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Anglo Saxon Period

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Title: Anglo Saxon Period


1
Anglo Saxon Period
2
Learn Your ABCs
3
…Learning your Basics
…Learning your Basics
  • When Learning a new language, one of the 1st
    steps taken is learning how to
  • A) Spell your name
  • B) Pronounce your name
  • C) Understand its roots

4
Spelling Your Name
Spelling Your Name
  • Review the Anglo Saxon alphabet and choose the
    letters for your name
  • Replace any combination letters with the
    appropriate symbol
  • I.e. th

5
Pronunciation of Your Name
  • Vowels
  • A E
  • (called ash) is a as in "bat
  • Americans are better at pronouncing this short,
    nasal "a" than the British, especially British
    from the southern half of the country
  • The Scottish have retained this short "a" as
    well

6
Pronunciations of Your Name
  • Consonants
  • If the letter h appears at the beginning of a
    word it is pronounced as it would be in Modern
    English
  • If it appears after a vowel, the letter h is a
    velar or palatal fricative, the actual sound
    being contingent upon the preceding vowel after
    a front vowel, it is palatal, as in German "ich",
    and after a back vowel it is velar, like the
    Scottish word "loch" or German "Bach - which is
    not pronounced "Bock"

7
  • s is pronounced as the Modern English equivalent
    if it is at the beginning of a word, the end of a
    word, or if it is adjacent to an unvoiced
    consonant
  • If it comes between vowels or a vowel and a
    consonant that is voiced then it is pronounced
    like the letter z in Modern English
  • f is occasionally pronounced like a v
  • I.e. Our modern "fox" and "vixen" ultimately
    derive from the same word

8
  • sc is pronounced as the sh sound, as in "ship
  • The Old English word for a ship is scip
  • The Old English word for fish is fisc
  • c can be rendered either a soft consonant pair as
    in child
  • The Old English word for child is cild
  • The Old English word for king is cyning
  • The sound is largely determined by the word
    itself and the vowels adjoining it in that word
  • In modern editions, a soft c, with a sound like
    the modern ch, will be indicated with a dot
    above the c

9
Understand its Roots
Where did Old English come from?
10
Old English
  • Old English also known as SAXON
  • The principle invading Germanic Tribes were the
    ANGLES, SAXONS, JUTES, and FRISIANS
  • Their Anglo- Saxon dialects developed into Old
    English
  • The most commonly used words today derive from
    those early Anglo- Saxon roots, but English
    vocabulary has also been greatly influenced over
    time
  • First it was influenced by SCANDINAVIAN INVADERS
    whom spoke OLD NORSE, which was probably mutually
    comprehensible with Old English
  • Later the language was influenced to an even
    greater extent by the French speaking NORMAN
    INVADERS

11
Angles
  • Angles were one of the Germanic people who
    migrated from continental Germany to Britain in
    the 5th Century
  • That land was later called Engla-lond now known
    as England

12
Angles
  • The Angle homeland, a small peninsular form in
    the southern portion of the modern German
    bundesland of Schleswig- Holdstein
  • Jutland Peninsula is still called Angel today,
    and is formed as a triangle drawn roughly from
    modern Flensburg on the Flensburger Fjord to Kiel
    and then to Maasholm on the Schlei inlet
  • The region's shape, 'an angle' is generally
    believed to be source Angle toponym, although
    some suggest angel as in "to fish" as an
    alternative

13
Saxons
  • The Saxons were a large and powerful Germanic
    people located in what is now northwestern German
    and the eastern Netherlands
  • They are first mentioned by the geographer
    Ptolemy as a people of southern Jutland and
    present-day Schleswig- Holdstein, so they appear
    subsequently to have expanded to the south and
    west

14
Saxons
  • The Saxons invaded Britain in the early Middle
    Ages, giving their names to the kingdoms of
    Essex, Sussex and Wessex
  • The lands respectively of the East, South and
    West Saxons which with the shorter-lived
    Middlesex eventually became part of the kingdom
    of England

15
Jutes
Jutes
  • Jutes were people originally from what is now
    Jutland in modern Denmark
  • Some Jutes, the Angles, Saxons and other Germanic
    people who went to England, although they are
    less well known than the Angles and Saxons
  • According to the Venerable Bede, Jutes settled in
    particular in Kent and on the Isle of Wight

16
Frisians
17
Early Invasions of Britain
  • The Romans invaded in 43 AD
  • Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, they
    evacuated in 410 AD though many of their cultural
    and lingual traditions endured
  • Germanic tribes from Denmark, Germany and the
    Netherlands invade Britain
  • Two of these tribes, the Angles and the Saxons
    come to dominate a Southern part of the country
  • The language spoken by these Anglo Saxons, is
    primarily Germanic
  • It also includes Celtic, Latin and Norse words
  • Ex. Harrow, scythe, sickle… agricultural words

