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Title: Young%20Women%20Entrepreneurship%20Promotion


1
Young Women Entrepreneurship Promotion
  • Presented by
  • Dr. Amany Asfour
  • President of Egyptian Business Women Association
    (EBWA)
  • President of Business and Professional Women
    Egypt (BPW-Egypt)
  • Representative of civil society for North Africa
    in African Union
  • Member of Arab International Womens Forum (AIWF)
  • Member of international federation of Business
    and Professional Women (BPWI)

2
Entrepreneurship
  • Is a driver for economic growth, competitiveness
    and job creation, furthermore, it can be a
    vehicle for personal development and can help
    resolve social issues.

3
Who is an Entrepreneur?
  • Many definitions of entrepreneurs have been
    developed and one should be clear about what an
    entrepreneur means. An entrepreneur is
    essentially a person who is not only
    self-employed but generates employment and income
    for others through a combination of efforts
    requiring zeal and capability to transform
    physical, financial, natural and human resources
    for production possibilities to extract the
    business potential within any situation..

4
Who is an Entrepreneur? (cont.)
  • Entrepreneurs should be able to produce
    innovative goods and services to suit to the
    market demand as well as earn a profit. Besides
    the above qualities, women entrepreneurs need to
    have additional quality in terms of determination
    and tenacity to cope with adverse situations,
    which seem to confront the female entrepreneurs
    more than their male counterparts in a given
    situation

5
Situation of Women Entrepreneurship
  • In spite of the fact that mainstreaming women has
    been recognized as a priority, the area of
    entrepreneurship development still contains
    ambiguity and get less attention and womens
    micro credit based income generating activities
    often are confused as entrepreneurship
    development. The enterprises owned by women
    feature some interesting characteristics
    regarding ownership, management, sources of
    capital, technology market orientation and so on.

6
Socio legal situation
  • Womens role in the household remains prominent
    in most of the countries and womens
    participation in the business world is difficult.
    They have to undergo the general constraints that
    any women would face. The families would
    encourage home-based activities with less
    mobility for procurement or marketing. The
    perception of women being involved in traditional
    male domain as an entrepreneur is yet to be
    accepted. Thus, diversification is limited,
    competition amongst them is high and profit is
    low.
  • Lack of access to resources due to the legal
    barriers to inherit property or social custom
    inhibit women to prove them to be worthy of
    credit. Even the family would be comfortable to
    support a male with higher amount of capital than
    supporting a female.

7
A sustainable EnterpriseThe following figure
shows the elements that are required to call it
enterprise sustainable
Technical Viability
Market Stability
Management Zeal Skill Managerial
Vocational Systems
Sustainable Enterprise
Financial viability
Policy support
Infrastructural facilities
Environmental Sustainability
8
A sustainable Enterprise
  • An enterprise needs an environment conducive to
    take off and sustain and all seven elements are
    important. But policy support is a crosscutting
    element that influences the financial,
    infrastructural, social (skills, systems etc.),
    market, environment etc. positively or
    negatively. The role of private and public sector
    agencies are often guided by the policies, which
    again are influenced by the traditional attitude
    and lack of understanding about the needs and
    situation of women. Therefore, for mainstreaming
    of gender, it is important that the policies and
    measures are developed considering the reality of
    women

9
Economic Awareness Women Entrepreneurship
  • The promotion of women Entrepreneurship is
    closely linked with their economic awareness
    their ability to establish their own enterprises
    through formal equality exists in the
    constitution, there are factors that hinder the
    progress of women Entrepreneurship despite its
    vast potential, including lack of information,
    capacity building Access to financial resources

10
The Promotion of Womens Entrepreneurship
  • It is a means to alleviate womens unemployment
    and poverty and also stimulate economic growth.
  • Womens entrepreneurship promotion aims at
    eliminating gender specific barriers which limits
    womens capacity to up businesses. These include
    inadequate access to information ,business
    networks as well as the traditional attitude
    towards the gender role

11
Women entrepreneurship
  • When starting a business, women often face
    different barriers and circumstances than men.
  • They may have to struggle with specific problems
    and do not participate in support programs to the
    same extend that men do.
  • This is despite the fact that women are well
    educated and have innovative business ideas which
    will create new jobs and contribute to challenge.

12
Promotion of Womens Entrepreneurship Objectives
  • To contribute to the elaboration of strategies
    and policies supporting women in using their
    entrerpreneurial potential.
  • To raise awareness among regional decision-makers
    concerning the importance of promoting womens
    entrepreneurship.
  • To develop tools such as financing, incubators
    and seminars for encouraging potential women
    entrepreneurs.
  • To set up regional networks supporting womens
    entrepreneurship.
  • To develop training and education that
    contributes to creating an entrepreneurship
    culture for women.

