • Why? It is an attempt to influence society to
    accept a dissenting (different) point of view.
  • It usually uses tactics of nonviolence i.e
    illegal street demonstrations or peaceful
    occupations of premises.

19
  • Henry David Thoreau's "On the Duty of Civil
    Disobedience," states that when a person's
    conscience and the laws clash, that person must
    follow his or her conscience. The stress on
    personal conscience and on the need to act now
    rather than to wait for legal change are
    recurring elements in civil disobedience
    movements.

20
MLKsNonviolent Protest
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., was influenced by the
    beliefs and work of Mohandas Gandhi and Henry
    David Thoreau, both of whom advocated
    nonviolence.
  • Gandhi had helped India gain its independence in
    1947. He is often considered the father of
    nonviolent protest.
  • Thoreau had advocated civil disobedience in the
    mid-1800s.
  • Nonviolent protesters were encouraged not to
    fight back even when attacked

21
SNCC
  • The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
    (SNCC), began in 1960 at a meeting in Raleigh,
    North Carolina. Ella Baker and SNCC felt the
    NAACP and SCLC were not able to keep up with the
    demands of young people for the fight of civil
    rights.
  • Goal CHANGE
  • SNCC soon became an independent civil rights
    organization under Robert Moses. Its members
    sought immediate change, as opposed to the
    gradual change advocated by most older
    organizations.

22
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
  • Members of SNCC along with newly registered
    Mississippi voters organized the Mississippi
    Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP).
  • The MFDP sent delegates to the 1964 Democratic
    National Convention, insisting that they were the
    rightful representatives from Mississippi.
  • President Johnson offered the MFDP two of
    Mississippis 68 seats. The MFDP rejected the
    offer, believing that it fell short of their
    goals.

23
Organizations 215
  • Malcolm X
  • The Nation of Islam and Black Nationalism
  • Malcom
  • Militant leaders emerged when change did not come
    soon enough.

24
215 contd
  • Nation of Islam
  • Also called the Black Muslims
  • Preached black separatism and dont accept a hand
    out from anyone.
  • Black Panthers
  • Wanted African Americans to lead their own
    communities.
  • They also demanded that the federal government
    rebuild the nations ghettos.
  • Because the Black Panthers monitored police
    activity in the ghettos, they often found
    themselves in violent encounters with police.
  • Often linked with the Black Power movement

25
Wednesdays in Mississippi
  • Would like some tupperware?
  • In the spring of 1964 Dorothy I. Height,
    President of the National Council of Negro Women
    (NCNW), working with NCNW volunteer Polly Cowan,
    came up with the idea of sending weekly teams of
    northern women to Mississippi.
  • The teams were interracial and interfaith. They
    would leave for Mississippi on a Tuesday and
    return on a Thursday. There all day on Wednesday,
    the program was known as "Wednesdays in
    Mississippi." Competent, well connected, and
    educated, these women worked with Freedom Summer
    and the Freedom Schools.

26
Civil Rights Martyrs
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  • Icons
  • http//www.history.com/content/blackhistory/africa
    n-american-icons

27
Major Events 213
  • Sit-Ins
  • The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Freedom Rides
  • Integration of Ole Miss
  • Birmingham March
  • March on Washington
  • Freedom Summer
  • The Selma March
  • Watts Riot
  • Assassination of Malcolm X.
  • Assassination of MLK, Jr.

28
Legal Action 214
  • Truman Executive Orders 1948
  • Civil Rights Act 1957
  • Civil Rights Act 1960
  • Kennedy Executive Order 1960
  • Civil Rights Acts of 1964
  • 24 th amendment
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Civil Rights Acts of 1968
  • Open Housing Law 1968

29
Legal Action 214
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Title I Banned the use of different voter
    registration standards for blacks and whites
  • Title II Prohibited discrimination in public
    accommodations such as restaurants, hotels, and
    theaters
  • Title VI Allowed the withholding of federal
    funds from programs that practice discrimination
  • Title VII Banned discrimination on the basis of
    race, sex, religion, or national origin by
    employers and unions and created the Equal
    Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

30
Legal Action continued
  • The Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Allowed federal officials to register voters in
    places where local officials were preventing
    African Americans from registering.
  • It also effectively eliminated literacy tests and
    other barriers to voting.
  • Twenty-fourth Amendment
  • The Twenty-fourth Amendment to the Constitution,
    ratified in 1964, outlawed the poll tax, which
    was still in effect in several southern states.

31
Legal Action continued
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968
  • Also known of the Housing Rights Act of 1968
  • Prohibited discrimination in the sale and rental
    of housing.
  • King's assassination had generated irresistible
    pressure to pass the Senate bill quickly.
  • The Housing Rights Act is seen as the final
    legislative achievement of the civil rights
    movement

32
Effects of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Elimination of legal segregation (de jure
    segregation v. de facto segregation)
  • Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Creation of affirmative action programs
  • Set examples and a model for other minority
    groups to achieve equality

33
Important People ActivityComplete a graphic
organizer illustrating the various roles people
played in the civil rights movement.
  • Emmett Till
  • Mose Wright
  • Rosa Parks
  • Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Linda Brown
  • Elizabeth Eckford
  • Medgar Evers
  • James Chaney
  • Stokely Carmichael
  • Malcolm X
  • Elijah Muhammad
  • Roy and Carolyn Bryant
  • J.W. Milam
  • Orval Faubus
  • George Wallace
  • Eugene Bull Connor
  • Ross Barnett
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • John F. Kennedy
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