18
Christianity
Christianity
  • Christianity first arrived in Britain in the 6th
    Century, brought by St. Augustine and his
    followers
  • They gradually converted the population until the
    9th Century when most Britons were Christian
  • Latin was introduced to the Anglo Saxons who
    integrated Old English with Latin Vocabulary
  • Ex… Area, bacteria, cancer, circus, complex,
    equilibrium, fungus, pauper, peninsula
  • Instilled a literary tradition in Anglo Saxon
    society

19
The Venerable Bede
  • Born 672 or 673 died 735
  • In his moderation, gentleness, and breadth of
    view, Bede stands out from his contemporaries
  • In point of scholarship he was undoubtedly the
    most learned man of his time
  • He was a monk at Lindisfarne, then later at
    Whitby Abbey
  • Lindisfarne was the first place that the Vikings
    landed at (by boat)

20
HAC SUNT IN FOSSA BEDAE VENERABILIS OSSA
  • 'In this tomb are the bones of the Venerable
    Bede'

21
What Influence did Saint Bede have on
Literature?
22
Bede Where History was Made
  • Saint Bede provided us with a historically rich
    legacy through the his chronicling of

23
Tolkien
  • Tolkien's Love of Languages Tolkien was a
    scholar with deep knowledge of languages both
    modern and ancient. His mother introduced him to
    the study of languages and cultures by teaching
    him Latin, French, and German at home he
    expanded into others when he entered grammar
    school. He continued to learn many other
    languages throughout his schooling and career,
    including Welsh, Finnish, and Old Norse.
  • Tolkien's fascination with language and culture
    resonates throughout The Lord of the Rings.
    Professor of English Jane Chance explains that
    Tolkien was enchanted by language and by the
    power of language
  • Tolkien well understood the power of the written
    and spoken word, philologist that he washe knew
    that words were magic. ... For Tolkien, words
    provide the means to unify and extend the social
    community, to understand the various species of
    nature, and to cross the boundaries of time (past
    and present) and space (the equivalent of earthly
    supernal, and infernal in Middle-earth). One of
    the most vivid expressions of Tolkien's ability
    and interest in languages was the creation of his
    own. Over the course of his life he invented
    several languages, such as Elvish (including
    Quenya and Sindarin), Dwarvish (Khuzdul), Entish,
    and Black Speech.
  • For Tolkien, language was the beginning of a
    culture rather than merely a product of it. "The
    invention of languages," he wrote, "is the
    foundation. The 'stories' were made rather to
    provide a world for the languages than the
    reverse."

24
Riddles
  • Just under a hundred Anglo-Saxon riddles have
    come down to us. We can't say with any certainty
    who composed them, or when, or how, or for what
    purpose. They may have been oral compositions
    short pieces the bards used while their audiences
    were getting settled, or as fill between sets
    during performances of epics such as Beowulf.
    Minstrels might also have sung them in less
    formal situations, where audience attention span
    was short or a higher degree of audience
    participation was desirable.
  • This is only a theory we have no solid evidence
    to come to any definite conclusions as to the
    purpose of original composition for these
    riddles.
  • Some of the riddles, however, do include runes,
    and these imply readers, hearers, and writers who
    had some familiarity with or interest in the
    runic alphabet.

25
Beowulf
  • (From Abrams A Glossary of Literary Terms, 4th
    ed.) An epic or heroic poem that meets at least
    the following criteria
  • it is a long narrative poem on a great and
    serious subject,
  • related in an elevated style,
  • and centered on a heroic or quasi-divine figure
    on whose actions depends the fate of a tribe, a
    nation, or the human race.
  • The "tradition epics" (also called "primary
    epics" or "folk epics") were shaped by a literary
    artist from historical and legendary materials,
    which had developed in the oral traditions of his
    people during a period of expansion and warfare.
    To this class of poems are ascribed the Iliad and
    Odyssey of the Greek Homer, and the Anglo-Saxon
    epic Beowulf.
  • Now and then, a servant of the king, A man with
    talent in the telling and remembering The
    multitude of stories, the many ancient
    sagas, Would find new ways to weave old
    words Together in such order as to make them
    tell The story now of Beowulf.

