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MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION: STRATEGIES FOR COPING WITH THE PREDICTED EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

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ADAPTATION ADDRESSES THE 'BACK END' OF THE PROBLEM. ... MITIGATION & ADAPTATION ... ADAPTATION IS NOW ON THE AMERICAN AGENDA BECAUSE OF HURRICANE KATRINA AND ITS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION: STRATEGIES FOR COPING WITH THE PREDICTED EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE


1
MITIGATION AND ADAPTATIONSTRATEGIES FOR COPING
WITH THE PREDICTED EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE
CHANGE
  • IF THE PREDICTIONS ARE RIGHT, WE WILL BE LIVING
    WITH THE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE
    REST OF OUR LIVES

2
WE MUST ANTICIPATE OUR RISK
3
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • GLOBAL WARMING WAS ONLY DISCUSSED IN A
    HYPOTHETICAL WAY FOR MANY YEARS.
  • IT WAS CON-SIDERED AS A THREAT FOR THE DISTANT
    FUTURE.
  • NOW, GLOBAL WARMING IS INCREASINGLY BEING
    REGARDED AS A CLEAR FACT.
  • IT IMPLIES SERIOUS NEW RISKS FOR PRESENT AND
    FUTURE GEN-ERATIONS.

4
MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION
  • MITIGATION ADDRESSES THE FRONT END OF THE
    GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM.
  • IT INCLUDES ACTIONS THAT WILL PREVENT THE RELEASE
    OF EXCESS CO2 EMMISIONS.
  • ADAPTATION ADDRESSES THE BACK END OF THE
    PROBLEM.
  • IT INCLUDES ACTIONS THAT WILL SAFE-GUARD A
    PERSON, A COMMUNITY, A BUSINESS, OR A NATION.

5
MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • ADAPTATION IS REQUIRED BECAUSE WE CAN NOT TURN
    OFF THE MOMENTUM OF GLOBAL WARMING IN A SHORT
    TIME.
  • CARBON DIOXIDE REMAINS IN THE ATMOSPHERE FOR
    DECADES, AND ---
  • OCEANS STORE HEAT FOR CENTURIES.

6
MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • MANY COUNTRIES ARE MAKING LARGE INVESTMENTS AND
    TAKING ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS NOW.
  • LEADERS RECOGNIIZE THAT THE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL
    WARMING WILL LIKELY INCREASE THE RISKS FOR
    PEOPLE, BUSINESSES, AND COMMUNITIES LIVING OR
    LOCATED IN COASTAL AREAS OR IN FLOODPLAINS.

7
THE NETHERLANDS MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • AFTER 800 YEARS EXPERIENCE BATTLING THE NORTH
    SEA, THE NETHERLANDS HAS CREATED SOME OF THE
    STRONGEST FLOOD DEFENSES IN THE WORLD.
  • PRESENT RIVER DEFENSES PROVIDE 1-IN -250
    YEARS PROTECTION LEVELS.

8
THE NETHERLANDS MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • THE OOESTERSCHELDEKERING, A PART OF THE DELTA
    WORKS DAMS, DEFENDS AGAINST THE NORTH SEA.
  • THEY ARE NOW BEING MADE STRONGER TO PROVIDE
    1-IN-100,000 YEARS PROTECTION INSTEAD OF
    1-IN-10,000 YEARS PROTECTION.

9
THE NETHERLANDS MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • THE DUTCH ARE ALSO REVISING TRADITIONAL FLOOD
    MANAGEMENT THINKING.
  • IN ADDITION TO CONTAINING THE FLOOD WATERS, THEY
    WILL ALLOW CERTAIN DESIGNATED LOCATIONS TO BE
    FLOODED.
  • THIS TRATEGY IS CALLED, LIVING WITH WATER.

10
THE OOESTERSCHELDEKERING THE NETHERLANDS
11
THE NETHERLANDS MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • THE NETHERLANDS WILL COMMIT ABOUT 1.3 BILLION
    ANNUALLY TO INCREASE PROTECTION LEVELS.
  • THIS INVESTMENT IS EQUAL TO ABOUT 0.2 PERCENT OF
    THE NETHERLANDS GDP.

12
BRITAIN MITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • THE BRITISH ARE IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE
    THAMES BARRIER, A SET OF FLOODGATES ACROSS THE
    THAMES RIVER.
  • THE BARRIER IS NOW BEING CLOSED 10 TIMES A YEAR
    TO PROVIDE 1-IN-2,000 YEARS PROTECTION
    OF LONDON FROM FLOODING CAUSED BY OCEAN STORM
    SURGES.

