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Coffee: the new health food against type 2 diabetes?

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Diabetes type 2 affects over one million in UK in early 2004. ... JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY 13 (12): 717-726, DEC 2002 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Coffee: the new health food against type 2 diabetes?


1
Coffee the new health food against type 2
diabetes?
  • Claire Prunel-ENSAIA student
  • Update 07/27/2004

2
Diabetes type 2 affects over one million in UK in
early 2004.Is it worth drinking large amount of
coffee to reduce development of type 2 diabetes?

  • ?

3
The protective effect of coffee consumption
  • A Swedish study a 18 year-follow-up-study (1981
    to 1999)
  • Reliable study lot of factors taking into
    account
  • Sort of coffee?
  • A Dutch study (Nov 2002)
  • Conclusion drink at least 7 cups of coffee a
    day lower risk of type 2 DM compared with less
    than 2 cups of coffee a day
  • Type of coffee? paper filtered coffee
  • They look at the lifestyle habits
  • A Japanese study
  • Same results that the Dutch study
  • Caffeine is known to increase lipolysis and to
    enhance insulin secretion

4
The protective effect of coffee consumption
  • The Finnish study published in March 2004 a
    12-year follow-up study
  • Data combined from 3 previous studies
  • Result people who drank at least 3-4 cups a day
    reduce by 30 the risk of development of type 2
    diabetes
  • Reliable study they looked at a variety of
    lifestyle factors (low physical activity,
    smoking, alcohol consumption, socioeconomic
    status, education)

5
No conclusive results about the protective effect
of coffee
  • One study attempted to replicate the Dutch
    finding among the Pima Indians(2002)
  • Result No relationship between coffee
    consumption and type 2 diabetes
  • Coffee consumption was associated with lower
    socio economic status and less healthy behaviours
  • The Finnish study
  • They used to consume boiled coffee
  • Unhealthy lifestyle factors as diet werent take
    into account

6
  • Conclusion Researchers say it is too soon to
    recommend people increase their daily dose of
    coffee.

7
Composition of roasted coffee (according to
variety) and of instant coffee ( of dry basis)
8
Harmful components
9
Pentacyclic diterpenes need to be eliminated
  • Appear when you add hot water on coffee beans
    16-O-methylcafestol (Robusta coffee), cafestol
    (Arabica coffee), kahweol (Arabica)
  • No present in any other foods
  • Largely esterified with fatty acids, no present
    in free form
  • Negative effect ? increase cholesterol levels in
    affecting the livers metabolism of cholesterol
    and increase plasma triacylglycerol
  • gt The main risk to contract diabetes is a high
    level of triglycerides

10
Pentacyclic diterpenes need to be eliminated
  • The absolute amount depend on the type of
    preparation
  • Lowest amount in filtered coffee 0.3 of the
    initial quantity
  • Intermediate amount in espresso 2.5 of the
    initial quantity
  • One cup of unfiltered coffee 3mg enough to
    increase cholesterol level
  • gt Solution TO FILTER COFFEE TO REMOVE THE
    TERPENES

11
Beneficial components of coffee
  • Antioxidants
  • Caffeine
  • Minerals

12
Antioxidants
  • 1300 naturally present
  • Offset negative effects of caffeine
  • Chlorogenic and caffeic acids
  • Antioxidant activity and delay LDL oxidation (In
    contact with arteries cells, LDL are oxidized
    unloading cholesterol. It induces formation of
    lesions full of cholesterol in arteries that
    increases risk of CHD).
  • Chlorogenic acid -increases glucose tolerance
  • -decreases some plasma and liver lipids

13
Antioxidants
  • Quinides of roasted coffee a degradation product
    of chlorogenic acids
  • Enhance insulin action by increase whole body
    glucose disposal independently of muscles
  • Experiment in rats gt to confirm
  • Tocopherols
  • Phenols and polyphenols

14
Minerals
  • Offset negative effects of caffeine
  • Magnesium
  • Affect blood sugar regulation
  • Lower insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and
    increases insulin secretion
  • Insulin stimulates the transport of Mg from
    extracellular to intracellular compartment
  • Potassium
  • Potassium is depleted by low blood sugar ? lack
    of K
  • Potassium deficiency promote hypoglycaemia
  • Calcium

15
Caffeine
  • Activates energy metabolism
  • Increases metabolic rate and thermogenesis of
    brown adipose tissue (in mice)
  • Improves glucose tolerance and reduce fasting
    plasma concentration of insulin because it
    upregulates expression of UCP (Uncoupling
    Protein)
  • Caffeine may overcome the energy imbalance
    accompanied by unfavourable lifestyle and improve
    glucose homeostasis.

16
Differences between white and brown adipose
tissue
  • Structure and functions are different
  • White adipose tissue is the fat tissue providing
    insulation and by storing triglyceride it appears
    as energy depot
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is unique in mammals
    and rodents. It is a heat-producing tissue where
    energy is dispersed as heat instead of being used
    in ATP synthesis through an oxidation of fuels
    via UCP. In fact, BAT contains mitochondria
    expressing a unique protein called UCP, found as
    a main factor of development of obesity.

17
References
  • 1- Saremi A, Tulloch-Reid M, Knowler WC Coffee
    consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
    DIABETES CARE 26 (7) 2211-2212, JUL 2003
  • 2- Kurzrock T, Speer K Diterpenes and diterpene
    esters in coffee. FOOD REVIEWS INTERNATIONAL 17
    (4) 433-450, 2001
  • 3- Daniel S W Tan Coffee consumption and risk
    of type 2 diabetes mellitus. THE LANCET Volume
    361, Issue 9358 , Page 702, FEB 2003
  • 4- A. Rosengren, A. Dotevall, L. Wilhelmsen, D.
    Thelle S. Johansson Coffee and incidence of
    diabetes in Swedish women a prospective 18-year
    follow-up study. JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Vol
    255 Issue 1 Page 89 , JAN 2004
  • 5- Urgert R, Schulz AG, Katan MB. Effects of
    cafestol and kahweol from coffee grounds on serum
    lipids and serum liver enzymes in humans. AM J
    CLIN NUTRI. 61(1)149-54, JAN 1995
  • 6- De Sotillo DVR, Hadley M. Chlorogenic acid
    modifies plasma and liver concentrations of
    cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and minerals in
    (fa/fa) Zucker rats. JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL
    BIOCHEMISTRY 13 (12) 717-726, DEC 2002
  • 7- Shearer J, Farah A, de Paulis T, Bracy DP,
    Pencek RR, Graham TE, Wasserman DH Quinides of
    roasted coffee enhance insulin action in
    conscious rats. JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 133 (11)
    3529-3532, NOV 2003

18
References
  • 8- Jaakko Tuomilehto Coffee Consumption and risk
    of Type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle aged and
    Finnish men and women. JAMA 2911213-1219, JAN
    2004
  • 9- Farah S.L. Thong, Wim Derave, Bente Kiens
    Caffeine-Induced Impairment of Insulin Action but
    Not Insulin Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle Is
    Reduced by Exercise. Diabetes 51583-590, 2002
  • 10- Jerry L. Nadler Diabetes and Magnesium The
    Emerging Role of Oral Magnesium Supplementation.
    The Magnesium Report, 2000
  • Web sites
  • 1- http//www.caromont.org/17836.cfm , 2004
  • 2- http//www.mgwater.com/diabetes.shtml, 2002
  • 3- http//www.ico.org/event/cofhealth/patarroyo.pd
    f, 2004
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