26
Celtic Influence
  • While Anglo-Saxon culture and language spread
    swiftly across east and central Britain during
    the 6th and 7th centuries, corners of the isle
    retained the languages of the previous dominant
    culture, the Celtic peoples who are believed to
    have begun arriving around 600 BC. Today, the
    people who inhabit these areas take a pride in
    preserving these languages as a way of protecting
    their heritage. However, the Celtic peoples who
    invaded Britain are believed to have integrated
    with the people who previously inhabited the
    island, absorbing elements of the language spoken
    by this group, much in the way that the Normans
    were later to adopt many English words in order
    to adapt to their new homeland.
  • Celtic words in OE come from three identifiable
    sources from the continent (usually words
    associated with conflict and battle the Celts
    were often used as armies for hire), loans
    taken over after settlement (usually place
    names), and words from Ireland frequently
    associated with the Christianisation of Britain.
  • However, the Anglo-Saxons terrorised rather than
    integrated with the Celts, and so their languages
    became isolated in corners of the isle, until the
    efficiency of the Norman conquest created a
    linguistic hierarchy with Celtic languages
    entrenched firmly at the bottom. The pockets of
    land that remained dominantly Celtic are divided
    linguistically into two branches Goidelic
    (Gaelic) and Brythonic (British).
  • For the most part, Celtic influence on the
    English language is mostly apparent through place
    names. For generations, the language of the Celts
    was referred to as British the language of
    the Britons, the native inhabitants of the land.
    Some names that survive are the names of rivers
    such as the Thames and the Yare, and important
    Roman towns such as London, York and Lincoln. A
    number of names are compounds of Celtic and
    Anglo-Saxon words. Two Celtic words for "hill"
    bre and pen appear in a number of names.

27
Oral Tradition
  • The use of vernacular languages for the written
    word had something of a fluctuating history, with
    a general tendency to increase towards the later
    part of the middle ages. Languages are the most
    powerful symbol of ethnic identity. The
    encouragement or repression of vernacular
    literacy has tended to coincide with the
    expression or suppression of national or ethnic
    boundaries.
  • The use of vernacular languages in written works
    of any type cannot be divorced from events and
    politics. The adoption of forms of Roman
    civilization by the Ostrogoth conquerors of Rome
    resulted in the production of Bibles and other
    Christian texts using the Gothic language. These
    are now mainly known only from palimpsests.
  • Literacy was re-established in Anglo-Saxon
    society through the church and was therefore
    grounded in Latin. However, a cultural and ethnic
    revival in the 9th century under the influence of
    Alfred the Great resulted in the production of
    works in Old English. These included Biblical
    texts, histories and religious commentaries and
    were, in fact, Latin works translated into
    English rather than a recording of the cultural
    heritage of English oral tradition. The famous
    manuscript of Beowulf, an epic saga from oral
    tradition, is in fact known from only one copy
    produced probably hundreds of years after the
    composition of the tale.

28
Art
  •  This was the official crest for the Celtic Harts
    Society. I had a heck of a time finding a Celtic
    version of a stag in my reference books! There
    were a few in some metalworks, and as well one in
    the Book of Kells. After figuring out the common
    characteristics among all the stags, I made my
    own "leaping stag", which I think comes closest
    to the style of the Kells stag I had found. The
    original also contains added touches of gold
    leaf, which do not appear in the poster edition.
  •  This was the official crest for the Celtic Harts
    Society. I had a heck
  • of a time finding a Celtic version of a stag in
    my reference books! There were a few in some
    metalworks, and as well one in the Book of Kells.
    After figuring out the common characteristics
    among all the stags, I made my own "leaping
    stag", which I think comes closest to the style
    of the Kells stag I had found. The original also
    contains added touches of gold leaf, which do not
    appear in the poster edition
  •  A Celtic tiger, now there's something you hardly
    ever see! This
  • painting was a private commission, and the
    challenge was to create not only a tiger, Celtic
    style, but to also incorporate a leafy feel to
    his background out of knotwork. Celtic cats are
    usually either domestic household cats, or lions,
    so it was really interesting figuring out how I
    was going to create a tiger version, and get his
    ruff and stripes depicted appropriately. He is in
    wonderful vibrant colors, and I love the way the
    green offsets the oranges and reds in him.
  •  A Celtic tiger, now there's something you hardly
    ever see! This painting was a private commission,
    and the challenge was to create not only a tiger,
    Celtic style, but to also incorporate a leafy
    feel to his background out of knotwork. Celtic
    cats are usually either domestic household cats,
    or lions, so it was really interesting figuring
    out how I was going to create a tiger version,
    and get his ruff and stripes depicted
    appropriately. He is in wonderful vibrant colors,
    and I love the way the green offsets the oranges
    and reds in him.

29
Special Thanks to Steven Basel
  • Who made it extremely PRETTY!!
  • Because Kiyomi Walker is computer retarded
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