13
THAMES RIVER BARRIER
14
BRITAINMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • THE PREDICTED RISE IN SEA LEVEL BY 2030 IS
    EXPECTED TO REQUIRE AN INCREASE IN PROTECTION
    ALONG THE THAMES TO 1-IN-1,000 YEARS.
  • THE ENTIRE SYSTEM WILL LIKELY BE REPLACED AND
    UPGRADED BY 2100.

15
JAPANMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • JAPAN IS ANTICIPATING MUCH MORE WATER FROM
    RISEING SEA LEVEL, OCEAN STORM SURGES, TSUNAMI
    WAVE RUN UP, AND EXCESSIVE PRECIPITATION FROM
    TYPHOONS.
  • ITS G-CANS PROJECT HAS CREATED MASSIVE
    UNDERGROUND CONCRETE RIVER CHANNELS IN NORTHWEST
    TOKYO THAT FACILITATES MOVEMENT OF EXCESS WATER
    AWAY FROM TOKYO.

16
JAPAN G-CANS PROJECT
17
JAPANMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • JAPAN HAS INSTALLED UNDERGROUND PUMPS THAT CAN
    PUMP 100 TONS OF WATER PER SECOND OUT OF RIVERS
    AND INTO THE HARBOR TO PREVENT FLOODING OF CTY
    STREETS.
  • BUT, THIS SYSTEM IS ALREADY CONSIDERED TO BE
    OPERATING AT FULL CAPACITY NOW.

18
BANGLADESHMITIGATION ADAPTATION
19
BANGLADESHMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • BANGLADESH, ONE OF THE MOST VULNERABLE PLACES ON
    EARTH TO GLOBAL WARMING, NOW REQUIRES USE OF
    CLIMATE CHANGE MODELS IN ALL FUTURE PLANNING AND
    DECISIONS.
  • IT HAS BEGUN SWITCHING LAND USE FROM RICE FARMING
    TO PRAWN FARMING IN LOCATIONS WHRE SALT WATER IN
    THE BAY OF BENGAL IS NOW MOVING INLAND.

20
BANGLADESHMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • BUT BANGLADESH IS ONE OF THE POOREST COUNTRIES IN
    THE WORLD.
  • IT CAN NOT AFFORD THE INVESTMENTS REQUIRED FOR
    ADAPTATION MEASURES NOW UNDERWAY IN MANY
    INDUSTRALIZED COUNTRIES.
  • INTERNATIONAL AID IS NOW BECOMING AVAILABLE.

21
UNITED STATESMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • ADAPTATION IS NOW ON THE AMERICAN AGENDA BECAUSE
    OF HURRICANE KATRINA AND ITS IMPACT ON NEW
    ORLEANS AND THE GULF COAST.
  • NEW ORLEANS HAS BECOME A LABORATORY FOR SCIENCE,
    TECHNOLOGY, HAZARD INSURANCE, AND PUBLIC POLICY.

22
NEW ORLEANSMITIGATION ADAPTATION
23
NEW ORLEANS LEVEE SYSTEM
24
UNITED STATESMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • NEW ORLEANS LEVEE SYSTEM ONLY PROVIDES 1-IN-100
    YEARS PROTECTION NOW.
  • 122 LEVEES IN THE SYSTEM ARE NOW CONSIDERED TO BE
    INADEQUATE FOR MORE SEVERE EFFECTS EXPECTED IN
    FUTURE HURRICANES.

25
LEVEE SYSTEMMITIGATION ADAPTATION
26
UNITED STATESMITIGATION ADAPTATION
  • DEFENSE IN DEPTH, A THREE-LAYERED SYSTEM, HAS
    BEEN DEVISED TO PROTECT NEW ORLEANS.
  • THE INNER LAYER CONSISTS OF HARDENED LEVEES AND
    FLOOD WALLS.
  • THE MIDDLE LAYER IS COMPRISED OF A LARGE EXPANSE
    OF WETLANDS.
  • THE OUTER LAYER CONSISTS OF BARRIER ISLANDS IN
    THE GULF OF MEXICO.
  • EACH LAYER ACTS LIKE A SPEED BUMP TO ABSORB AND
    REDUCE THE ENERGY AND ADVERSE IMPACTS OF THE
    STORM.
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