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The Integration of the Georgia Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions with Comprehensive School Counseling: A Framework that Supports All Students

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Title: The Integration of the Georgia Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions with Comprehensive School Counseling: A Framework that Supports All Students


1
The Integration of the Georgia Student
Achievement Pyramid of Interventions with
Comprehensive School Counseling A Framework
that Supports All Students
  • Gail M. Smith, Supervisor School Counseling
  • Debbie Lozo, Supervisor Special Education
  • Laurel Kinard, Director Student Assistance
    Programs

2
Georgias Student AchievementPyramid of
Interventions
  • a framework of instructional/behavioral
    interventions that maximizes student performance
    for ALL students.

3
How does the Pyramid of Interventions
maximize student performance?
4
It is a model that is
  • Proactive
  • Collaborative
  • Data-driven
  • Multi-tiered
  • Whole child centered

5
Pyramid of Interventions
Tier 4 Specially Designed Instruction
Special Education
  • Tier 3 Intensive
  • Interventions - SST
  • Individualized refine and intensify
  • More indepth assessment
  • data analysis
  • Strategies interventions
  • tailored to specific needs
  • Consideration for referral to special education
    and/other programs only when data indicates a
    need
  • Tier 2 Targeted Interventions
  • Tier 1 more TLC
  • Standard intervention protocols
  • Problem solving process data analysis
  • Tailored to student needs
  • Enhanced opportunities for extended learning
  • Targeted small groups and selected individuals
  • Includes more frequent progress monitoring
  • Planned to address developmental domains
    (academic, communication/language,
    social/emotional, etc.)
  • Tier 1 Performance Based Instruction for ALL
    students
  • Standards based curriculum
  • Research-based practices and strategies
  • Differentiated instruction
  • Effective classroom management
  • Guided by progress monitoring and balanced
    assessment
  • Planned to address developmental domains
    (academic, communication/language,
    social/emotional, etc.)

6
Tier 1
  • What All Students Receive
  • Performance based instruction for all students
  • Standards based curriculum
  • Research based practices
  • Differentiated instruction
  • Effective classroom management
  • Attention to developmental domains (academic,
    communication/ language,
    social/emotional, etc.)
  • Progress monitoring and problem solving
  • Assessment to determine what students need

7
Tier 2
  • Targeted Interventions, Additional Focus and
    Intensity
  • Interventions are available in the general
    education setting
  • Opportunities to increase exposure (engaged time
    on targeted content)
  • Problem Solving Process and data analysis
  • Tailored to student needs
  • Designed for flexible groupings, some small
    groups
  • Attention to developmental domains
  • More frequent progress monitoring
  • Short term in nature - most Tier 2 interventions
    should have an end
  • Documentation of interventions and outcomes begins

8
Tier 3
  • Intensive, Individualized
  • More individualized problem solving model
  • Can include Title 1, Reading Recovery, remedial
    services, and other district initiatives as long
    as interventions and strategies are documented
  • Includes longer term interventions
  • In depth assessment, formative assessments, and
    data analysis
  • More specialized strategies and interventions
  • Child specific focus
  • Data used for consideration of eligibility for
    special education are the data that have been
    gathered through the provision of supplemental
    services using Pyramid of Intervention services
    in Tier 1 2

9
Tier 4
  • Specially Designed Learning
  • Specialized programs, methodologies, or
    instructional
  • deliveries
  • Greater frequency of progress monitoring

10
Behavioral Interventions
Specially Designed
-decrease group size -increase dosage or amount
of interventions -use flexible groups
-individual behavior plan -classroom
behavior management plan
-school wide discipline
Individualized Core Team
Smaller Group School Intervention Teams
Whole Group Classroom Teacher
11
Behavioral Interventions
  • Rarely does behavior occur without relationship
    to the academic environment.
  • Georgia Department of Education, 2008

12
Tier 1
  • What All Students Receive
  • Universal school-wide expectations, rules, and
    procedures serve as the standards
  • for behavior
  • 80-90 are expected to respond positively.
  • Georgia Department of Education, 2008

13
Tier 2
  • Targeted Interventions, Additional Focus and
    Intensity
  • Most common data used is office referral
  • Most common screener is classroom teacher
  • Targeted skills include re-teaching and practice
    of specific behaviors
  • Monitored by teacher checklists, office
    referrals, or rating scales
  • Georgia Department of Education, 2008

