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ChemistryThe Science in ContextChapter

1Norton Media Library

Elements are the simplest form of pure substances

and consist of only one type of atom, e.g. gold,

graphite and diamond.

Classes and Properties of Matter

Separations of substances by differences in

Physical Properties. Homogeneous and

heterogeneous mixture can be separated due to

differences in physical properties such as

density, melting point, boiling point,

solubility, etc.,.

Chemical Changesbonds brokenbonds made.

All matter is made up of either pure substances

or more commonly, mixture of pure substances.

A mixture contains more than one pure substance.

Physical Separation of substances by filtration

Distillation

Problem 8 from Chapter 1. Which of the following

is a pure substance dry ice distilled

water aluminum can filtered sea water

Aristotles view of Matter and Change.

Law

Cosmological Composition (see Dark Matter on

Wikipedia)

Big Bang Tutorial

PC version

This animation explores the concept of the early

formation of matter and radioactive decay rates

within the context of the Big Bang.

Wave Characteristics

Light is electro/magnetic (EM) radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation The mathematical

relationship between wavelength and frequency

is c ln c 2.998E8 m/s (speed of light

in a vacuum) l wavelength (in meters) (Greek

letter, lambda) n frequency (in s-1) (Greek

letter, nu)

Electromagnetic Radiation Using the mathematical

relationship between wavelength and

frequency c ln Calculate the wavelength

associated with Montana Techs student radio

station, KMSM-FM which broadcasts at a frequency

of 107.1 MHz.

Electromagnetic Radiation Tutorial

PC version

This tutorial explores the relationship of

frequency, wavelength, and energy using

animations, interactive graphs, and equations.

The quantitative exercises include graph reading

and calculations using Planks constant and the

speed of light.

Properties of Light

Refraction the change in direction of a beam of

Electromagnetic Radiation (light) as it passes

from one medium into another.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Increasing energy and frequency (smaller

wavelength) Ephoton hn h (c/l)

Electromagnetic Radiation Problem 30 Which

radiation is of great energy (Unit Joule) red

light emitted from some firework (l 671 nm), or

signals transmitted by a cellular telephone (n

1011 s-1)?

Diffraction of light waves. Light waves passing

through the pinholes can constructively or

destructively interfere with one another

Light Diffraction Tutorial

PC version

This animation recreates Thomas Youngs

double-slit experiment and demonstrates how

constructive and destructive interference occur.

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Fraunhofer Lines (dark) in the Solar Spectrum

Shifts to lower energies (red-shift) of these

lines suggested to Hubble et al. that more

distance galaxies were moving away more rapid.

This would be the expected result assuming the

universe began with the Big Bang

- Redshift calculations
- Using wavelength
- Using frequency v/c
- ? represents the longer wavelength and ?

represents the lower frequency (otherwise the

calc. results are negative

Doppler Effect Tutorial

PC version

A boat moving with or against the direction of

wave movement demonstrates the motion-induced

shifts in wavelengths and frequency that are

examples of the Doppler effect.

Doppler Effect and red-shifts Problem 31 A

physics professor was ticketed for going through

a red light (l 700 nm). In court, the

professor claimed that the Doppler Effect made

the light seem green (l 550 nm) due to the

speed he was traveling toward the light. At what

speed would the professor need to have been

traveling in order to observe this amount of

wavelength shift?

Try this Example Problem

- A spectral line for atomic hydrogen (H) is known

to occur at 485 nm. Studying the stars in a

distant galaxy, it is noted that the spectral

line now appears at 558 nm ( a shift to longer

wavelength). At what percentage of c is the

galaxy moving away from earth? What is the

velocity of the galaxy relative to earth?

Dimensional Analysis Tutorial

PC version

Learn to keep track of the units associated with

numerical values. The tutorial includes worked

examples and interactive practice problems.

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Significant Figures Tutorial

Review the rules for assigning significant

figures and walk through sample calculations. A

series of interactive practice exercises ask you

to express answers to addition, subtraction,

multiplication and division problems in

significant figures.

Unit Conversion. Often to solve physical or

engineering problems we must convert between

various units of measure. Problem 37 An Olympic

mile is actually 1500 m. What percentage is an

Olympic mile of a real mile (5280 ft)? (1 inch

2.54 cm) Answer 93.2

Unit Conversion Dimensional Analysis. Often to

solve physical or engineering problems we must

convert between various units of measure to

obtain the answer. Units in the question should

algebraically cancel to give the units of the

answer. Problem 40 The level of water in a

rectangular swimming pool needs to be lowered 6.0

inches. If the pool is 40. ft long and 16. ft

wide, and the water is pumped out at a rate of

5.2 gal/min., how long will the pumping take? 1

ft3 7.48 gal Answer 7.7 hrs.

Accuracy versus Precision in making

Measurements. These terms are commonly misused

by even working engineers

Accurate and precise

Precise but inaccurate

Imprecise and inaccurate

The volume change corresponds to the volume of

the solid. Knowing the mass, the density of the

solid can be calculated.

Density mass/vol Density is an intrinsic

property of matter

Scientific Notation Tutorial

PC version

This tutorial explains how to use scientific

notation to express very large and very small

numbers, and how to easily convert back-and-forth

between decimal numbers and scientific notation.

Includes practice exercises.

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Temperature scales the Big Bang

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Temperature scales Conversions

C 5/9(F 32) F 9/5(C) 32 K C

273.15

Temperature Scales Tutorial

PC version

Practice converting between Fahrenheit, Celsius,

and Kelvin temperature scales. The tutorial

includes practice exercises.

Radioactive half-lives of neutrons

01n ? 11p -10e ne t½ 12 min

Radioactive half-lives of neutrons

The time interval in which half of any

radioactive substance decay is call the half-life

(t½)

At A0(0.5)n

A0 is the initial amount of material, and At is

the amount remaining after n half-lives.

Radioactive half-lives Calculations (Problem 61

in the text)

At A0(0.5)n

A radioactive isotope of the element cobalt,

60Co, is used in hospital radiation therapy

units. It has a half-life of 5.26 years. If a

hospital install a new source 60Co on January

1st, how much will remain at the end of May (i.e.

180 days later). Answer 93.7

Isotopes of Hydrogen

Hydrogen, deuterium and tritium are nuclides of

the same element (hydrogen). Tritium is a

radioactive nuclide of hydrogen and has a

half-life of 12.26 years.

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Average Atomic Mass Chap. Problem 67 Naturally

occurring copper contains a mixture of three

isotopes of copper 69.09 copper-63 (62.298

amu) and 30.91 copper-65 (64.9278 amu). What is

the average atomic mass for copper. Answer 63.55

amu

Fall 2004 Exam

23. (4 points) The average atomic mass of zinc is

65.39 amu. Given the data in the table below,

what is the natural abundance of 66Zn? Isotope

Exact mass (amu) Natural abundance()

64Zn 63.9291 48.89 66Zn 65.9260 ?

67Zn 66.9271 4.11 68Zn 67.9249 18.56

70Zn 69.9253 0.62 a. 27.81 b.

0.2781 c.50.00 d. 2.781

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W. W. Norton CompanyIndependent and

Employee-Owned

- This concludes the Norton Media Libraryslide

set for chapter 1ChemistryThe Science in

Context byThomas Gilbert,Rein V. Kirss,

Geoffrey Davies

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