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Qualitative Data


... the social sciences to enable researchers to study social and cultural phenomena. ... documents and texts, and the researchers impressions and reactions. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Qualitative Data

Qualitative Data
Presented by Carol Askin Instructional
Media/Data Analysis Advisor Local District 6
What is Qualitative Data and Research?
Qualitative research methods were developed in
the social sciences to enable researchers to
study social and cultural phenomena. Examples of
qualitative methods are action research and case
study research. Qualitative data sources
include observation and participant observation
(fieldwork), interviews and questionnaires,
documents and texts, and the researchers
impressions and reactions.
Qualitative Analysis has a focus on
understanding and meaning based on verbal
narratives, observations and other subtle
clues.  Types of data can be gathered from
open-ended interviews and participant
observations from the activity.  Data analysis is
inductive and ongoing.
Why Use Qualitative Data?
  • Use to explore questions and issues
  • Use when you dont know a lot about
  • the subject
  • Use when you dont know what
  • questions to put on a survey
  • Use when you have no hypothesis
  • Use to develop a hypothesis

Methods of Qualitative Data
In-Depth Interviews
In-Depth Interviews include both individual
interviews (e.g., one-on-one) as well as "group"
interviews (including focus groups). The data can
be recorded in a wide variety of ways including,
audio recording, video recording or written
notes.   In depth interviews differ from direct
observation primarily in the nature of the
interaction.  In interviews it is assumed that
there is a questioner and one or more
interviewees.  The purpose of the interview is to
probe the ideas of the interviewees about the
area of interest.

Direct Observation
  • Direct observation is meant very broadly. 
    It differs from interviewing in that the observer
    does not actively talk to the respondent.  It can
    include everything from field research where one
    lives in another context or culture for a period
    of time to photographs that illustrate some
    aspect of the phenomenon.  The data can be
    recorded in many of the same ways as interviews
    (stenography, audio, video) and through pictures,
    photos or drawings (e.g., those courtroom
    drawings of witnesses are a form of direct

Written Documents
Usually this refers to existing documents (as
opposed transcripts of interviews conducted for
the research). It can include newspapers,
magazines, books, websites, memos, transcripts of
conversations, annual reports, etc.
Tips for Qualitative Analysis
  • Start right away and keep a running record
  • in your notes.
  • Include more than one person in the process.
  • 3. Allow enough time for the process.
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