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Motivation in WBL Environments: a

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Reconciliation = Avatars. Your representative in a virtual world ... Avatars & Motivation. Empirical: (Extrinsic Motivators) Surmount ... Avatars & Thunderdome ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Motivation in WBL Environments: a


1
Motivationin WBL Environmentsa winning
approach
  • Greg Warman
  • EDUC391X
  • Professor Paul Kim

2
Why is motivation critical?
  • There is a crisis in WBL
  • Dropout rates can be as high as 70 to 80
    (Martinez 2003)
  • Resultant negative impressions of WBL and its
    potential
  • Keeping learners engaged is critical
  • Motivation most important characteristic related
    to achievement in WBL (Sankaran and Bui 2001)
  • Understanding motivation (what underlies a
    learners willingness to participate in learning)
    will help with the creation of corrective
    solutions

3
Motivation
  • General survey of definitions indicate
  • Motivation ƒ
  • Incentives / Disincentives,
  • Individual Goals Objectives

4
Views of Motivation
  • Empirical View (e.g. Skinner)
  • Extrinsic (incentives / disincentives)
  • Rewards punishments affect an individuals
    tendency to respond in the way necessary for
    learning to occur
  • Cognitive View (e.g. Piaget)
  • Intrinsic (goals objectives)
  • Individual interest in a domain of cognitive
    activity drive learning

5
Empirical
  • Effectiveness of incentives nonetheless derives
    from individual goals objectives
  • Biological in nature goals reflect what is
    necessary for surviving and thriving
  • Performance approach - desire to outdo others and
    avoid appearance of inferiority

6
Cognitive
  • Learning motivation is a result of need to
    reconcile differences in our understanding of the
    world.
  • Mastery approach - desire to learn and understand
    and avoid misunderstanding

7
Academic Thunderdome
  • two theories enter, one theory leaves

8
Academic Thunderdome
  • Cognitive view (e.g. Lemper et al.)
  • Research demonstrates that if people are rewarded
    for things they would choose to do for intrinsic
    reasons, they will no longer be willing to do
    them without the rewards
  • Empiricist view (e.g. Cameron et al.)
  • Meta analysis of research shows that with very
    few exceptions extrinsic motivators do not
    interfere with intrinsic motivation

9
Reconciliation Avatars
real me
virtual me
real world
virtual world
10
Reconciliation Avatars
  • Your representative in a virtual world
  • Games World of Warcraft, Never Winter
    KnightsVirtual Worlds Second Life
  • Market size e.g. Everquest by SONY
  • Can Leverage both Extrinsic and Intrinsic
    motivators to maximize learning

11
What defines a Virtual World
Overarching Goal Incentives for reaching
goal Storyline Challenges Development
dimensions Means of development tools to
surmount challenges
12
Proposed Approach
me
virtual me
one world where virtual me becomes proxy for my
real learning
13
Proposed Approach
Overarching module
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
Topic-focused learning modules
14
How does the Overarching module work?
real me
real world
15
By reflecting my real world motivation
Goal Incentives Storyline Challenges Development
Means
real me
real world
16
Example EDUC391XIndividual Projects
  • Enter an active business environmentwith your
    virtual character
  • Select your character

Name
Greg Warman
Moniker
geek391
SUBMIT
17
Example EDUC391XIndividual Projects
  • Overarching Goal beat your competitors and win
    WBL contracts
  • Incentives
  • Explicit
  • Contracts provide your score
  • Implicit
  • Bragging rights and avoid humiliation
    (Performance)
  • Satisfaction of building your character (Mastery)


18
Example EDUC391XIndividual Projects
  • Storyline
  • Youre fresh out of undergrad and want to explore
    a career in WBT. You need to build a knowledge
    base quickly of WBL design that evidences your
    worth to buyers.
  • Challenges
  • Multiple contracts but multiple competitors
  • Winning is a two step process
  • Need to qualify and respond to an RFP (requires
    base level of knowledge)
  • Need to succeed in the job interview (requires
    displaying that knowledge)

19
Example EDUC391XIndividual Projects
  • Step 1 Qualify and respond to RFPs

WBL ContractBRIDGE CO.
ProjectBuild an e-learning course to ensure
bridge staff meet safety requirements.Value
10,000 RequirementsDesign Theory 2Inst.
Design 2Tech Know 1
STATUS Won!
STATUSLost -(
APPLY
X
20
Example EDUC391XIndividual Projects
  • Step 2 Succeed in Job Interview

How would you go about designing our e-learning
course?Select the appropriate responses
belowGiven it is regarding safety protocol, it
is A knowledge we need to build.
Therefore we start with B and then move
on to C .
BRIDGE CO. 10,000
A. Cognitive, Psychomotor, AffectiveB.
Receiving, Knowledge, PerceptionC. Set,
Application, Valuing
SUBMIT
21
Example EDUC391XIndividual Projects
  • Development Dimensions

Design Theory 3
Instructional Design 5
Tech Knowledge 2
Contracts won to date 0Cash Available 5,500
Geek391
22
Example EDUC391XIndividual Projects
  • Means for Development
  • Learning modules on individual 391X topics
  • Must pay to enter these learning modules
  • Must pass whatever assessment exists in the
    learning module to earn development credits
  • Form networks with others to bid on contracts
  • Leverage each others knowledge
  • Learn from one another

23
Avatars Motivation
  • Empirical (Extrinsic Motivators)
  • Surmount game challenge
  • Beat your competitors (performance)
  • Cognitive (Intrinsic Motivators)
  • Proxy for personal development where intangible
    gains become tangible. Moreover these gains
    arrive quickly!
  • Enjoy character building (mastery)

24
Avatars Thunderdome
  • Extrinsic rewards (the contract game component)
    can be removed and the Intrinsic rewards (the
    character development component) will still
    ensure motivation.
  • Therefore, two theories enter, both leave as
    friends!

25
Other Applications
Field Sales Force Grade 6 Students
Goal Win the business of the toughest (virtual) customers out there. Build a career in the field of your choosing.
Incentives Virtual commissions for your success can be exchanged for REAL sales bonuses. Progressive stages of career growth result in increased salary which can be spent on virtual world goods (cars, homes, clothes).
Challenge You are new to a sales territory and must beat out the competition by a) getting in the door with tough customers, and b) executing a flawless sales call. As an aspiring X you need to follow the steps necessary for success (e.g. high school, college, certification, job search) You see the career path and know precisely what you must do to succeed.
Development To get in the door, you must have completed a requisite number of courses mapped on to sales competencies. Teachers can award points in various development areas (Verbal, Mathematical, etc.) for real-world performance.
Resources Online and In-class courses / development exercises earn you points. Real world courses and tests can be used as the basis for winning points in the virtual world.
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