14
Tier 3
  • Intensive, Individualized
  • May include a more in depth analysis of students
    behavior
  • May include a functional behavioral assessment
  • Academic assessments may also be completed as the
    link between academic deficits and behavior can
    not be ignored
  • A Behavior Intervention Plan may be developed
  • Georgia Department of Education, 2008

15
Tier 4
  • Specially Designed Learning
  • Specialized programs, methodologies, or
    instructional deliveries
  • Greater frequency of progress monitoring
  • Georgia Department of Education, 2008

16
A Comprehensive School Counseling Program
  • American School Counselor Association, 2003
  • A program foundation
  • A delivery system
  • A management system
  • Accountability

17
Practical Overlap
  • Pyramid of Interventions
  • Proactive
  • Collaborative
  • Data-driven
  • Multi-tiered
  • Whole child centered
  • School Counseling Pyramid
  • Proactive
  • Collaborative
  • Data-driven
  • Multi-tiered
  • Whole child centered

18
School Counseling Pyramid

Specialized Interventions
Individual Support
Intentional Guidance
Classroom Guidance
School Improvement
19
School Improvement
  • The school improvement plan is the basis of an
    effective school counseling program.
  • Needs assessment
  • School profile
  • Data

20
Tier 1 Guidance Curriculum
  • Developmental in design, educational and
    preventive in nature, and comprehensive in scope,
    the guidance curriculum ensures that every
    student in the school will receive services from
    the guidance program.
  • Dimmitt, Carey, Hatch (2007)

21
Tier 2 Intentional Guidance
  • The intentional guidance philosophy is that some
    kids need more.
  • Disaggregating data can reveal equity and access
    issues
  • Competencies
  • Barriers to learning
  • Systemic issues
  • Dimmitt, Carey, Hatch (2007)

22
Tier 3 Individual Support
  • Can include
  • Individual student planning (appraisal or
    advisement)
  • Consultation with parents, teachers, other
    educators, community
  • Individual counseling
  • Crisis counseling/response
  • Referrals
  • Peer facilitation
  • Dimmitt, Carey, Hatch (2007)

23
Tier 4 Specialized Interventions
  • Agency referral
  • Emergency crisis treatment
  • Family preservation
  • Long-term therapy
  • Probation/incarceration
  • Hospitalization
  • Disabilities programs
  • Adelman Taylor, 1999

24
In the past, school counselors were trained to
deliver services one-on-one, behind closed doors,
ancillary to the academic program. Today,
individual counseling can be considered a Tier 3
intervention.
25
With the introduction of the comprehensive model,
the delivery of services has shifted from
primarily Tier 3 to Tier 1, classroom guidance
Tier 2, intentional guidance andTier 3,
individual support
26
Both models have the same goal in mind EQUITY
and ACCESS to quality instructional and
behavioral support for ALL students to maximize
student performance.
27
Pyramid of Interventions
School Counseling Pyramid
28
Tier 4 Specialized Interventions
Tier 3 Individual Support
Tier 2 Intentional Guidance
Tier 1 Classroom Guidance
Kinard, Lozo Smith (2008)
29
Effective school counseling programs are linked
to School Improvement and overlap with the
Pyramid of Interventions.
30
The shift is encouraging counselors to develop
data-driven practices that support School
Improvement and maximize Student Performance
rather than operate in isolation.
31
Cobb County School DistrictIntervention/Preventio
n Programs
  • Coalition of Treatment Providers
  • Sources of Strength
  • QPR
  • Cobb Cyber Safe
  • Youth Leadership
  • Botvin Life Skills
  • Second Step Violence Prevention Curriculum
  • Olweus Bully Prevention
  • SUPER Program
  • Emergency Response and Crisis Management
  • Community Collaborations
  • Gang Prevention and Intervention
  • Positive School Climate Initiatives
  • Comprehensive/Developmental School Counseling
    Curriculum

32
Activity
  • Think about the interventions conducted by your
    school counseling program and or other support
    personnel in your school
  • or district.
  • List them on the appropriate tier
  • on your pyramid.