13
The main three pillars of womens
Entrepreneurship promotion are
  • 1 Creating an enabling environment
  • 2 Capacity building and
  • 3 - Access to financial resources

14
The way forward
Access to Financial Resources Special credit
line Guarantee support Guarantee fund Advocacy
Risk Sharing Chambers/Associations Fund
Generation Govt., Donor, Private Bank
Sources External agencies Government
Creation of Enabling Environment Policy
Support Revision/formulation (establish
consistency) Supportive mechanism (One stop
service) Mainstreaming Advocacy Chambers/Associati
on Measures by Government. Banks
Promotion of Women Entrepreneurship
Capacity Building Associations -Women
Entrepreneurs Service Providers -Information-Skil
ls Development Management Technology Marketing
Support-Linkage Building Donors/Agencies Technical
Assistance Support Services Chambers/Association
s-Institutions-Agencies-Private sector
15
1-Creating an enabling environment
  • This includes creating an enabling environment
    through policy support, taking appropriate
    measures for establishing required support
    networks and looking at every activities,
    policies, measures and services from a
    mainstreaming perspectives.
  • The objective should be to provide a
    comprehensive package of components that will
    contribute towards improving environment of
    entrepreneurship development in the country.

16
  • The Government need to formulate appropriate
    policies supporting women entrepreneurship
    development and revise the existing ones to
    incorporate appropriate provisions.
  • Advocacy from the civil society groups is
    essential to influence the policies and the
    business and professional women as part of the
    civil society group can play a meaningful role
    especially in lobbying with the Chambers and
    associations as well as with the important
    government agencies. Publicity and advocacy based
    on proper analysis can be a critical role for
    BPWs. They can also play a critical role in
    guiding the entrepreneurs with relevant
    information, counseling, and other support.

17
2 Capacity Building
  • Capacity building relates to both vocational and
    managerial capacity including information
    dissermination etc. Capacity has to be considered
    in terms of technical, financial and skills etc.
    This is an area where the civil society groups
    including chambers, associations, women groups,
    NGOs etc. for the women entrepreneurs are
    critical and the business and professional women
    can develop networks with the relevant groups to
    influence creation of provision of supports on
    the basis of identified needs.

18
3 Access to Financial Resources
  • This is the area for all entrepreneurs and the
    public sector has a comprehensive role to play
    especially in the areas of policy development,
    taking specials measures in the area of guarantee
    support, special credit line, provision of quota
    in industrial credit etc.
  • Banks should be oriented to initiate special
    window for financing women owned enterprises.
  • The government should provide policy support for
    collateral free loan up to a certain limit. It
    can develop guarantee fund and can accept
    guarantee by chambers and association etc.

19
Women entrepreneurship promotion
  • From many important aspects, four key issues in
    promotion of women entrepreneurship are dealt
    with
  • Problem awareness.
  • Support instruments.
  • Regional networks.
  • Education and training.

20
Problem awareness
  • Strategies about how to inform political,
    economic and administrative decision makers with
    special needs of women when starting a business
    in order to promote women entrepreneurship and
    develop to promote a culture of women
    entrepreneurship.

21
Support instruments
  • Evaluation of existing instruments of support for
    women entrepreneurs and identification of models

22
Regional networks
  • Setting up and maintaining regional networks for
    women entrepreneurs

23
Ensuring local and national regional
International networking
  • The creation of networks of the organizations
    serving women entrepreneurs is very important in
    order to facilitate their contact with other
    economic policy organizations.

24
Education and training
  • Integration of entrepreneurship into curricula
    and motivation of women at an early stage through
    education and developing skills.

25
Business Education is not entrepreneurship
Education.
  • The opportunity is there for a radical appraisal
    of the education curriculum to help children to
    understand is like to run a small business, and,
    in the case of those in the vocational trades,
    help them convert the skill into self-employed
    business and to prepare young people to work in
    a flexible manner in small a businesses so that
    they understand small companies, recognizing that
    at least a third of the adult work ultimately
    work in small firms.
  • Development of enterprising young people,
    reinforcing and building enterprising behaviors
    such as opportunity seeking taking and problem
    solving, as well as by interpersonal skills
    training and development to build their self
    confidence, self-awareness and ability to work in
    groups.

26
Re-evaluate business education
  • There is an acute need to recognize that many of
    the convention traditional business and
    management education are not appropriate if the
    aim is to encourage small business development
    and entrepreneurship. Small business and
    entrepreneurship education should be
    entrepreneurial. It needs to be focused on the
    process and content of enterprise development,
    from startup, survival, growth or
    internationalization.

