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The%2017th%20Century%20and%20Military%20Innovations

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Video 9min Wheellock. Slide 10. Consalvo de Cordova. Massed pikes and harquebus on flanks ... Army revolted and took power (beheaded King) Cromwell now in charge ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The%2017th%20Century%20and%20Military%20Innovations


1
The 17th Century and Military Innovations
Major Rascon
2
Learning Objectives
  • Know and discuss the continuing religious strife
    which led to the Thirty Years War, and the total
    nature of such ideological struggles
  • Know and describe the Thirty Years War from the
    standpoint of Gustavus strategy and tactics
  • Know and review the military innovations
    introduced by Gustavus Adolphus

3
Learning Objectives
  • Know and describe the growth of defensive
    fortifications during the reign of Louis XIV
  • Know and recall the development of the law of
    nations in reaction to the unlimited warfare of
    the Thirty Years war
  • Relate / apply the development of Cromwells New
    Model Army to the changes in civil-military
    relationships in 17th century England

4
Reading Assignment
  • Jones pp. 221-266
  • P,R,W pp.

5
Social Diversities
  • Italy still city states
  • France, Germany, Portugal, Holland evolving into
    pure monarchies

6
Results
  • Powerful kings
  • Power to tax
  • Power to raise armies
  • Centralized control
  • Sea power shifts worlds wealth

7
Conflict
  • 1494 King Charles VII of France invaded Italy
  • 1519 King Charles VIII had alienated Austria
    (Northern Italy Claims) and Spain (Naples Claims)

8
15th vs.. 16th
  • 15th Century limited armies fighting limited
    battles throughout Europe
  • 16th Century Europe at war
  • Charles wanted to unite Europe under one church
  • Gunpowder was major question

9
Gunpowder
  • Had potential, but was cumbersome and inaccurate
  • Pike only could stop infantry
  • Most preferred the arquebus, but a mix was needed
  • Video 9min Wheellock

10
Consalvo de Cordova
  • Massed pikes and harquebus on flanks
  • Countermarching
  • Spanish square
  • Cavalry shock charges stopped by Swiss pikes

11
Mid 16th Century
  • Religious wars broke out all over Europe
  • Machiavellian thoughts led to ruthless and
    unlimited destruction
  • Citizen-soldiers fought for cause of God
  • Mercenaries then filled in ranks

12
End of 16th Century
  • First Muskets (50 100 yd accuracy)
  • Two rounds every 3 minutes
  • Artillery improvements
  • Cavalry comeback
  • Switch from lance to pistol sword
  • Utilized for auxiliary and reconnaissance
  • Officer ranks chain of command reestablished
    (Roman Legion)

13
17th Century
  • Mercenaries filled ranks
  • Kings hesitated to arm subjects
  • Kings believed only mercenaries understood new
    tactics and weapons
  • Problems
  • Money to pay
  • Loyalty to whom?

14
New Tactics
  • Firepower required smaller number of warriors
    across a larger area requiring greater
  • Tactical skills
  • Initiative
  • Junior Leaders

15
Leadership
  • Ethical leaders required (no more reckless knight
    or selfish mercenary)
  • New combat leader began to emerge
  • Socially and ethically disciplined
  • Tactically a student
  • Drill and training responsiblities
  • Discipline not gunpowder initiated this
    transformation of the military

16
Maurice of Netherlands
  • Developed Dutch Army Model
  • Disciplined (unquestionable obedience), Loyal to
    the unit, year-round pay, lots of drill, still
    mostly foreigners
  • Officer Corps
  • Public trust, commissioned due to deeds vice
    nobility, commissioned by state, unquestionable
    obedience

17
1618 Thirty Years War
  • France allied with Germany against Holy Roman
    Empire
  • Threatened Baltic States
  • Total War (Machiavellian) devastated Germany and
    Europe
  • Germany (the battleground) would not recover
    until the 19th Century
  • Development of the Law of Nations in reaction
    to unlimited warfare

18
Gustavus Strategy
  • Strengthen Swedish power and defend Protestantism
  • Carry the war away from Sweden
  • Cautious progress pessimistic allies
  • Mobility of forces

19
Thirty Years War
  • Gustavus invades from north and has series of
    political and military victories.

20
Gustavus Military Innovations
  • Introduced conscription
  • Reduced soldiers load
  • Amount of armor
  • Weight of weapon
  • Wooden rest iron spike no rest
  • Standardization of paper cartridges
  • Increased the rate of fire

21
Innovations (cont)
  • Father of modern artillery
  • Standardized Siege, field, and regimental guns
  • Reduced regimental guns by 1,000 pounds
  • Artillery cartridge
  • Greatly increased rate of fire and made safer to
    handle

22
Atrocities
  • Revulsion over Thirty Years War
  • Hugo Grotius Rights of War and Peace (1625)
  • Treated states as individuals within in the
    society of nations
  • Nations would respect the rights of other nations
    and honor contractual obligations

23
English Civil War Background
  • England
  • Isolation no need for standing armies
  • All men on call, but not at arms
  • English king could not bring pressure to bear on
    Parliament
  • Earlier raids on Spanish ships supported king
  • Henry VIII
  • Parliament had religious ties to Rome
  • Henry VIII created Church of England
  • Civil War followed

24
The Conflict
  • Nobility (King) vs. middle class (Parliament)
  • Parliament raised army under Cromwell
  • Recruited citizens who supported Parliament
  • 22,000 (50 cavalry/infantry)
  • Disciplined followers
  • Cavalry directly under Cromwell

25
The Conflict (cont)
  • Cavalry was decisive force
  • Cavalry used pistol sword (no pikes)
  • Infantry 1/3 pike, 2/3 musket (100 yd range)
  • Red Coats
  • Defeated King, death was sentence

26
Post Civil War
  • Parliament refused to pay back army
  • Parliament tried to disband army
  • Army revolted and took power (beheaded King)
  • Cromwell now in charge
  • Divided country into military regions
  • Police state
  • Organized secret police to spy on nation
  • Aggressive foreign policy
  • True standing army of 70,000

27
After Cromwells Death
  • New Parliament and King
  • New conflict between Parliament/King
  • King James dethroned
  • William of Orange took over

28
William of Orange
  • Needing men to fight France, he accepted
    parliamentary restrictions
  • No peacetime army without parliamentary approval
  • Protestant citizens had a right to bear arms
  • Cromwells legacy (in America other English
    speaking countries as well)
  • Constitution provides military with civilian rule
  • Distrust of the professional officer has
    resulted in historical unpreparedness for war

29
Defensive Fortifications
  • Louis XIV
  • Medieval rendered obsolete by artillery
  • Sebastien le Prestre de Vauban
  • Constructed three systems of fortifications
  • Low walls
  • Earth backing
  • Below ground fortification
  • Parallels to approach walls

30
Summary
  • Video 9min flintlock

31
Questions
32
Next Session Learning Objectives
  • Comprehend and explain the resurrection of
    mobility and offensive by Marlborough
  • Know and trace the emergence of limited war,
    international law, and the tight professional
    armies of Kings

33
Learning Objectives
  • Know and describe the strategy, tactics, and
    means of limited warfare
  • Comprehend and explain the emergence of Great
    Britain as the dominant maritime and colonial
    power by the end of the 18th century
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