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Physical and Cultural Adaptation to High Altitude

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Physical and Cultural Adaptation to High Altitude. Environmental Stressors: ... Genetic or Evolutionary Adaptation- Change in Gene frequencies and takes a long time ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical and Cultural Adaptation to High Altitude


1
  • Physical and Cultural Adaptation to High Altitude
  • Environmental Stressors
  • Cold Stress-Cultural and Physical
  • Aridity-Cultural
  • High Solar Radiation-Cultural
  • Hypoxic Conditions-Physical
  • Adaptation versus Adjustments
  • Acclimatization

2
Behavioral Ecology Evolutionary
Perspective Genetic or Evolutionary Adaptation-
Change in Gene frequencies and takes a long time
Phenotype/Developmental Adjustments-Behavior
and Morphology Individual or Population
response to Environment Why would Genetic
Adaptation be negative? Isolated Populations
Genetic Drift Gene Flow- Migration and
Globalization Mutation
3
  • Hypoxic Conditions
  • Lower Barometric Pressure results in less oxygen
    available same amount in air, but is less dense,
    so less oxygen is inhaled.
  • At 4500m- Oxygen pressure decreases by 40 from
    sea level
  • Culture cannot change oxygen levels in
    environment
  • Human Adjustments are Physiological-Developmental
    to maintain Aerobic Metabolic Processes and
    maintain stable

4
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5
  • How Do Humans Adjust to Hypoxic Stress?
  • Oxygen Transport System of the Body
  • Lungs Capacity
  • Heart Blood Flow
  • Blood Red Blood Cells (volume) and Hemoglobin
  • Oxygen Saturation

6
  • Lungs Developmental
  • Chest Cavity Increase Volume (timing and
    exposure)
  • Enlarged Nostrils
  • Greater Residual Lung Volume Retain Oxygen
  • Pulmonary Ventilation 20-40 higher-
  • BUT doesnt increase metabolism-nor
    hyperventilation
  • Hypocapnia- low Carbon Dioxide in blood?
  • Dilated Alveoli of Lungs
  • Dilation of Capillary Beds in Lungs

7
  • Oxygen Saturation in the Blood
  • 1890 Viault counted red blood cells between high
    and low altitudes in Peru- 5 mill to 8 mill at
    4500m.
  • Increase Oxygen in the Blood
  • Red Blood Cells
  • Hemoglobin- Protein in rbc that carries Oxygen
  • Increase in rbc thickens blood
  • Enlarged Capillaries that transport blood is
    this a response to thicker blood or an adjustment
    to move more blood more quickly to get more
    oxygen?

8
  • Chronic Mountain Sickness Monges Disease
  • Acclimatization Those adjusted going from high
    to low to high
  • Polycythemia increase in rbc and hemoglobin
    causes blood to thicken
  • This will cause heart failure and lung failure
  • Cures Move to low altitude immediately
  • Phlebotomy-Bleeding
  • Progesterone helps increase respiratory
    ventilation
  • This is most common in Males
  • High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE)
  • High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE)

9
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10
Reproduction Cultural versus Physiological
Fecundity Change of Conception-Exposure to
intercourse/marriage, Sperm Production,
Menarche, Lactational Infecundability Fertility
Production of live offspring. Infant mortality
rates. Low Birth Weights/Fetal Growth
Retardation Is this an adaptive advantage? Is
this an adaptive repercussion (mother)? Is this
the cause of high infant mortality in the first
month? Does cold stress influence this? Living
conditions, nutrition?
11
  • Growth
  • Developmental Stages of life
  • Chest cavity will enlarge at this stage of life
  • High Alt. adolescence/puberty usually not
    complete till mid-20s.
  • Shorter growth effects males more- less sexual
    dimorphism
  • Does diet and nutrition effect native high
    altitude growth?
  • High Alt. native children need more energy work,
    cold, hypoxia
  • Less protein and developmental nutrients?
  • Is being smaller an adaptive response to the
    cold?

12
  • Are these Biological Adjustments Universal?
  • NO!!
  • Andes Classic-Increase hemoglobin, lung volume
    and oxygen saturation.
  • Tibet Same hemoglobin as lower altitudes,
    increase resting ventilation though, and oxygen
    saturation.
  • Ethiopia Have neither of thesehow do they
    remain in this hypoxic environment??
  • How does this reflect longevity of being at high
    alt and microevolutionary processes? Do they
    enhance Darwinian Fitness? Costs and Benefits???

13
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14
Coca Use in the Andes Physical and Cultural
Meaning Hypoglycemia Control Blood
Sugar Atropine-An amino alcohol Heat
Retainer/Vasoconstriction Appetite Suppressant
Seasonal Energy Stress and Caloric
Deprivation Vitamins and Mineral Supplements
Vitamin A llipta- calcium
15
Cold Stress Temps. Will drop .5 C for every
100m Some evidence that Andean people can resist
harm to extremities. Smaller extremities, larger
core. Can withstand lower core temperatures than
Europeans. Small stature-low surface mass ratio,
can retain heat better What about children and
LBW? Most cold stress adaptations are cultural
regulatory responses Clothing Shelter Schedule

16
Clothing
17
Shelter
18
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20
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