27
Access to Technology
  • While technology is being used to assist in
    delivering information to women-owned businesses,
    not all have access to such technology. The
    availability, use of and access to technology
    differs dramatically. percentage of women
    business owners uses technology for anything more
    sophisticated than word-processing . Even with
    the explosion of online technology, accessing it
    may be exceedingly costly in many parts of where
    telecommunication services are metered even for
    local calls.
  • The use of technology as an information tool is a
    great benefit to those with access to it.
    However, there is real danger of creating a new
    type of poverty or challenge for women business
    owners who do not have technology, cannot afford
    it, or are in areas where the facilities for
    technology support do not yet exist.

28
Developing capabilities and skills
  • The first priority should be to provide
    opportunities for more women to develop and use
    their entrepreneurial drive in successfully
    initiating businesses.

29
Women Helping Themselves
  • The potential contribution women entrepreneurs to
    stabilizing their countries economies through
    job creation makes a strong case for policymakers
    give a great attention to them . But if women are
    to succeed as leaders in business, then they are
    going to have helped themselves by building
    strong networks and associations to serve as
    their tools.

30
Womens Entrepreneurship Development
  • WED is the generic title given to action programs
    addressing specific problems encountered by
    various women groups
  • The initiative for developing such programs was
    based on several assumptions
  • Few of the women who assumed the risk of starting
    their own business benefit from programs that
    increase their capabilities and skills in running
    a small business venture.
  • Few business women have access to updated
    information about available financing schemes and
    apply for them.
  • Many women are seeking economic independence but
    few of them have the courage proper knowledge
    to create their own business enterprises.
  • Very few women entrepreneurs are aware that they
    could help themselves and contribute to the
    policymaking process by establishing their own
    effective associations.

31
Womens Entrepreneurship Development According
to ILO (International Labour Organization)
Developing the knowledge base
Developing support services
Promoting advocacy and voice
WED
32
Womens Entrepreneurship Development According
to ILO (International Labour Organization)
  • I ) Developing the knowledge base
  • It is important to have a through knowledge of
    the situation facing women entrepreneurs the
    problems as well as the opportunities. In
    particular we identify the strategic and
    practical needs of women entrepreneurs. This
    enables us to identify innovative and effective
    means of support for women in business.

33
Lessons Drawn from Working Papers Included
  • In both the formal and informal economies, women
    entrepreneurs account for a large number of
    enterprises. They require business support
    services, rather than support in the form of
    welfare or charity.
  • In some countries, women experience barriers
    mainly at the stage of entering into business.
    Once established, they face many of the same
    problems common to all entrepreneurs.
  • Women have difficulty accessing finance, and even
    when they do so they obtain smaller loans than
    men.
  • Networks and associations of women entrepreneurs
    can provide much needed support for new and
    emerging women entrepreneurs, and they are well
    positioned to establish womens business centers.
  • Support for women entrepreneurs needs to take
    account of womens reproductive and household
    responsibilities, as well as existing gender
    relations and roles between women and men.
  • Womens mobility is limited in terms of often
    having to work close to home, having limited
    access to transport, and they have personal
    security considerations.

34
II ) Developing support services for women
entrepreneurs.
  • Lessons emerging from work on the services
    include
  • Support for women entrepreneurs should be
    provided with the knowledge, support and
    participation (where appropriate) of male family
    members.
  • Women require more awareness of market
    information and marketing approaches, as well as
    modern means of distribution, to enable them to
    have greater access to national and international
    markets.
  • Where possible, integrated approaches to the
    economic empowerment of women should be
    developed, including support for literacy, skills
    training, legal rights, heath education combined
    with entrepreneurship, access to credit and
    skills training.

35
III) Promoting advocacy and voice for women
entrepreneurs.
  • It is important that women entrepreneurs are able
    to advocate effectively for support, and that
    their voice is heard by policy-makers.
  • Advocacy and voice need to be promoted at all
    levels, including creating a more positive
    attitude towards the role that women
    entrepreneurs can and do play in economic
    development .
  • Lessons emerging on the Advocacy include
  • Many women especially young graduates and
    school-leavers need to be made aware of
    entrepreneurship and enterprise development as
    positive career options.
  • By developing a systematic knowledge base and
    compliing facts and figures on the status of
    women entrepreneurs, women entrepreneurs voice
    will be taken more seriously by policy-makers

36
The Need for Associations
  • In the democratic policymaking process, womens
    voices need to be heard. The most efficient way
    of in the policymaking process is through
    independent, private, and nonprofit institutions
    created by women themselves. Through their
    associations and grassroots initiatives, women
    can exert political influence legislative
    proposals that affect their interests. They can
  • Educate government agencies about the growing
    importance of women entrepreneurs,
  • Exert pressure for the creation of government
    programs to support entrepreneurs or
  • Lobby directly for institutional changes that
    support women.