33
School Counseling Pyramid

Specialized Interventions
Individual Support
Intentional Guidance
Classroom Guidance
34
The effective integration of the Pyramid of
Interventions with Comprehensive School
Counseling practices requires developing a
common language data is the foundation.
35
Evidence-Based vs Research-Based
  • Evidence-Based Specific interventions supported
    by well-designed, independent research studies.
  • Research-Based Methods, content, materials
    developed in guidance from the collective
    research and scientific community
  • Georgia Department of Education, 2008

36
Types of Data
  • Process
  • Perception
  • Results

37
Process Data
  • Provides evidence the intervention occurred
  • Reports who, what, where, when and how
  • Does not report how students are different

38
Perception Data
  • Reports what a student believes, knows or
  • can demonstrate
  • Measures ASK
  • Attitudes
  • Skills
  • Knowledge
  • Hatch, T. (2006)

Behavior
39
Results Data
  • Achievement Related
  • attendance
  • discipline
  • parent involvement
  • homework completion
  • course enrollment patterns

40
Results Data
  • Achievement
  • Standardized test scores
  • SAT/ACT scores
  • Graduation rates
  • GPAs
  • AP tests
  • College prep course completion

41
Hatching Results Conceptual Diagram
Process Data
Perception Data
Results Data
Competency Attainment Data
Achievement Data
Achievement Related Data
Guidance Lessons Group Counseling Who? What? When
? Where? How Long?
Attendance Discipline referrals Parent
Involvement Homework completion Course enrollment
patterns
SAT/ACT Scores Graduation rates GPA AP
Tests College prep class completion
Attitudes Skills Knowledge
Behavior Change
Guidance Curriculum
Intentional Guidance (intervention)
Hatch, T. (2006)
42
Outcome Measures
  • For many school counseling interventions, there
    is not a direct link
  • between the intervention and the ultimate desired
    change
  • in behavior and performance.
  • Dimmitt, Carey, Hatch (2007)

43
Outcome Measures
  • Different measures are appropriate
  • at different points in the causal chain
  • that links the intervention
  • with the change in achievement.
  • Dimmitt, Carey, Hatch (2007)

44
Types of Outcome Measures
  • Immediate - corresponds to the competencies
    (knowledge, skills, attitudes) that the
    curriculum was designed
  • to help students attain
  • Dimmitt, Carey, Hatch (2007)

45
Types of Outcome Measures
  • Proximal measures specific outcomes or school
    behavior an intervention is designed to address
    and are often achievement related.
  • Dimmitt, Carey, Hatch (2007)

46
Types of Outcome Measures
  • Distal measures the effects of an intervention
    on more distant outcomes such as school behavior
    and/or achievement the eventual change that is
    required.
  • Dimmitt, Carey, Hatch (2007)

47
The Relationship Among Levels of Outcomes and
Categories of Data
Proximal Outcomes
Intervention
Immediate Outcomes
Distal Outcomes
Perform Study Skills
Score Higher On Class Exams
Academic Group Intervention
Perform Better On State Test
Perform Self-Talk Skills
Show Higher Self-Efficacy
Process Data (Knowledge, Attitudes, Skills)
Process Data
Results Data
Standards and Competency Data
Achievement- Related Data
Achievement- Related or Achievement Data
Immediate Data
Long-Range Data
Intermediate Data
Dimmitt, Carey, Hatch (2007)
48
Examples in Handouts
  • Guidance Curriculum Action Plan
  • Intentional Guidance Action Plan

49
Conclusion
  • When school counselors build their school
    counseling programs on
  • The Pyramid of Interventions and
  • The School Improvement Plan,
  • the result is improved student performance for
    all students.

50
Student Performance
51
Resources
  • www.cescal.org
  • www.interventioncentral.org
  • www.rtinetwork.org
  • www.nasdse.org
  • www.whatworks.ed.gov
  • www.smhp.psych.ucla.edu
  • www.studentprogress.org
  • www2.edtrust.org
  • www.schoolcounselor.org

52
References
  • American School counselor Association. (2003).
    The ASCA National Model A framework for school
    counseling programs. Alexandria, VA.
  • Adelman H., Taylor, L. (1999). Coalition for
    cohesive policy in addressing barriers to
    development and learning. UCLA Center for Mental
    Health in Schools.
  • Dimmitt, C., Carey, J. C., Hatch, T. (2007).
    Evidence-based school counseling Making a
    difference with data-driven practices. Thousand
    Oaks Corwin Press.
  • Georgia Department of Education. (2008).
    Response to
  • intervention Georgias achievement pyramid
    of
  • interventions. Atlanta, GA.
  • Metro GLRS. (2007). Georgias student
    Achievement
  • pyramid of interventions and rti From
    understanding to
  • practice. Atlanta, GA.
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