37
Womens Business Organizations The Hidden
Strengths and Potential
  • The challenges women in business face are a
    matter of intense debate today. These challenges
    are common worldwide. The impact on women
    business owners may differ according to location,
    culture, ethnic barrier economic policies, and
    other such influential factors, but the
    challenges remain essentially the same.
  • The obstacles women entrepreneurs face are well
    known ,they have experienced the effect of at
    least one of these challenges
  • access to finance
  • access to markets
  • access to information
  • access to training
  • access to and influence on policymakers
  • By creating public awareness, establishing
    pressure groups, educating the public, financial
    institutions policymakers, companies, and other
    organizations with a vested interest in assisting
    women entrepreneurship womens business
    organizations can become powerful lobbying tools
    while providing a higher level of their members
    and increasing membership. It is fundamental for
    those in a position to assist women owners to
    understand that supporting them is not charity-
    it is economic development .Womens business
    organizations can become the most effective
    vehicle to get this message across to decision
    makers who can make a difference

38
Business Women Organizations Common Objectives
  • Almost all countries have same kind of womens
    organizations to bring together women business
    owners. The mandates of these organizations may
    differ, but usually have the same priorities as
  • Promotion of women business owners and the issues
    which are important to them
  • Member support and networking opportunities
  • Education, training, and professional development
  • Effective lobbying and advocacy
  • Business matching and increased business
    opportunities
  • National International Exposure cooperation.

39
What is the Impact of support for womens
entrepreneurship development
  • More jobs for women, and created by women
    entrepreneurs
  • Better jobs for women, and in women owned
    enterprises
  • Higher profits of women-owned enterprises, and
    more income for their families
  • Contributing poverty alleviation
  • New knowledge on inequalities affecting women in
    establishing and running their businesses
  • More representation of women entrepreneurs in
    policy-making bodies and associations of
    employers and workers
  • Developing innovative and replicable approaches
    on WED
  • Effective strategic alliances

40
  • Role of the Government NGOs in Egypt to promote
    Women Entrepreneurship and to eliminate any forms
    of Economic violence against women.

41
A- National Council for Women
  • The National Council for Women (NCW) was
    established by Presidential Decree No. 90 in the
    year 2000 as an independent institution under the
    Presidency of the Republic.
  • The Council is honored to have Her Excellency
    Mrs. Suzanne Mubarak, First Lady of Egypt, as
    President .
  • The presidential Decree, Article 1 stipulates
    proposing public policy matters for society and
    its constitutional institutions on the
    development and the empowerment of women to
    enable them to play their social and economic
    role and to integrate their efforts in
    comprehensive development programs.

42
A- National Council for Women
  • To implement the mandate set forth especially in
    the area of the economic empowerment of women,
    the Council has adopted several model programs,
    one of which is The Women Business Development
    Center (WBDC) initiated through an agreement
    signed between the NCW and the US Agency for
    International Development (USAID).
  • Its Mission is to enhance skills and capabilities
    of Egyptian women in the field on small business
    enterprises in order to facilitate their dynamic
    participation in the development of the national
    economy.
  • Provides training Services, and Business
    Counseling.

43
B-NGOs
  • B - NGOs
  • Including Egyptian Business Women Association ,
    BPW Egypt, other NGOs working on Economic
    Empowerment of Women to have the Power of Choice
    Voice. Through
  • Training Courses Capacity Building
  • Technical Assistance Support Services
  • Advocacy
  • Legal Services
  • Networking with regional international Business
    Associations.
  • Organization of conferences fairs for exchange
    of experience,
  • business contacts promotion marketing of
    products.
  • Awareness Campaigns through Media, conferences,
    seminars for the need of girls education the
    necessity of the democratic raise up of the girl
    child the elimination of any form of
    discrimination between her her brother child.

44
Education of Girls
  • The National Council for Women National Council
    of Childhood are also implementing a very big
    campaign for Education of Girls in Collaboration
    with Ministry of Education NGOs.

45
Trainings available include
  • How to start and manage your own small business
  • Diverse Marketing Techniques
  • Management and Finance
  • How to design a comprehensive Business Plan.
  • Crisis Management and Communication Skills
  • Tailored training sessions based on the needs of
    clientele.
  • Tailored training sessions to improve the skills
    of fresh graduates

46
Conclusion
  • Yong women entrepreneurship promotion
  • Being an Entrepreneur
  • A personality which depends on different factors
  • 1 Environment way of raising up the girl
    child
  • Family parents
  • Culture Society
  • 2 Education
  • School
  • Higher education
  • 3 Economic Awareness
  • 4 Private sector policy governmental support
  • 5 Developing skills
  • 6 Training courses.
  • 7 Networking
  • 8 choice of field of business
  • 9 Membership in business organizations
    affiliation to regional international business
    organizations

47
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